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oA Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

January 1 to June 16, 1904 






Animal Book, Ax American Wallace Rice 360 

Armstrong and the Hampton School Fercy F. Bicknell .... 143 

Arnold. Edwin 227 

Astronomy. Reconstructions of the Old Herbert A. Howe 233 

Beecher. Abbott's Life of . Mary Eleanor Barrows ... 42 

Bismarck and his Emperor Lewis A. Rhodes ..... 39 

Byron in Definitive Form Melville B. Anderson . . . 389 

Chelsea Sage. New Letters of the Fercy F. Bicknell .... 231 

Christianity versus Dogma T. D. A. Cockerell .... 296 

Clothes and Costume in America May Estelle Cook .... 46 

Cod-Fisheries. A Polemic on W. D. Foulke 37 

Cookery Books. The Charm of Waldo R. Browne .... 84 

Darwin Criticisms of T. D. A. Cockerell . . . . 196 

Dramas. Two Poetic William Morton Fayne . . . 319 

Earth Some New Theories of the H Foster Bain 395 

Education, Recent Books on Henry Davidson Sheldon . . 263 

Empire. The Course and Laws of A.M. Wergeland 13 

E.SSAYS Cogent on Various Themes Frederic Austin Ogg .... 323 

Expansion. A Century of Frederic Austin Ogg .... 47 

Fiction, Recent William Morton Payne 18,118 366 

Flower Books. An Era of Alice Morse Earle .... 355 

Germany. Modern. An Epitome of James Taft Hatfield .... 294 

History of our Country, A Composite F. H. Hodder 79 

Home. Problems of the Edith Granger 260 

Humor. The Saving Grace of Fercy F. Bicknell . . . . 107 

Italy. Books about Anna Benneson McMahan . . 298 

Japanese. The at Close Range William Elliot Griffis . . . 327 

Jefferson. A Southerner's Life of James Oscar Fierce .... 262 


Librarian as Critic, The Lina Brown Reed .... 73 

Libraries. Net Prices and 71 

Library Management and Methods. Modern . . . . A ksel G. S. Josephson ... 82 

Lincoln, An Old-New Biography of Charles H. Cooper .... 234 

LiTTLEGRANGE. The Laird OF W. R. Brownc 393 

London on London T. D. A. Cockerell .... 11 

Major-General From Ensign to Fercy F. Bicknell .... 77 

Man as the Centre of the Universe Herbert A. Howe 148 

Man of Action, An American W. H. Johnson 325 

Massachusetts War Governor Fercy F. Bicknell .... 317 

Moths, American T. D. A. Cockerell .... 41 

Munchhausen, a Seventeenth Century John J. Halsey 44 

Mushroom Book. An American Thomas H. Macbride . . . 238 

Music and Musicians Books on Ingram A. Fyle 396 

Navies, British and American Wallace Rice 292 

Novels. Notes on New 22, 368 

Pater, Walter, in Perspective Mary Eleanor Barrows . . . 1 40 

Pepys, a Latter Day Josiah Renick Smith ... 152 

Philippine Islands. Beginnings of Spanish Rule in the Faul S. Reinsch 192 

Philosophy and Life A. K. Rogers 328 

Poetry, Recent American William Morton Fayne . . . 198 

Poetry, The Rejection of 353 

Preacher of the Larger Hope. A May Estelle Cook .... 297 

Queen Bess. An Epic of Charles Leonard Moore . . 145 

Quotation versus Originality Fercy F. Bicknell .... 285 

Railway Literature. Some Recent John J. Halsey 391 

Reformation, A Composite History of the E. D. Adams 390 




Rbnaissance. An Italian Lady of the Mary Augusta Scott .... 86 

Reviewek. The H. W. Boynton 228 

R. L. S., For Lovers of M. F. 15 

Roosevelt, President, as a Hero Wallace Rice 190 

Russia as a Model Wallace Rice Ill 

School Board, The Elective 255 

Sculpture in America Ingram A. Pyle 150 

Sixties The. as Seen by Justin McCarthy Percy F. Bicknell .... 9 

Spencer Autobiography, The William Morton Payne . . . 288 

Spencer, Herbert 5 

State University, The 137 

Tariff Controversies, American 0. L. Elliott 236 

Theatre. The, and the Drama Charles Leonard Moore . . 187 

Travel, Recent Books of S. E. Coblentz 361 

Travel. Recent Books of Charles Atwood Kofoid . . . 155 

Trust. A Perverted 35 

United States, Two French Books on the Othon Guerlac 116 

University President, A Grisax Percy F. Bicknell .... 257 

Voltaire. The Latest Portrait of Josiah Renick Smith . . . 114 

Western Expansion, Steps in Edwin E. Sparks .... 261 

Whistler. Some Impressions of Edith Kellogg Dunton . . . 110 

Wild. The Love of the May Estelle Cook .... 357 

Wisconsin Jubilee, The 387 

World, On the Roof of the Ira M. Price 194 

Announcements of Spring Books, 1904 209 

Books for Summer Reading, List of One Hundred 376 

Briefs on New Books 24, 48, 90, 122, 158, 203, 239, 265, 301, 329, 373, 398 

Briefer Mention 27, 53, 94, 126, 162, 207, 242, 305, 333 

Notes 28, 54, 95, 127, 163, 208, 243, 270, 305, 334, 375, 403 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 28, 96, 164, 244, 306, 377 

Lists of New Books 29, 56, 97, 128, 165, 217, 244, 272, 306, 335, 378, 405 



Abbott, Lyman. Henrj- Ward Beecher 42 

Adams, Brooks. The New Empire 13 

Adams, Mary M. The Song at Midnight 202 

Ainger, Alfred. Crabbe '2.1 

Albanesi, E. Maria. Susannah and One Other 367 

Aluen, Raymond M. Consolatio 163 

Allen, Elizabeth P. Life and Letters of Margaret 

Preston 159 

Anacreon's Odes, illus. by G. De Roussy 95 

Andr#, Eugene. A Naturalist in the Guianas 364 

Andrews, E. Benjamin. The United States in Our 

Own Time 55 

Apperson, G. L. Bygone London Life 402 

Appletons' Series of Plain and Colored Books 

53, 128, 208, 270, 305 

Armes, W. D. Autobiography of Joseph Le Conte.. 125 

Armstrong, W. N. Around the World with a King. . 362 

Arnold, Matthew, Essays, popular edition 306 

Ashley, W. T. The Adjustment of Wages 333 

Ashmore, Otis. Manual of Pronunciation 404 

Atkinson, George Francis. Mushrooms 238 

Augustine-Thierry, G. Plot of the Placards 267 

Austin, Oscar P. Stops in the Expansion of Our 

Territory 261 

Avebury, Lord. Essays and Addresses 330 

"Bachelor. A." Wanted— a Wife 24 

Bailey, L. H. How to M.ake a Flower Garden 356 

Balcarres, Lord. Donatello 301 

Bancroft, Mrs. George. Letters from England 301 

Bargy, Henry. La Religion dans la Soclete aux 

Etats-Unis 116 

Barr, Robert. Over the Border 20 

Barr, Robert. The Woman Wins 372 

Barrett, Joseph H. Abraham Lincoln and his Presi- 

Barry, William. The Day spring 

Bateson, Mary. Mediaeval England 

Roach, Joseph W. Sonnets of the Head and Heart 

Belles Lettres Series 

Benson, E. F. The Relentless City 

Berdan, John M. Poems of John Cleveland 

Beveridge, Albert J. The Russian Advance 

Bibliographical Society of Chicago, Year Book for 

Bigelow, Poultney. German Struggle for Liberty, 
Vol. Ill 

Billaudeau, A. Recueil de Locutions Frangaises. .. . 

Bingham, Joel F. Gemme della Letteratura itallana 

Blair, Emma Helen, and Robertson, James Alexan- 
der. The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 

Charles. The Failure 


Eugene. Recent Literature on In- 


Bocgll, Lena. 



bolen, George L. Getting a Living 

Booth, Charles. Life and Labor of the People of 
London, second series 

Bottone, L. R. Radium and All About It 

Bourne, E. G. Fournier's Napoleon 

Bradley, Henry. The Making of English 

Bradley, W. A. Contemporary Men of Letters series 

Brady, Cyrus T. Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer.... 

Branch Historical Papers of Randolph-Macon Col- 
lege, No. 4 

Brassington, V/. Salt. Shakespeare's Home-Land... 

Brauer, Herman G. A. Philosophy of Renan 


















Bridges, Robert. The Roosevelt Book 370 

Brigham, Albert P. Geographical Influence in 

American History 124 

Jtirlght, J. Franck. History of England, Period V... 334 

Bristol, Augusta Cooper. A Spray of Cosmos 202 

Brochner, Jessie. Danish Life 51 

Brown, Caroline A. On the We-a Trail 23 

Brown, James D. Manual of Library Economy 82 

Brown, William Garrott. The Foe of Compromise.. 323 
Browne, James C, and Carlyle, Alexander. The 

Nemesis of Froude 52 

Brudno. Ezra S. The Fugitive 371 

Brush, Christine C. The Colonel's Opera Cloak, 

illustrated edition 54 

Buchner, Edward F. Educational Theory of Kant 265 

Buell, A. C. Life of William Penn 303 

liullock, Shan F. The Bed Leaguers 366 

Bunyau's The Pilgrim's Progress, illus. by Crulk- 

shank 94 

Burghclere, Lady. George Villiers 204 

Burgin, G. B. The Shutters of Silence 121 

Burney, Fanny. Evelina, in the "Cranford Series" 162 

Burpee, L. J: Canadian Bibliography for 1901 95 

Burrows Brothers Reprints 206, 403 

Burt, Mary E. Poems That Every Child Should 

Know 334 

Byles, C. E. Hawker's Cornish Ballads 403 

Cabell, Isa C. Thoughtless Thoughts of Carlsabel.. 25 
Catnn, Charles H. American Masters of Scuplture 151 

Carleton, S. The Micmac 372 

Carlyle, Alexander. New Letters of Thomas Car- 
lyle 231 

Carman, Bliss. The Word at St. Kavin's 376 

Carman, Bliss. Songs of the Sea Children 198 

Carpenter, George R. John Greenleaf Whittier 203 

Carpenter, G. R., and Brewster, W. x. Modern 

English Prose 243 

Cartwright, Julia. Isabella d'Este 86 

Castle, Agnes and Egerton. Incomparable Bellairs. 121 

••Caxton" thin-paper reprints 27, 127, 270, 376 

Chamberlin, Thomas A., and Salisbury, Rollin D. 

Geology. Vol. 1 395 

Chesterton, G. K. G. F. Watts 334 

Chisholm, G. C, and Leete, C. H. Longmans' School 

Geography 127 

Clemens, S. L. The Jumping Frog, new edition.... 126 
Clement, Ernest W. Handbook of Modern Japan... 25 
Clowes, Wm. Laird. The Royal Navy, Vols. VI. 

and VII 292 

Codman. John. Arnold's Expedition to Quebec, third 

edition 268 

Coleridge, Ernest H., and Prothero, Rowland E. 

Works of Byron 389 

Collingwood, W. G. Ruskin Relics 403 

Collins, J. Churton. More's Utopia 334 

Colton, Arthur. Port Argent 369 

Comstock, J. H. and Anna B. How to Know the 

Butterflies 374 

Converse, Florence. Long Will 119 

Cooke, Marjorie B. Modern Monologues 53 

Cooper, Harriet C. Life of James Oglethorpe 402 

Ci'aig, W. J. Oxford Miniature Shakespeare 94 

Craigie, Mrs. The Vineyard 367 

Crane, Stephen, and Barr, Robert. The O' Ruddy.. 121 

Crawford, F. Marion. The Heart of Rome 18 

Crown Library 54, 270 

Cunningham, D. D. Some Indian Friends and Ac- 
quaintances 358 

Curtis, Edward. Months and Moods 95 

Curtis, W. A. Strange Adventures of Mr. Middleton 18 

Curtis, W. E. To-day in Syria and Palestine 157 

Daskam, Josephine. Poems 201 

Dfivenport. Cyril. Mezzotints 124 

Dawson, Thomas C. South American Republics, 

Part 1 205 

Deland, Margaret. Dr. Lavendar's People 23 

De Vere, Mary Ainge. The Wind-Swept Wheat 202 

Dewey, John. Studies in Logical Theory 328 

Dickson, Marguerite S. A Hundred Years of War- 
fare 305 

Dix, Edwin Asa. Champlain 126 

Dobson, Austin. Fanny Burney 207 

Dodge, Charles W. General Zoology 128 

Douglas, Langton, and Strong, S. A. Crowe and 

Cavalcaselle's Painting in Italy 207 

Dudeney, Mrs. Henry. The Story of Susan 366 

Dunbar. Aldis. The Sons o' Cormac 371 


Durham, Mary E. Through the Lands of the Serb '•564 
jL/wight, Elizabeth A. Memorials of Mary Wilder 

White 333 

Earle, Alice Morse. Two Centuries of Costume In 

America 46 

Eddy, A. J. Recollections and Impressions of 

Whistler 110 

Eggleston, G. C. The American Immortals, cheaper 

edition 334 

Eliot, Charlotte C. William Greenleaf Eliot 268 

Elizabetli In Riigen, Adventures of 304 

Elliott, Maud H., and Hall, Florence H. Laura 

Bridgman 48 

Bison, Louis C. History of American Music 396 

Ely, R. T., and Wicker, G. R. Elementary Prin- 
ciples of Economics 404 

Emerson's Works, "Centenary" edition Z43 

Emmet, Thomas A. Ireland under English Rule... 123 

Ewell, John L. The Story of Byfield 402 

Eyot, Canning. Story of the Lopez Family 333 

Fairless, Michael. The Roadmender, new edition... 94 

Famous Art Cities 304, 375 

Farrar, Reginald A. Life of F. W. Farrar 297 

Farrington, O. C. Gems and Gem Minerals 270 

Fea, Allan. After Worcester Fight 125 

Field Columbian Museum Publications 376 

Fisher, Herbert A. L. Napoleonic Statesmanship 

in Germany 92 

Fisk, Alay Isabel. Monologues 53 

Foote, jNiary Hallock. A Touch of Sun 22 

Ford, Paul Leicester. Thomas Jefferson 266 

Fountain, Paul. The Great North-West 362 

Francis, Mary C. Dalrymple 368 

Eraser, Mrs. Hugh. Letters from Japan, new edi- 
tion 271 

French, George. Printing in Relation to Graphic 

Art 206 

Freshfield, Douglas W. Round Kangchenjunga 361 

Garland, Hamlin. Hesper 19 

Garnett, Richard, and Gosse, Edmund. English 

Literature 158 

Gase, F. E. A. Concise French-English Dictionary 403 

Gibbs, Ralph Erwin. Songs of Content 200 

Glde, Charles. Political Economy, revised edition.. 162 

Gilman, B. I. Italian Renaissance Sculpture 243 

Gilrcan, Charlotte Perkins. The Home 260 

Gilman, D. C, and others. New International En- 

cj'clopaedia 53, 305 

Gilman, N. P. Methods of Industrial Peace 402 

Glasgow, Ellen. The Deliverance 118 

Gohier. Urbain. Le peuple du XXe si6cle 116 

Goodwin, Maud Wilder. Four Roads to Paradise. . 371 
Goodwin, W. W. Demosthenes on the Crown, school 

edition 163 

Gore, Canon. Lux Mundi, twelfth edition 270 

Gosse, Edmund. Jeremy Taylor 329 

Gould, Elizabeth P. The Brownings and America.. 403 
Gould, George M. Biographic Clinics, second series 269 
Grahame, Kenneth. The Golden Age, illus. in pho- 
togravure by Maxfleld Parrish 305 

Gray, L. H., and Mumford, Ethel W. Love Songs 

of Kamal Ad-Din 127 

Griffin, A. P. C. List of Books on the Philippines.. 127 

Gwynn, Stephen. John Maxwell's Marriage 366 

Hadden, J. Cuthbert. Chopin 398 

Haggard, Andrew C. P. Sidelights on the Court of 

li rauce 51 

Haggard, H. Rider. Stella Fregelius 21 

Hains, T. Jenkins. The Strife of the Sea 24 

Hale, Edward E., and others. New England History 

in Ballads 54 

Hamilton, Angus. Korea 265 

Hammerton, J. A. Stevensoniana 15 

Hancock, H. Irving. Japanese Physical Training. . . 302 

Hanus, Paul H. A Modern School 265 

Harcourt, A. F. P. Peril of the Sword 373 

Hardy, Thomas. The Dynasts, Part First 319 

Iiarland, Henry. My Friend Prospero 120 

Hart, Horace. Rules for Compositors and Readers 271 

Hart, Jerome. Two Argonauts in Spain 363 

llartmann, Sadakichi. Japanese Art 92 

Harper, Robert F. Code of Hammurabi 401 

Haskins, Charles W. Business Education and Ac- 
countancy 332 

Hatfleld, Henry R. Lectures on Commerce 123 

Hatfield, James Taft. From Broom to Heather 156 

iiawes, Charles H. In the Uttermost East 364 




Hawthorne, Hlldegarde. A Country Interlude...... 369 

Hawthorne's The Old Manse, Riverside limited edi- 

tion „.l 

Hearn, Lafeadio. Kwaidan ^';!^'^ 

Hecker, Genevieve. Golf for Women d < * 

Hedln, Sven. Central Asia and Tibet.. 1J4 

Henrv, Arthur. The House in the Woods ^^ 

Hensel, Paul. Sebastian Hensel • ^* 

Higglns, C. A., and Keeler, C. A. To California and ^^ 

Back .,.., 

Hill, Constance. Juniper Hall *»Yi 

Hill, Frederick Trevor. The Web iJ 

Hitchcock, Ripley. The Louisiana Purchase ^w 

Hocking, Joseph. A Flame of Fire • • • • • 

Hoffman, Ralph. Guide to the Birds of New Bng- 

Holbeiii's Diiiice' of Death, Scott-Thaw Co.'s edition 94 

Holland, W. J. The Moth Book 41 

Hopkins, Herbert M. The Torch l-^ 

Hornaday, William T. American Natural History.. 360 
Horsley, J. C. Recollections of a Royal Academl- 

clan •••••;•.••. ".,7 

Hubert, Philip G. Liberty and a Living, new edi- ^^^ 



Hulbert, A. B. 
Humor, Prose, 

Historic Highways series 160, 267 

Book of American 1*^6 

Huneker, James. Overtones. . . . . • ■ • 397 

Hunt, Gaillard. Writings of Madison, Vol. IV..... 20o 
Huntington, T. F. Elements of English Composition 163 

Hutten, Baroness von. Violett 368 

Hyett, Francis A. Florence 300 

"1. In which 
Herself." . . 

Irwin, Wallace. 

Jack. R. Logan 

Jacobs, W. W. 

James, George 

Desert Region . 

James, Henry. The 

Woman Tells the Truth about 



Johnson, Emory 

Johnson, T. 

Dabney . . . . 
Johnson, Willis 
Johnston, Mary. 
Johnston, R. M. 

Fairy Tales Up-to-Now 334 

Back Blocks of China 363 

Odd Craft ^3 

Wharton. Indians of the Painted 


Ambassadors '■^'^ 

Janvier, Thomas A. Dutch Founding of New York. 203 

Jeuks, Edward. Parliamentary England 242 

Jessup, A., and Canby, H. S. Book of the Short 

Story • ■ d<ii 

R. American Railway Transporta- 


Life and Letters of Robert Lewis 


Fletcher. A Century of Expansion 47 

Sir Mortimer 368 

.. Napoleon 332 

Jones, U. R. State Aid to Secondary Schools 243 

Jordan, D. S. Call of the Twentieth Century 243 

Jordan, D. S. Voice of the Scholar 243 

"J. T" The House of Quiet 39J 

Kauffman, R. W., and Carpenter, E. C. The Chasm 22 

Keller, Helen. Optimism •••• »«> 

Keltie, J. Scott. Statesman's Year-Book, 1904 404 

Kennedy, Bart. A Tramp in Spain 36o 

King. Irving. Psychology of Child Development ^64 

Kingsley, Maurice. Works of Charles Kingsley 53 

Klrkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study.. 263 

Klaczko, Julian. Rome and the Renaissance 298 

Kohl, Horst. Correspondence of Kaiser Wilhelm I. 

and Bismarck 39 

Krausz, Sigmund. Towards the Rising Sun lo7 

KufiEerath, Maurice. Wagner's Parsifal, new edition 209 
Lagu6rie, Villetard de. La Corefe, second edition.. 306 
Laing, Gordon J. Masterpieces of Latin Literature 54 

Laird & Lee's Guide to the St. Louis Fair 30o 

Lamb's Works, "Caxton" edition ^" 

Lang, Andrew. 

Larkin, E. L. 

Larncd, J. N. 

Lawton, W. C 


The Valet's Tragedy 91 

Radiant Energy ^ 

School History of the U. S 209 

Introduction to Classical Latin Lit- 


Lee, Albert. The Baronet in Corduroy 20 

Legge Helen E. Ancient Greek Sculptors 93 

Leonard, J. W. Who's Who in America, 1904 53 

Leupp. Francis E. The Man Roosevelt 190 

L6vy-Bruhl, L. The Philosophy of Comte 204 

Levy, Florence N. American Art Annual, Vol. IV. 128 

Levi's, Alfred Henry. The Boss 22 

Levland, John. The Shakespeare Country 49 

Lighton, W. R. Uncle Mac's Nebrasky 370 

Lincoln, James. Relishes of Rhyme 199 

Lincoln, Joseph C. Cap'n EH .......... ..... 369 

Littlertold, Walter. Bismarck's Letters to his Wife 93 

London, Jack. People of the Abyss 11 

Long, John D. The New American Navy 294 

Lord, A. P. Regency of Marie de Medicis 162 

Lounsbury, T. R. Standards of Pronunciation in 

English 400 

Lucas, C. B. Letters of Walpole ^'o 

Lucas, C. P. Geography of South and East Africa 163 
Lucas, E. V. Works of Charles and Mary Lamb.. 27, 334 
Luckey, G. W. A. Professional Training of Sec- ^ 

ondary Teachers j^ 

Lydekker, R. Mostly Mammals 240 

Lvnde. Francis. The Grafters 367 

McCarthy, Justin. Portraits of the Sixties 9 

McCarthy, Justin H. The Proud Prince 23 

McClellan. George B. Oligarchy of Venice 330 

McCutcheon, John T. Bird Center Cartoons 404 

MacDouald, William. Select Statutes 126 

Maedonald, William. Works of Lamb 27 

MacFall, Haldane. The Masterf oik 21 

McFarland, J. Horace. Getting Acquainted with the 


Machen, Minnie G. The Bible in Browning 204 

Mackay, Katherine. The Stone of Destiny. 068 

Mackrell, Mrs. Perceval. Hymns of the Christian 


Maclay, E. S. " Captain Moses Brown 401 

McMaster, J. B The Trail Makers 208, Ztl 

Macmlllan, Hugh. Life-Work of G. F. Watts 49 

McMurry, C. A. Pioneer History Stories 37b 

Major, Charles. A Forest Hearth 23 

Makin. Richard L. The Beaten Path ^■i^ 

Making of a Book, Of the "'} 

Mann, Horace. The World-Destroyer ^f 

Manning, Marie. Judith of the Plains 119 

Mansford, Charles. Tennyson's In Memoriam 1^7 

Marchmont, Arthur W. When I Was Czar. 19 

Marden, C. Carroll. Poema de Fernan Gonzalez.... 209 

Martin, Helen R. Tillie :••••;■-," 

Mathews, Frances A. A Little Tragedy at Tien- ^^_^ 

Mathews, Frances "Aymar. Pamela Congreve ...... . 371 

Mathews, F. Schuyler. Field Book of Wild Birds 

and their Music 

Matnews, William. Conquering Success 

Matthav, Tobias. The Act of Touch 398 

Matthews, Brander. The Development of the ^^ 

Drama : " '^ "", oiu\ 

Maugham, H. Neville. Book of Italian Travel 300 

Maxwell, Sir Herbert. The Creevey Papers 15- 

Mead, W. E. The Squyr of Lowe Degre. ...... ..._. Mi 

Mermaid Series, thin-paper reissue ..... .127, 30o, 37D 

Merriman, Henry Seton. Tomaso's Fortune 370 

Metchnikoft, EUe. The Nature of ^an. ........ ..•• 

Meyer, B. H. Railway Legislation in the United 


Michel, Einile. Rembrandt, third edition 95 

Mifflin, Lloyd. Castalian Days. 
Miller, Olive Thorne. With the 

Mitchell, Wilmot B. Elijah Kellogg ^J^ 

Mollov, Fitzgerald. The Sailor King ^^ 

Alonroe, Harriet. The Passing Show ^J^ 

Montague, F. C. Macaulay's Essajs -^^ 

Montague, Gilbert H. Trusts of Today............ 401 

Montgomery, D. H. Elementary American History. S,o 

Moody, William Vaughn. The Fire-Bringer 3<il 

Morey, W. C. Outlines of Greek History ......... . 1^7 

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. Evolution and Adaptation. 196 

Moore, F. Frankfort. Shipmates in Sunshine 24 

Morgan, George. The Issue.. . f'" 

Moriey , Margaret W. Little Mitchell 3o9 

Morris, Clara. Left in Charge • • • • <i'^ 

Morris, William. Defence of Guenevere, cheap '^i'- 

Morton! Frederick W. Marriage In Epigram... 

Moss, Mary. A Sequence in Hearts. 

Munger, Theodore T. Essays for the Day 

Musician's Library, The •. :;"" 

National Educational Association Proceedings 

Addresses for 1903 -Va 

Newcomb, Simon. Reminiscences of an Astronomer 50 
Newmarch, Rosa. Henry J. Wood 398 

vf Tl'l F^^ncls'c''' ■ Around the ■caVibbcan: ". '. '. ". '. ". 157 
S iS^ Grace^GreylJck. Bog-Trotting for Oi.hids^ . . 356 
Nollen, John S. Chronology and BibUogiaphj 

Modern German Literature r • '■ ' \: V ' 

Norris, Frank. Responsibilities of the Novelist. . 


Birds in Maine.. 














Oberholtzer, Ellis P. Robert Monis 24 

Ogden, G. W. Tennessee Todd 22 

Olnhauseu, Mary P. von. Adventures of an Army 

Nurse 90 

Oman, Charles. The I'enlnsular War, Vol. II 161 

Opdyc'ke, L. O. Book of the Courtier, cheaper edi- 
tion 54 

Orcutt, William Dana. Robert Caveller 367 

<_' Shea, M. V. Education as Adjustment 264 

Oxenham, John. Barbe of Grand Bayou i-j. 

Oxford Miniature editions of Keats and Shakes- 
peare 94 

Painter, F. V. N. Elementary Guide to Literary 

Criticism 128 

Palmer, Francis II. E. Austro-Hungarlan Life 126 

Palmer, George II. The Nature of Goodness 241 

Parker, Frances. Marjie of the Lower Ranch 23 

Par'ish, Randall. When Wilderness was King 367 

Partsen, Joseph. Central Europe 26 

Patrick, David. Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English 

Literature 239 

Paul, Herbert W. History of Modern England 268 

Paul, Herbert. Letters of Lord Acton 400 

Payne, I'hilip. The Mills of Man \M 

Payne, Will. Mr. Salt 121 

Peabody, Josephine Preston. The Singing Leaves. . 201 

Pearson, Henry G. Life of John A. Andrew 317 

Peat, Anthony B. North. Gossip from Paris 51 

Pemberton, Max. Doctor Xavler 21 

Pennell, Elizabeth Robins. My Cookery Books.... 84 

Pepie, Edward. A Broken Rosary 373 

Pertwee, Ernest. Reciter's Treasury of Verse 334 

Pettengill, Lilian. Toilers of the Home 125 

Phillips, David Graham. The Cost 369 

Phillpotts, Eden. Tlie American Prisoner 366 

Pickering, Sidney. The Key of Paradise 121 

Pickering, William H. The Moon 233 

Popular Editions of Recent Fiction, Little, Brown, 

& Co.'s 1 361 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen A. Shakes- 
peare's Works, "Pembroke" edition 27 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, Helen A. Shakes- 
peare's Works, "First Folio" edition 27,270 

Post, Louis F. Ethics of Democracy 52 

rratt, Edwin A. American Railways 392 

Prideaux, Miss S. T. Bookbinders and their Craft. . 91 

Quick, Herbert. Aladdin & Co 372 

Quiller-Couch, A. T. Hetty Wesley 21 

italph, Julian. The Making of a Journalist 161 

Ramsey, George G. Annals of Tacitus 334 

Rideing. William H. How Tyson Came Home.... 372 
Richards, Harriet E., and Cummings, Emma G. 

Baby Pathfinder to the Birds 359 

Richardson, E. C, and Morse, A. E. Writings on 

American History, 1902 403 

Riis, Jacob A. Theodore Roosevelt the Citizen 190 

Riley, F. L. Mississippi Historical Society Publica- 
tions, Vol. VII 127 

Robertson, J. Logie. The Select Tennyson 128 

Roeder, Adolph. Symbol Psychology 240 

Rossetti, W. M. Rossetti Papers, 1862-70 122 

Rhodes, Daniel P. Pleasure Book of Grindelwald. . 156 
Rydberg, Victor. Singoalla, trans, by A. Josephsson 208 

Sabatier. Auguste. Religions of Authority 296 

Sandys, J. PL History of Classical Scholarship 92 

Sanford. D. S. Fiske's Civil Government 376 

Santos-Dumont, A. My Air-Ships 304 

Sargent, Charles Sprague. Trees and Shrubs, Part 

III 306 

Sawyer, Josephine Caroline. All's Fair in Love 369 

Sawyer, W. C. Teutonic Legends 335 

Scherer, James A. B. Japan To-day 327 

Schiller, F. C. S. Humanism 328 

Scollard, Clinton, and Rice, Wallace. Ballads of 

V alor and Victory 200 

"Semi-Darwinian, A." Doubts about Darwinism.... 197 
Semple, Ellen C. American History and its Geo- 
graphic Conditions 124 

Severy, Melvin L. The Darrow Enigma 371 

Shackleton, Robert. The Great Adventurer 368 

Shafer, Mrs. Sara A. Day before Yesteraav 372 

Shaler, N. S. Elizabeth of England ." 145 

Shaler, N. S. The Citizen 303 

Shaud, Alexander I. Old-Tlme Travel 332 

Sharp, Dallas Lore. Roof and Meadow 'Ami 

Shaw, C. D. Stories of the Ancient Greeks 163 

Shaw, G. B. Quintessence of Ibsenism, new edition 3154 


"Sigma." Personalia 239 

Sllberrad, Una L. Petronilla Herroven 24 

Skinner, Charles M. Little Gardens 357 

Smith, Austin. Omar Calendar for 1904 28 

Smith, D. Nlchol. Eighteenth Century Essays on 

Shakespeare 266 

Smith, F. Berkeley. Budapest 156 

Smith, Goldwin. The Founder of Christendom 54 

Snyder, Carl. New Conceptions In Science 126 

Soulc. Heloise. Heartsease and Rue 202 

Spalding. John L. Glimpses of Truth 24 

Spearman, Frank H. The Daughter of a Magnate. . 121 

Spears, J. R. Captivity of Robert Eastburn 403 

Spencer, Herbert, Autobiography of 288 

Spoflord, Harriet Prescott. That Betty 23 

Sprague, William C. Napoleon Bonaparte 127 

Stan wood, Edward. American Tariff Controversies 236 
Stedman, E. C. and T. L. Pocket Guide to Europe, 

1904 375 

Stephens, C. N. The Ark of 1803 372 

Stephens, W. P. American Yachting 375 

Stevenson, John. Pat McCarty, his Rhymes 206 

Stevenson, Mrs. From Saranac to the Marquesas. . 90 
Stevenson, R. L. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, illus. 

by C. R. Macanley 54 

Stevenson's Vailima Prayers, Scribner's edition 305 

Strachey, Lionel. Memoirs of Madame Le Brun.... 94 

Strong, Josiah. Social Progress, 1904 334 

Sturgis, Russell. How to Judge Architecture 161 

Sturgis, Russell. Lubke's History of Art 404 

Stutfield, Hugh E. M., and Collie, J. Norman. The 

Canadian Rockies 156 

Sutcliffe. Halliwell. A Bachelor in Arcady 371 

Sutherland-Gower, Ronald. Records and Reminis- 
cences 124 

Sutphen, van Tassel. The Gates of Chance 371 

Sverdrup, Otto. New Land 365 

Swenson, B. V., and Frankenfleld, Budd. Direct 

Currents 164 

Taft. Lorado. History of American Sculpture.... 150 
Talbot, Edith Armstrong. Samuel Chapman Arm- 
strong 143 

Tallentyre, S. G. Life of Voltaire 114 

Tarr, Ralph S. New Physical Geography 16;^ 

Tavera, T. H. Pardo de. Blblioteca Flllpina 305 

Teller. W. P.. and Brown, H. E. First Book in 

Business Methods 163 

Temple School Shakespeare 335 

Temple Series of Bible Characters 54, 127, 243 

Thackeray's Works. "Kensington " edition 

94, 128. 271, 305, 403 
Thaxter, Celia. An Island Garden, new edition.... 357 

Thomas, Evelyn L. Early Story of Israel 306 

Thomas, Mrs. Theodore. Our Mountain Garden.... 356 

Thompson, Helen B. Mental Traits of oex 207 

Thomson. J. C. Tennyson's Suppressed Poems 55 

Thomson. J. J. Electricity and Matter 333 

Thorndyke, Edward L. Educational Psychology.... 264 

Thorpe. Francis Newton. William Pepper 257 

Thruston. Lucy M. Where the Tide Comes In 370 

Thwaltes, R. G. Hennepin's A New Discovery.... 44 
Thwaites, R. G. How George Rogers Clark Won the 

Northwest 243 

Thwaites, R. G. On the Storied Ohio 155 

Thwaites, R. G. Rocky Mountain Exploration.... 261 

Tobin. Agnes. Love's Crucifix 162 

Tokutoml, K. Nami-ko, trans, by E. F. Edgett and 

Sukae Shioya 3V 3 

Tolman, Albert H. Views about Hamlet 398 

Tolman, W. H., and Hemstreet, Charles. Better 

New York 404 

Tourguenieff's Works, Scribner edition 127, 306,375 

Townsend, Meredith. Asia and Europe, second edi- 
tion 208 

Trowbridge, John T., Poems of 95 

Tuckerman, Bayard. Life of General Schuyler 162 

Tunlson, J. S. The Graal Problem 271 

unit Books, The 27, 242 

van D.vke, Henry. Poems of Tenny.son 26 

Van Dyke, J. C. Renaissance Painting in Italy.... 334 

Veeder, Van Vechten. Legal Masterpieces 159 

Verner, Samuel P. Pioneering in Central Africa... 363 

Verse, Humorous, Book of American 126 

Viele, Herman Knickerbocker. Random Verse 199 

Vlereck, L. Zwel Jahrhunderte Deutschen Unter- 

rlchts in den Verelnlgten Staaten 333 

Villa, Guide. Contemporary Psychology 241 




Villaid, Henry, Memoirs of S25 

Wallace, Alfred R. Man's Place in the Universe... 148 

Wallace, Malcolm W. The Berthe of Hercules 209 

Waller, A. R. Hobbes' Leviathan 3;{5 

Waller, Mrs. M. E. The Wood-carver of 'Lympus.. 372 
Walpolo, Sir Spencer. History of Tv^enty-five Years 399 
Ward, A. W., and others. Cambridge Modern His- 
tory 79, 390 

Ward, J. J. Minute Marvels of Nature 374 

Ward, L. Tennyson's In Memorlam 271 

Ward, Wilfrid. Problems and Persons 160 

Waters, Campbell E. Ferns 122 

Watson, Thomas E. Life and Times of Jefferson 262 

Watterson, Henry. The Compromises of Life 51 

Weekes, Agnes Russell. Yarborough the Premier. . 367 
Wells, Carolyn, and Taber, H. P. The Gordon 

Elopement 373 

Wells, H. L. Tables for Chemical Calculations 208 

Weysse, Arthur W. Synoptic Text-book of Zoology. 304 

Wharton, Edith. Sanctuary 118 

Wheelock, Irene G. Birds of California 158 

Whibley, Charles. Thackeray 240 

Whistler, J. McN. Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 

new edition 127 

Whitney, Caspar, and others. Musk-Ox, Bison, 

Sheep, and Goat 373 


White, Stewart Edward. The Silent Places 370 

Whitson, John H. The Rainbow Chasers 370 

Who's Who (English) for 1904 164 

Wildman, Marian Warner. A Hill Prayer 202 

Williams, C. F. Abdy. Story of the Organ 398 

Williams, Francis H. At the Rise of the Curtain.. 90 

Williams, Leonard. Land of the Dons 157 

Williams, Leonard. Toledo and Madrid 157 

Williams. Margery. The Pride of Youth 369 

Wilson, Daniel M. Where American Independence 

Began, second edition 95 

Windt, Harry de. From Paris to New York by 

Land 362 

Wister, Owen. The Virginian, paper-covered edition 403 
Wolfflin, Henrich. Art of the Italian Renaissance 299 

Wolseley, Lord. Story of a Soldier's Life 77 

\/ood, Charles W. Norwegian By-Ways 156 

Woodberry, George Edward. Poems 198 

Wright, C. H. C. Selections from Rabelais 243 

Wright, Mary Tappan. The Test 370 

Wright, Thomas. Life of Edward FitzGerald 393 

Wyon, Reginald. The Balkans from Within 365 

Yeats, W. B. Ideas of Good and Evil 331 

Yeats, W. B. The Hour Glass 332 

Yeats, W. B. Where There is Nothing 332 


Appleton & Co., D., Reorganization of 404 

"Artist Engraver, The" 55 

"Book Monthly, The" 95 

"Books and Book Plates" 54 

Bryant's Index Expurgatorius. (Q. R. S.) 142 

"Burlington Magazine, The" 55, 164, 271, 335, 403 

Democracy, The Meaning of. (Duane Mowry) 317 

Hartwig, Dr. Otto, Death of 96 

"Hibbert Journal, The" 271 

Japanese Novelist, A Famous. (Ernest W. Clement) 8 
Latimer, Elizabeth Wormeley. (Sara Andrew Sha- 

f er) 75 

Methuen's Universal Library, Prospectus of 95 

Philippine Islands, The, 1493-1898. (Emma Helen 

Blair and Jas. A. Robertson) 230 

"Printing Art, The" 403 

Rhodes Scholarships, Dr. Parkin and the. (Law- 
rence J. Burpee) 76 

Scribner's Sons, Charles, Incorporation of 164 

Shakespeare-Bacon, In Re. (Francis Bacon Verulam 

Smith) 257 

"bcudio. The International" 208 

Totem Names. (A. Lang) 8 

(Public Libii-i'yv^ 


^xl^mrg Criticism, gbtussioti, antr Jitformat'mn. 



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^ SEntisiiS0ntl)l2 Soumal of Eiterarg Crittctsm, ©isnisston, antJ ]Inf0tmati'on. 

No. 4^1. 

JANUARY 1, 1904. Vol. XXXVI. 





A Famous Japanese Novelist. Ernest W. Clement, 
Totem Names. A. Lang. 


Percy F. Bicknell : 9 

LONDON ON LONDON. T. D. A. Cockerell ... 11 


Wergdand 13 

FOR LOVERS OF R. L. S. M. F. 15 

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Crawford's The Heart of Rome. — Curtis 's The 
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ton's Doctor Xavier. — MacFall's The Masterfolk. 
— Benson's The Relentless City. 



Thoughts for the thoughtful. — A patriot and 
financier of the Revolution. — Charming essays by 
a woman. — - A Japanese thesaurus. — More of the 
German struggle for liberty. — English society and 
politics in the thirties. — A compendium on Central 
Europe. — Dr. van Dyke's selections from Tenny- 
son's poems. — Essays by Frank Norris. 






Herbert Spencer died at his borne in 
Brighton on the eighth of December, at the 
age of eighty-three — Goethe's age and Ten- 
nyson's, within a few months. He was prob- 
ably the greatest Englishman to outlive the 
century wnich he helped to make illustrious ; 
he was, indeed, one of the greatest of the 
world's thinkers, holding for his province a 
larger area of human thought than any other 
man of his time. His immense command of 
facts, and his power to deal with them in the 
philosophical spirit, made his figure more im- 

posing than that of Bacon, almost as imposing 
as that of Aristotle. 

Writing in our last issue of the Herder 
centenary, we spoke of the ideas of the great 
German who died one hundred years before 
Spencer as having "won such general accept- 
ance, and became so incorporated into the very 
fibre of our minds, that they seem to us com- 
monplaces of thought." We no longer read 
the writings, because their contents have be- 
come a part of our consciousness. Something 
similar will be said of Spencer a hundred years 
from now ; something not altogether dissimilar 
may be said of him at the present time, for in 
our day the world of thought moves on apace, 
and the assimilation of new ideas by the com- 
mon intelligence of the educated public is a 
far more rapid process than it was in the age 
of Herder. Even now people do not read 
Spencer in a measure proportional to his influ- 
ence upon them, and as the years go by, his 
books will become less and less the resort of 
students, although the ministry of his thought 
will not be lessened in like degree. For it 
must be admitted that, although he made the 
philosophy of style the subject of one of his 
minor studies, his own writings are not marked 
by the sort of style that makes literature out 
of prose composition, and have slight power to 
charm. They are imposing by their qualities 
of closely-marshalled logic and massive force, 
but they are, for the most part, without the 
power to attract. They attain at times, and 
particularly when the closing points of some 
weighty argument are reached, a certain grave 
dignity that is both impressive and memorable, 
but their general tenor is uninspiring as to 
form. They are of a kind with the writings of 
Aristotle rather than of Plato, of Kant rather 
than of Schopenhauer, of Locke rather than 
of Berkeley. 

The bracketing of Spencer's name with that 
of Aristotle is justified by the striking similar- 
ity that exists between the methods and achieve- 
ments of the two men. Both ranged over a 
considerable number of subjects, and sought to 
take the whole, or nearly the whole, of knowl- 
edge for their province. Both made vast 
collections of facts in various fields of investi- 
gation, and based their conclusions upon the 
most thoroughgoing processes of induction. 



[Jan. 1> 

Both, having thus reached their conclusions in 
legitimate ways, proceeded to use them for the 
purposes of deductive application. Spencer 
was clearly a philosopher in the Aristotelian 
sense, but it is doubtful if we may call him a 
philosopher in the sense of Berkeley and Kant 
and Schopenhauer. Just twenty years ago, we 
ventured to suggest in these pages the view 
that, despite the philosophical temper of his 
thought, Spencer was not the creator of a system 
of philosophy in the commonly accepted mean- 
ing of that term, and to that view we must still 
adhere. He attempted a far-reaching synthesis 
of knowledge, to be sure, but it stops just short 
of what have always been held to be the essen- 
tial problems of philosophy, the examination 
of the grounds of knowledge, and the ultimate 
reality which underlies this world of appear- 
ance. Spencer frankly eschewed the whole 
philosophical problem, in the stricter sense, 
by relegating these matters to the category of 
the unknowable at the very start, and refusing 
thereafter to concern himself with them. Those 
opening pages of the "First Principles" are 
so hopelessly inadequate to their theme, and 
occupy a position so circumscribed by limita- 
tions resulting from the author's lack of ac- 
quaintance with philosophical thought and his 
unwillingness to march upon its central citadel, 
that they do not call for serious consideration. 

Having thus balked the whole question of 
ultimate reality, having deliberately restricted 
himself to the world of appearances as such, 
Spencer found himself on solid ground, and 
set himself the gigantic task of reducing to 
scientific order the phenomena of the physical 
universe, of the animate denizens of our sphere, 
and of man himself, in his threefold character 
as a thinking, social, and moral being. This 
is the scheme of the " Synthetic Philosophy " 
— first principles, biology, psychology, soci- 
ology, and ethics — ten volumes altogether, the 
product of half a century of unremitting intel- 
lectual effort, accomplished in the face of des- 
perate discouragements and seemingly insuper- 
able obstacles. A heroic task, done in the true 
heroic spirit, and signalizing by its successful 
issue the triumph of an indomitable purpose 
over physical frailty and public indifference. 

The dictum that " nature makes no leaps " 
had been floating about in the history of phi- 
losophy for many centuries, but it was not 
until the middle of the century just past that 
it was transformed into a working formula. 
For ages men had held it as a sort of pious 
opinion, and then — such being the illogical 

nature of the species — had gone on postu- 
lating the most surprising leaps in the develop- 
ment of the physical globe, in the succession 
of its plant and animal forms, and in the his- 
tory of the political and social institutions of 
mankind. Geological cataclysms, special crea- 
tions, and inexplicable revolutions in human 
thought and action had all been taken for 
granted for lack of insight into the underlying 
forces of progress, and upon that superficial 
and insecure basis a large part of the structure 
of human speculation had been reared. It is^ 
the imperishable glory of Spencer that he, first 
of thinking men, scattered all these easy as- 
sumptions to the winds by the power of syn- 
thetic vision fortified by unassailable logic. 
His was the mind that first formulated the 
law of evolution, and asserted its equal validity 
in the material, intellectual, and moral spheres. 
This magnificent conception took possession of 
his mind at an early age ; he gave the rest of 
his life to its working out and its rigorous^ 
application to all the major problems of thought 
(save only those metaphysical or transcen- 
dental problems which were deliberately ex- 
cluded from his purview) ; and so thoroughly 
did he accomplish his purpose that the term» 
of his thought are now the common possession 
of all thinking men, and even the unthinking 
are so constrained by them that, if they read 
Spencer at all, they are apt to wonder that so 
much credit should be attached to him for 
having said things so obvious ; that he should^ 
in the minds of any of the younger generation, 
lie under the reproach of a maker of platitudes, 
is, to students who view the history of thought 
in its historical perspective, the highest of all 
possible tributes to his achievement. 

The extensions of science in our own day 
are so vast as to prevent any one man from 
occupying completely more than one narrowly 
restricted field of knowledge. Even half a cen- 
tury ago, scientific investigation had become 
so broadened as to make Spencer's programme 
one seemingly impossible of execution by a^ 
single individual. And it is no doubt true 
that while he was working at the fundamental 
problems of physics, and biology, and psychol- 
ogy, there were in each of these fields many 
scholars of far minuter knowledge, and far 
wider acquaintance with details. Spencer made 
no first-hand studies of the earth's crust, he 
made no naturalist's voyages round the world 
in search of material, he organized no labora- 
tories of psychology. He dealt in the obser- 
vations of other men, and made few of his 



own. But he had an incomparable power of 
marshalling facts, and of perceiving the unity 
underlying phenomena that were diverse in 
appearance, yet in his comprehensive survey 
clearly related. Even in the field of sociology, 
the science in which his work was most nearly 
of a pioneer character, and which he may fairly 
be said to have created, he gathered his facts 
from the reports of travellers and the books of 
historians, and classified them in his own study. 
In the domain of ethics alone he was practi- 
cally on even terms with his fellow-workers, 
for all the material necessary for a theory of 
morals are to be found in books, when the 
teachings of the books are supplemented by the 
lessons of such ordinary experience as comes 
to every one of us in the day's work. 

Was Spencer handicapped by this second- 
hand relation to most of the facts with which 
he dealt? Were his perceptions of things 
blunted because they came to him through the 
medium of other minds ? Did he suffer from 
being too much of a thinker and too little of 
an observer and experimentalist? These are 
questions that once seemed to have a certain 
point, and are from time to time still raised. 
It used to be asserted by those who would 
detract from his fame that the spokesmen of 
biology held him in great repute as a psychol- 
ogist, and that the spokesmen of psychology 
thought highly of him as a writer on biology, 
but that both made reservations in the matter 
of his authority in their own respective sci- 
ences. This sort of comment, which is no 
longer heard as frequently as it once was, 
might easily be counterbalanced by an array 
of tributes, all the way from Darwin to Pro- 
fessor Giddings, paid to Spencer by the most 
distinguished men of science for his contribu- 
tions to their own special fields of investiga- 
tion. But all such discussion seems rather 
futile, in view of the immense dignity which 
came to invest his closing years, and the almost 
universal acclaim given to the totality of his 
work as a thinker. Now that he is of those 
who " sit with their peers above the talk," we 
may pay due reverence to his memory even if 
we allow that the very sciences to which he 
was devoted have advanced beyond the stage 
which is embodied in his books. Whatever 
the new facts that have been disclosed by the 
laboratories since the publication of the " Bi- 
ology " and the " Psychology," and whatever 
new truths may be revealed by future investi- 
gation, the comprehensive law which was 
formulated by Spencer will hold good alike of 

the thoughts of men and the process of the suns. 
That is a point of view of which mankind has 
assumed permanent occupation, and with the 
assumption a great mass of pseudo-scientific 
speculation has been swept forever into the 
lumber-room of the past. 

To have fixed this conception in the very 
fabric of all rational thought is alone sufficient 
to mark the influence of Spencer as one of the 
most profound in the history of modern phi- 
losophy. It is a conception that will long con- 
tinue to bear fruit, particularly in those fields 
of inquiry that are concerned with man as a 
social and political being, as a responsible 
moral agent, and as a creature swayed by re- 
ligious emotion. It is in these fields that his 
work will continue to have inspiration for the 
twentieth century, and will help to mould the 
sociology, the ethics, and the religion of the 
coming generations. The conception of society 
as an organism, the evolutionary conception of 
conduct, which at last seems to point the way 
to a reconciliation between the hedonistic and 
idealistic views so long in conflict, the sublime 
eon3eption of an infinite and eternal energy 
from which all things proceed, compared with 
which the religious notions of the age of fable 
are seen in their true character as imaginings 
of the childhood of the race, — these are the 
ideas that the work of Spencer has implanted 
in the consciousness of men, and that his suc- 
ce.ssors — men of science, philosophical think- 
ers, and even poets — will eventually elaborate 
into systems and shapes of which only the 
adumbrations are now perceived. And as this 
evolution of thought goes on, illustrating anew 
his own law of integration combined with dif- 
ferentiation, the far-reaching grasp of his con- 
structive intellect will become more and more 

If we were asked what particular aspect of 
Spencer's social doctrine had the most impor- 
tant bearing upon the present needs of civili- 
zation we should point to that unremitting in- 
sistence upon individualism which characterized 
his work all the way from the " Social Statics " 
of 1850 to the "Facts and Comments" of over 
half a century later. His closing years were 
greatly disheartened by the ever-increasing ten- 
dency of our modern societies to depart from 
this saving doctrine ; and those who know even 
in outline what the history of civilization has 
been, and how hard the struggle to free individ- 
ual initiative from the trammels of tradition 
and social pressure, may well share in the dis- 
couragement of the philosopher. For it seems 


[Jan. 1^ 

to many of us that civilization is recklessly 
throwing away the most precious part of its 
birthright, and that it is harking backward to 
the regime of status from which it emerged into 
vital activity only after ages of stagnation. The 
rising tide of socialism is interfering with con- 
tract on every hand, and the multiplication of 
governmental functions is everywhere encroach- 
ing upon the rights of the individual citizen. 
How clearly Spencer perceived these dangers, 
and how strenuously he sought to meet them, is 
evidenced by the writings of his later years, 
and particularly by the weighty warnings of his 
essays on " Man vs. the State." This part of 
his teaching is sadly discredited at the present 
time ; some day it will be discovered that this 
was the part best worth heeding. He prob- 
ably went too far in his protest against the 
supplanting of individual by social action, but 
a tendency to err in that direction would be less 
ominous to the interests of civilization than 
the opposite tendency which now offers such 
a menace to the future. " Back to Kant " 
has been of recent years a potent watchword 
among philosophers ; we look forward to the 
time when "Back to Spencer " will be the cry 
among men concerned with social and political 
science, when statesmen and reformers, disillu- 
sionized by many failures, will cease attempt- 
ing to make men wise and upright by external 
pressure, and will realize that the best gov- 
ernment is the one that confines itself to the 
restraining of evil impulses and the creating of 
an environment of equal opportunity for free 
individual action. When that time comes, the 
name of Herbert Spencer will be held in higher 
honor than ever before. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

Japan has recently lost one of its foremost literati in 
the person of Mr. Ozaki, better known by his nom-de- 
plume of " Koyo Sanjin." He shares with Professor 
Tsubouchi the honor of having introduced the modern 
style of novel-writing in Japan. The older novels were 
written in ornate classical style, and were very difficult 
to understand. But the modern school of fiction-writers, 
following European models, make their characters speak 
in common colloquial. 

" Koyo " died of cancer of the stomach at the early 
age of 37. He had spent three years in youth in the 
Imperial University, but could not graduate, because, 
" his mind even then being filled with romautic ideas," 
he could not pass examinations in science! But it is 
stated that " the unscientific answers that he did write 
astonished the faculty by their literary skill! " 

In addition to his proficiency as a novelist, he was 
also an adept in the composition of the seventeen- 
syllable ode known as haikwai. On his death-bed he 
composed the following lines, to which we append com- 
ments by the editor of the "Japan Mail ": 
^^ Shinaba aki 
Ttuyu no hinu ma zo 
"This vepselet is an admirable example of Japanese im- 
pressionist poetry. Freely rendered it reads, ' Let me die in 
autumn before the dew dries'; words which recall, though 
they do not express, the familiar idea of the dew-drop evan- 
escence of life in Buddhist eyes, and of the shining of night- 
pearls on the petals of the autumn flower, the morning glory, 
' The dew-drop slips ioto the silent sea.' " 

Just before Ozaki's death, he urged a group of hi» 
disciples "to cooperate loyally and strive to rise still 
higher in their profession." He also said: "Had I 
seven lives to live, I would devote them all to litera- 
ture." Ernest W. Clement. 

Tokyo, Japan, December 3, 1903. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

Professor Starr asks, in a review of my " Social Ori- 
gins " (The Dial, November 1), "are 'hide- scrapers' 
and * dung-eaters ' really totem-names, used and recog- 
nized by the [Sioux] totem-members themselves ? " Of 
course they are not totem-names ; totem-names do exist 
among the Sioux, but are yielding place, as I remark, 
to local names, such as " High Village." The derisive 
sobriquets, " hide-scrapers " and so on, are no doubt 
" recognized " by the persons thus designated, but Pro- 
fessor Starr has better opportunities than I of learning 
whether they are " used " by them. Probably not: the 
Eskimo (" eaters of raw meat ") speak of themselves 
as " Innuit," " the men." The animal names of village 
groups in Europe are also " recognized " by the people 
designated, and I have heard a person gleefully pro- 
claim himself a frog. But, in the case of genuine 
totem-names among savages, there is nothing neces- 
sarily derisive, there may even be compliment, in the 
animal names, which, like death, " are not an evil, be- 
cause they are universal." My argument is that, in 
such circumstances, savages have become " proud of 
the title, as the Living Skeleton said ven they showed 
him." There is nothing contrary to human nature in 
this opinion. Great parties, as Whig and Tory, have 
proudly adopted sobriquets of the meanest and most 
derisive origin; whereas animal names, in savage so- 
ciety, contain nothing necessarily derisive, and are 
notoriously the most common of personal names of in- 
dividuals. My lists of actual group-sobriquets, among 
the Sioux, in Orkney, Scotland, France, England (I may 
add Crete and Guernsey), are merely illustrative of the 
tendency to give and use group sobriquets. In " the 
dark backward and abyss " of the savage past, — given 
savage ideas of the supernatural superiority of animals 
to man, — such names, though originally sobriquets^ 
might readily, in course of ages, be adopted by the 
groups to which they were applied. If this did occur, 
the rise of totemistic myths and rites was inevitable. 
Professor Starr will note that the village sobriquets 
have a wider range than England, including, it seems 
possible, ancient Palestine; and perhaps, when once 
attention is drawn to the subject, such sobriquets will 
be found to exist in Europe generally. The point has 
not, to my knowledge, been examined. A. Lang. 

Alleyne House, St, Andrews, Scotland, Dec. 11, 1903, 




C^^ it^to g00ks. 

The Sixties as Seen by Justin 

It is no feeling of idle curiosity that in- 
spires our interest in the accounts of a past 
time from one who has been acquainted with 
some of its leading men. So says Mr. McCarthy 
in closing his volume entitled " Portraits of the 
Sixties," in which he pictures with graphic pen 
many of the illustrious characters he had the 
pleasure of knowing personally in that eventful 
decade. The great names we associate with the 
England of 1860-70 would make a long cata- 
logue. Two of the greatest of her novelists, 
Dickens and Thackeray, died within that 
period ; Carlyle and Tennyson were at their 
best ; Swinburne was coming into notice ; 
Ddnte Gabriel Rossetti's poetical career be- 
gan ; Gladstone and Disraeli, Cobden and 
Bright were prominent in the political world ; 
and Darwin, Tyndall, Huxley, and Spencer 
commanded the attention of men of science. 
Events, too, of national and of international 
importance helped to render that decade a 
memorable one and to make the portraits of its 
chief men by so much the more worth pre- 

A matter which at first might seem of small 
significance, but which is big with meaning to 
him to whom nothing human is alien, is amus- 
ingly touched upon by Mr. McCarthy in his 
introductory chapter. 

" It is well for the early sixties that they had so 
mauy splendid claims to hi»toiical recollection, but it 
may be said of them that if they had bequeathed no 
other memory to a curious and contemplative posterity, 
the reign of crinoline would still have secured for them 
an abiding-place in the records of human eccentricities. 
I may say without fear of contradiction, that no one 
who was not living at the time can form any adequate 
idea of the grotesque fffect produced on the outer 
aspects of social life by this article of feminine costume. 
. . . A whole new school of satirical humor was devoted 
in vain to the ridicule of crinoline. The boys in the 
street sang comic songs to make fun of it, but no street 
bellowings of contempt could incite the wearers of this 
most inconvenient and hideous article of dress to con- 
demn themselves to clinging draperies. Crinoline, too, 
created a new sort of calamity all its own. Every day's 
papers gave us fresh accounts of what were called crin- 
oline accidents — cases, that is to say, in which a woman 
was seriously burned or burned to death because of some 
flame of fire or candle catching her distended drapery 
at some unexpected moment. ... A woman getting 

* Portraits of the Sixties. By Justin McCarthy. 
Illustrated. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

into or out of a carriage, an omnibus, or a train, making 
her way through a crowded room, or entering into the 
stalls of a theatre was a positive nuisance to all with 
whom she had to struggle for her passage." 

Still stronger terms might have been used to 
describe the influence of this monstrous fashion. 
Crossing the Channel, we find the church rev- 
enues of France falling off alarmingly because 
of the fewer chairs that could be let to hoop- 
skirted women, one such inflated worshipper 
filling the space formerly occupied by three of 
her sex. As a result, the charge per chair had 
to be raised. 

The author's portraits of statesmen and ora- 
tors are especially good. He has a keen relish 
for able public speaking and debating, and his 
judgment is so discriminating that he enables 
the reader to see how each one of a group of 
great orators is preeminent in his kind. For 
Cobden and Bright his admiration is enthu- 
siastic. An interesting speculation is indulged 
in regarding the result that might have followed 
Cobden's acceptance of the place he rejected 
in Palmerston's cabinet about the time our civil 
war broke out. With his thorough knowledge 
of America and Americans, with his ardent ad- 
vocacy of negro freedom, and with the Queen's 
sympathies on the side of the North, would he 
have been able to make head against Palmer- 
ston's pro-Southern policy and thus have 
averted the Alabama troubles ? Probably not, 
says our author ; yet it is not unreasonable to 
think it might have been. The portrait pre- 
sented of John Bright is most attractive. Mr. 
McCarthy's admiration of him as an orator, as 
a statesman, and as a man, is unreserved. He 
held him as superior in oratory to Gladstone — 
an opinion that once made Bright himself 
positively angry, so modest was the latter's 
estimate of himself, and so hearty his admira- 
tion for Gladstone. A short passage from the 
book will place Bright before us in one phase 
at least of his pleasing personality. It also 
illustrates anew the old truth that humor is akin 
to love, that the genuine humorist is always a 
person of kind heart and of large charity to- 
ward his enemies. 

" Bright was a master of genuine Saxon humor. Some 
of his unprepared replies to the interruptions of political 
opponents in the House of Commons were marvellous 
examples of this faculty, and are frequently quoted 
even now in speeches and in newspaper articles. But 
there was nothing whatever of levity in Bright's humor, 
and his most effective satirical touches seemed as if 
they were intended rather to rouse into better judgment 
than to wound or offend the man at whom they were 
directed. I think the one defect which Bright could 



[Jan. 1, 

not fully forgive in any man was want of sincerity. I 
have heard him again and again iu private conversation 
enter into the defence of some extreme political oppo- 
nent on the ground that the opponent, however mistaken, 
aggressive, and even unjust, was acting in accordance 
with his sincere convictions. I can remember many 
instances in which Bright strongly objected to certain 
criticisms appearing in the newspaper representing his 
own political creed, on the ground that they were not 
quite fair and would be likely to give pain." 

An incidental mention of the tariff question 
leads the author to declare that, as no "subtlety 
of plausible argument will ever induce England 
to return to what used to be called the principle 
of divine right in government," so there is 
" just as little reason to fear that any such 
argument can prevail upon her to make at this 
time of day a reactionary experiment in the 
way of protective tariffs." Let us hope he may 
not prove a false prophet. 

The author's acquaintance with Dickens, 
Thackeray, Carlyle, and numerous other men 
of letters, supplies him with a fund of enter- 
i;aining reminiscence concerning books and 
writers. It was Dickens's amazing versatility 
that most impressed him in contemplating the 
man, and he sets before us this quality iu a way 
that will impress even those that thought them- 
selves already acquainted with the great nov- 
elist. Strikingly in contrast with Dickens's 
portrait is that of Thackeray, of whom also Mr. 
McCarthy was a cordial admirer. In present- 
ing the physical man Thackeray, the portrait- 
painter has somewhat blurred his picture by 
representing him on one page as having eyes 
that "never gave out the penetrating flash-lights 
which Dickens could turn upon those around 
him," and on another as having eyes that 
" beamed with a penetrating light even through 
the spectacles." The charm of Thackeray's 
public readings, or lectures, is thus recalled : 

" Thackeray had, indeed, none of the superbly dra- 
matic style of delivery which made Dickens's readings 
and speeches so impressive. His voice was clear and 
penetrating and his articulation allowed no word to be 
lost upon his listeners, but he never seemed to be mak- 
ing any direct appeal to the emotion of the audience. 
No accompaniment of gesture set off his quiet intona- 
tion, and he seemed, indeed, to be talking rather at 
than to the crowd which hung upon his every word. 
... I observed on many occasions that the audience 
seemed to become possessed by a common dread lest 
anything, even an outburst of premature applause, 
should interrupt the discourse and cause a word to be 
lost. I noticed this especially in some of the more 
pathetic passages, as, for instance, in the closing sen- 
tences of the lecture on George the Third — that mar- 
vellous description of the blind, deaf, and insane old 
king as he wandered through the halls of his palace 

and bewailed to himself the deplorable conditions of his 
closing days. The most studied dramatic effects of 
voice and action could not have given to those passages 
of the lecture a more complete and absorbing command 
over the feelings of the listening crowd. Every one 
appeared to hold his breath in fear that even a sound 
of admiration might disturb for an instant the calm 
flow of that thrilling discourse. ... I have heard 
many great orators and lecturers in my time and in 
various countries, and I never made one of an audience 
which seemed to hang upon the words of the speaker 
more absolutely." 

Mr. McCarthy's acquaintance with celeb- 
rities has been of the widest. Artists, actors, 
scholars, philanthropists, travellers — anyone 
of marked individuality is a congenial subject 
for his pen. A striking contrast is that of Sir 
Richard Burton, as depicted before his mar- 
riage, and the same man after woman's gentle 
influence had subdued and refined him. Here 
is Burton before he had bent his neck to the 
conjugal yoke : 

" He was quick in his movements, rapid in his talk, 
never wanted for a word or an argument, was impatient 
of differing opinion, and seemingly could not help mak- 
ing himself the dictator of any assembly in which he 
found himself a centre figure. His powers of descrip- 
tion were marvellous ; he could dash off picturesque 
phrases as easily as another man could utter common- 
places; could tell any number of good stories without 
ever seeming to repeat himself; could recite a poem or 
rattle off a song, could flash out jest after jest, some- 
times with bewildering meanings; be was always per- 
fectly good-humored, and he was always indomitably 
dogmatic. If he thought you really worth arguing with 
on any question which especially concerned him, he 
would apply himself to the argument with as much 
earnestness as if some great issue depended on it, and 
with an air of sublime superiority which seemed to 
imply that he was keeping up the discussion, not because 
there could be any doubt as to the right side, but merely 
out of a kindly resolve to enlighten your ignorance 
whether you would or not." 

The Burton of later days was " kindly, consid- 
erate, patient of other men's opinions, ready to 
put the best construction on other men's mo- 
tives, unwilling to wound"; and this change 
was wrought by "the sweet and gentle influ- 
ence of that woman whose very eyes told the 
love and devotion which she felt for him, and 
the tenderness with which she applied herself 
to bring out all that was best in him." 

Most excellent are the accounts of Thorold 
Rogers and Professor Goldwin Smith. Our 
civil war being mentioned in connection with 
the latter's hearty espousal of the cause of 
negro freedom, Mr, McCarthy, who was him- 
self emphatically on the side of the North in 
the great dispute, refers to the division it 
caused among his countrymen. " The majority 




of that class which we describe as society," he 
writes, " took the side of the South, while the 
best intellects of England in politics, litera- 
ture, and science, and the whole mass of the 
English working population adhered to and 
advocated the cause of the North." Surely, he 
has here, in a moment of forgetfulness, given 
the " best intellects " more than due credit. 
Gladstone, Carlyle, Martineau, to name no 
others, were of Southern sympathies. The list 
could doubtless be considerably extended. 

The author's love of music and the drama 
prompts him to furnish many a pleasing por- 
trait from the stage. In describing that excel- 
lent comedian, Robert Keeley, he commends 
especially the thoroughly wholesome nature of 
his fun, and humorously adds : " The most scru- 
pulous daughter might have safely taken her 
mother to enjoy any of Keeley's performances, 
and the good lady might have laughed her fill 
over his looks and his utterances without any 
dread of a censorious world." Here, as else- 
where, the writer's style is a delight to the 
reader, being easy, fluent, enlivened with hu- 
mor and warmed with kindliness, happy in its 
choice of the right word, and passing from topic 
to topic in easy transition and sufficiently rapid 
succession. One more quotation must be made 
to show the author's command of descriptive 
epithet. Sir Richard Bethell, afterward Baron 
Westbury, made a name for himself in the 
House of Commons as a master of corrosive 
sarcasm. His peculiar style of parliamentary 
retort is thus described: 

" Bethell's way was to let his eyelids droop as if he 
were affected by a sudden access of shyness, just as he 
was about to pour out on some opponent in debate his 
most yitriolic sarcasm, and to deliver this sarcasm in 
tones of dulcet gentleness, as if he were paying a deli- 
cate compliment by which he hoped to endear himself 
further to its recipient. He had a clear, impressive 
voice, and could speak powerfully whenever he thought 
fit, but he was sure to adopt the cadences of bewitching 
blanduess whenever he seized on the chance of making 
his opponent an object for the ridicule of the House. 
. . . When Bethell, with half-closed eyes, head mod- 
estly bent, and mild and gentle tones, poured gently 
out his phrases of vitriolic scorn, the listener felt that 
a new and cruel charm came in to make the contempt 
all the more withering to its object and more intensely 
amusing to the audience." 

The pictures that thus vividly appeal to 
the eye of reason are reinforced with abundant 
portraits addressed to the eye of sense, the 
whole making as entertaining a volume as one 
need ask for on a winter's evening. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

London on London,* 

In the summer of 1902, Mr. Jack London, 
of California, undertook to explore the recesses 
of the British metropolis. What he saw, heard, 
and did, he has set forth in a volume of over 
three hundred pages, with numerous illustra- 
tions. The account he gives is a straight- 
forward one, and there is no reason why it 
should not be accepted at its face-value, — the 
broad facts, indeed, being already too familiar 
to those who have lived in London. 

I had just finished reading the book, and 
was feeling very kindly toward its enthusiastic 
young author, when my eye fell on an adver- 
tisement of it ("Science," Nov. 13), which 
ran as follows : 

" Mr. Jack London's New Book. ' As thrilling as 
the best of his fiction.' . . . An account of the labor 
and life of the London slums — of the conditions of 
poverty, degradation, and suffering in the East End. 
It tingles with all the vitality of his fiction, and is full 
of such vivid realism as is only possible from a man who 
knows London as Mr. Jacob A. Riis knows New York." 

Putting aside the absurdity of comparing the 
author's knowledge of London with Mr. Riis's 
of New York, we cannot feel otherwise than 
indignant at the manifest suggestion that the 
misery of the East End will afford such amuse- 
ment to those in more fortunate circumstances 
that its recital is equivalent to " the best of his 
fiction." Sixteen years ago, William Morris 
fulminated against the well-to-do people who 
amused themselves by ^' sentimentalising the 
sordid lives of the miserable peasants of Italy 
and the starving proletarians of her towns, 
now that all the picturesqueness has departed 
from the poor devils of our own country-side, 
our own slums," — but he did not know that 
even these last could be made a source of 
entertainment, given a clever showman. 

I am willing to believe — indeed, I do be- 
lieve — that the advertisement cited does Mr. 
London a great injustice. He can hardly be 
blamed for having produced a readable and 
interesting book, nor can he be expected to 
wish it other than a large circulation ; but if 
he is as sincere and as earnest a reformer as 
we judge him to be, he will doubtless be disap- 
pointed as he comes to realize the true character 
of its reception. Yet in time he will find that his 
seed has sprouted in unexpected places, and the 
harvest will be tardily but surely gathered in. 

It is neither possible nor desirable, within 

* The Peoplk of the Abyss. By Jack London. Illua- 
trated. New York : The Macniillan Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

the limits of a review, to give any account of 
Mr. London's experiences ; but it is worth 
while to quote his comparison of the English 
with the Alaskan Indians, since he knows both 
at first-hand, and the latter are recognized as 
among the least favored races of mankind. 

" In Alaska, along the banks of the Yukon River, 
near its mouth, live the Innuit folk. They are a very 
primitive people, manifesting but mere glimmering 
adumbrations of that tremendous artifice, Civilization. 
Their capital amounts possibly to $10 per head. They 
hunt and fish for their food with bone-headed spears and 
arrows. They never suffer from lack of shelter. Their 
clothes, largely made from the skins of animals, are 
warm. They always have fuel for their fires, likewise 
timber for their houses, which they build partly under- 
ground, and in which they lie snugly during the periods 
of intense cold. In the summer they live in tents, open 
to every breeze, and cool. They are healthy [when they 
do not catch some disease of civilization, the author 
might have said], and strong, and happy. Their one 
problem is food. They have their times of plenty and 
times of famine. In good times they feast; in bad times 
they die of starvation. But starvation, as a chronic con- 
dition, present with a large number of them all the time, 
is a thing unknown. Further, they have no debts. 

" In the United Kingdom, on the rim of the Western 
Ocean, live the English folk. They are a consummately 
civilized people. Their capital amounts to at least 
$1600 per head. They gain their food, not by hunting 
and fishing, but by toil at colossal artifices. For the 
most part, they suffer from lack of shelter. The greater 
number of them are vilely housed, do not have enough 
fuel to keep them warm, and are insufBciently clothed. 
A constant number never have any bouses at all, and 
sleep shelterless under the stars. Many are to be found, 
winter and summer, shivering on the streets in their rags. 
They have good times and bad. In good times most of 
them manage to get enough to eat, in bad times they die 
of starvation. They are dying now, they were dying 
yesterday and last year, they will die tomorrow and next 
year, of starvation; for they, unlike the Innuit, suffer 
from a chronic condition of starvation. There are 
40,000,000 of the English folk, and 939 out of every 
1000 of them die in poverty, while a constant army of 
8,000,000 struggles on the ragged edge of starvation. 
Further, each babe that is born is born in debt to the 
$um of $110. This is because of an artifice called the 
National Debt" (pp. 311-313). 

This is strongly put, but perhaps the worst 
part of it all is left unmentioned. The Innuit 
people are living, I suppose, nearly as well as 
their nature permits ; but the English are 
stunted and warped, so that what they become 
bears no resemblance to what they might have 
been. Mr. London discusses the rapid dete- 
rioration of the breed in the midst of the city, 
— so rapid that the urban population would 
disappear in a few generations, were it not 
replenished from the rural districts. He does 
not, perhaps, sufficiently distinguish between 
the inferiority due to birth and that due to 
environment. It is a comforting doctrine to 

some, that the poor are so because of their 
natural inferiority. It need not be doubted 
that the two things often go together ; but it 
has been well shown that the children of the 
poor, removed to better surroundings, will ex- 
hibit undreamed of abilities. On page 309 of 
Mr. London's book is given proof of this ; for it 
appears that Dr. Barnardo has picked up from 
the streets of London and sent abroad 13 340 
boys, most of them to Canada, and not one in 
fifty has failed. That is to say, that the very 
breed and race which is complacently said to 
have dug its own grave in the East End of Lon- 
don is capable of great success, given reason- 
ably favorable circumstances. If it could be 
shown that the Abyss only swallowed up the 
worthless, even then we should deserve the 
utmost condemnation for our inhumanity in 
the manner of their destruction ; but when 
it appears that it is a great machine for the 
cutting-off of the English in the fulness of their 
strength — this is "race suicide" indeed! 

Mr. London does not despair of the English. 
As an American, he knows the blood too well 
to do that. But, says he, " the political ma- 
chine known as the British Empire is running 
down." Just what he understands by this 
phrase is not wholly apparent. If he supposes 
that the things he describes are the result of 
any purely "political" conditions, the fact of 
similar things existing in every great civilized 
country, not excepting the United States, 
should convince him to the contrary. How- 
ever, in many places throughout the book he 
speaks distinctly and emphatically of the social 
injustice which is the real cause of the evil, — 
and it is only fair to understand his use of the 
term political in this light, meaning, as the 
word properly means, the whole management 
of civilization. 

Whatever meaning the dreadful recital of 
English conditions may have for England, it 
has precisely the same meaning for America. 
Our author's fair State of California has al- 
ready its San Francisco, and with the increase 
of " prosperity " resulting from transpacific 
commerce the western shores may yet become 
the scene of worse things than he has known. 
If it is to be otherwise, it must be because the 
people of the West, wiser in their generation, 
set themselves to prevent it. And it may be 
that the resistance offered to the extension of 
white slavery will bring about the freedom of 
those already in bondage ; for thus does history 
repeat itself. ^_ ^^ ^^ Cockerell. 




THfi Course and LiAws of Empire.* 

It is difficult, at first glance, to say whether 
Mr. Brooks Adams's book on ''The New Em- 
pire " is written by a journalist or by a serious 
thinker of the most progressed school of eco- 
nomic theorists. At first, the easy, rushing 
style, and the attempt to hammer into the 
reader's consciousness in short energetic phrases 
the ideas which the writer looks upon as all- 
important, suggests newspaper writing of the 
superior type. Yet upon second thought we see 
that this electric " up to date " mode of expres- 
sion covers a cosmic idea of vast magnitude and 
scientific directness ; and that this rapid sur- 
vey, this literary railroading toward the goal, 
presents after all a stately array of facts for the 
support of the truly Darwinian doctrine that 
" man's destiny must ultimately depend upon 
his flexibility." The question is whether this 
method is not too business-like to be altogether 
fair, too hasty to be safe. The vastness of the 
problem Mr. Adams purposes to discuss in the 
"New Empire," and the apparent waywardness 
of the hypothesis which he offers as its solution, 
seem at first sight too disproportionate. The 
problem set forth is the familiar puzzle, familiar 
from countless histories of civilization, why the 
seat of the world's power and of empires has 
constantly moved from east to west, from south 
to north, until it has gone half-way around the 
globe and has lately established itself in the 
New World. 

In explanation of this, Mr. Adams offers 
not merely the time-worn lullaby concerning 
the mysterious successive calls of God to the 
nations to bear the burden of wealth and civili- 
zation, or the newer and more substantiated 
one of the movement of trade, and accordingly 
of power, from one commercial centre to an- 
other, as the trade-routes change and competi- 
tors arise for the precious possession. Mr. 
Adams's special and pet theory goes further 
than these, and declares such change in the 
seat of empire to depend solely on nearness to 
or possession of an abundant supply of food 
and other necessaries, and also a sufficient 
supply of the useful metals for defense or for 
medium of exchange. These means of wealth 
exhausted, the centre of trade, of communica- 
tion and centralization, moves on to a more 
suitable location, lodges with another nation, 
settles within another sphere of labor. 

To say that this theory is ingenious is very 

*Thk New Empire. By Brooks Adams. New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 

mild praise ; it has the character of true in- 
sight into the elemental causes of human 
activity. For what can be truer in its simple 
potency than the statement at the beginning 
of the book, often repeated but always equally 
impressive in its directness, that as self-pre- 
servation is the predominant instinct in man, 
80 he must procure food by cunning or by 
violence ; that demand for food leads to inter- 
course, to trade, to war ; that intercourse of 
whatever kind always follows the easiest path, 
where transportation is cheapest ; in fine, that 
food and means of defense constitute man's 
chief economic necessities upon which the de- 
velopment of power and civilization depends. 

But with the possession of wealth comes also 
the possibility of controlling the destiny of 
other nations, of grasping the world's trade and 
dictating to the customer. This possibility, 
however, is based on the power of organization, 
on centralized energy and prevention of waste. 
Hence the importance, for doing business on a 
large scale, of combinations of capital and en- 
slavement of labor, such as the negotiatores of 
Rome and the trusts of to-day. Mr. Adams 
is modern enough to take into account this ele- 
ment of competition from the very start. Ac- 
cording to his idea, it was not merely present 
but omnipresent in the rise to preeminence of 
ancient Baktra and Samarkand no less than 
to-day, and regulated the world's commerce in 
a manner a thousand times more intricate than 
the casual observer imagines. Not upon the 
sword, but in the last instance upon the power 
to underbid chance competitors in the world's 
market, rests the opportunity of a country to 
rise to a commanding position and exercise 
control over other countries, even to the ex- 
tent of making them its dependencies. Hence, 
as the world is constituted, comes the rise of 
all world-empires, such as the Babylonian, the 
Assyrian, Grecian, Roman, Great Britain, and 
Greater Russia. This last New Empire of the 
United States is due to economic supremacy 
rather than to political, to the presence of 
abundant supply, rapid and cheap exchange of 
commodities, and, last but not least, to a 
highly centralized mode of production which 
can serve all at the smallest expenditure. And 
this is the reason that Mr. Adams thinks the 
trusts an economic necessity, without which 
America could not have secured her present 
commercial supremacy. The function of gov- 
ernment in this formation of imperial power is 
to ease the process, not to retard nor for any 
dogmatic reason hinder it. Government is 



[Jan. 1, 

nothing but the tool to promote the welfare of 
the people; hence if it proves obstructive to 
commercial enterprise and industrial expansion 
it may fatally injure the growth of power and 
thus the material success of the nation, and 
may itself perish in the struggle. Whether 
President Roosevelt would be sufficiently con- 
vinced by this reasoning to abandon as futile 
his attempt at trust legislation, there is no way 
of telling ; but Mr. Adams's " warning voice " 
might well make him hesitate. 

Evidently Mr. Adams is altogether oblivious 
of such antiquated religious survivals as the 
notion of right and wrong in the wholesale 
destruction of small industries ; nor is the 
political shibboleth of individuals being free 
and equal of any account in his view of the 
onward march of economic conditions. He has 
stated once before that he does not believe in 
the influence of ideas upon the destiny of na- 
tions. They obey far more an instinct, and 
instead of being free agents are but subservient 
atoms in the whirl of energy. Hence Mr. 
Adams wastes no time upon theological white- 
washing of the mighty or the cruel deeds of 
man. They were actuated by a force greater 
than their conscience or their civilization. 
"Nature" is the all- encompassing power which 
stands behind and plays fast and loose with 
all man's petty rules, gives him his chance, 
or withdraws it if he is not ready to seize it. 
Mr. Adams sees the evidence of Nature's in- 
tentions in the rise and fall of nations and of 
empires. He appears to us a pantheist of the 
school of Positivists, — or should we simply call 
him a disciple of the doctrine of environment 
after the manner of Demoulins ? 

But however bold in his assertions, and free 
from the restrictions of moral and religious 
precepts, there is no need of quarrelling with 
Mr. Adams because of his views. To have 
opinions, however startling, about life, or man, 
or Nature, is an author's prerogative, and may 
serve him as a recommendation rather than 
otherwise. The thing one can quarrel with 
Mr. Adams about is his method. The means 
which he sets forth more or less emphatically, 
as preferable for acquiring the true under- 
standing of history and accordingly of the 
meaning of man's destiny, is frankly to aban- 
don the bewildering and wasteful German mode 
of ascertaining the truth by the study of detail, 
and instead to seek only for the large and plain 
lines of development. From these it is the stu- 
dent's duty to discover and construe the uni- 
versal law which governs life and which is the 

only profitable thing for people to know. That 
this law is in itself an uncommonly hard and 
dreary thing, that it is constantly the same, and 
hence wearisome in its monotony, makes no 
difference. The profit of discovery is worth 
the effort, and Mr. Adams experiences genuine 
joy and pride from it. When this law is dis- 
covered, the next thing of importance is to 
gather the facts which best illustrate the work- 
ing of the principle, to put them into their 
proper relation and let them speak for them- 
selves — Mr. Adams in this particular case 
remaining passive. But this passivity which 
he claims seems to be only a pleasant make- 
believe ; the very act of generalization which 
the author advocates as the correct method, and 
employs all through, seems to us to be eminently 
his own active way of discovering the particular 
principle he is after ; whereas the theories pro- 
mulgated seem decidedly the cause rather than 
the effect of the manner in which the facts have 
unfolded themselves to bis mind. 

No one goes to the work of a generalization 
of this kind without the idea he wishes corro- 
borated plainly in his mind. Hence the reader 
is almost of necessity forced to accuse the 
author of artfully trying to pass off as inno- 
cence what is only feigned indifference. Mr. 
Adams, indeed, in his preface and elsewhere, 
makes a great point of the necessity of general- 
ization as the only means by which logical 
connection can be found between isolated facts. 
He makes a desperate and even angry attack 
on research work as being futile because so 
largely done for its own sake. We are nothing 
loth to see the importance of synthesis brought 
to the fore in public discussion, after such long 
and ardent harangues about the unrivalled ad- 
vantages of analysis. But it may be permitted 
to say that of the two methods discussed by 
Mr. Adams generalization is certainly the one 
which least insures sound training or keen his- 
torical judgment. Only the master of method, 
the ripened thinker, the thorough scholar, and 
scarcely even they, can generalize without foist- 
ing upon the world some half-truth or making 
their readers victims of their personal bias. 

Of course Mr. Adams points to the necessity 
of reasoning on a scientific basis, from cause to 
effect, along the lines of physical and biological 
truths already accepted. But the habit of apply- 
ing scientific rules to philosophic facts is still 
so new, so little has been done to establish even 
approximately the true connection between the 
two, that almost any theory may be forwarded, 
generalization reign supreme, and no criterion 




be found by which to test the soundness of the 
conclusions arrived at. The data of history, 
especially of the far past, are too pliant a mate- 
rial not to fit almost any doctrine. The ques- 
tion is only how to pick one's examples and 
cover them with the necessary quantity of plau- 
sible commentary. The public is altogether 
too fond of generalizations that have the sem- 
blance of common-sense not to be indulged in 
the amplest way on every platform and for 
every purpose. In fact, unless extreme care is 
exercised we shall soon find ourselves in a maze 
of generalization from which only the axe of 
patient research (not for its own sake) can 
deliver us. Hence at the present juncture 
Mr. Adams's passionate demand for general- 
ization sounds somewhat preposterous. 

Although the author in his book really lives 
up to his idea, as far as his idiosyncracies per- 
mit, and gives perhaps the soundest and best 
balanced treatment of history on a large plan 
that his method warrants, yet his advice con- 
cerning future study of history must be taken 
largely cum grano salis. However interesting 
and suggestive his own work, his method may 
easily lead to the blatant superficiality which is 
the horror of the conscientious student. Mr. 
Adams himself perceives the danger to which 
his reasoning may expose both his book and the 
idea it represents, and he offers both, not as a 
finished theory, but as a hypothesis for medi- 
tation by the enlightened and thoughtful. But 
a full-fledged suggestion, when eloquently put, 
is often more influential in turning men's 
thoughts than the accepted theory which is 
already somewhat brittle and worn. 

The rather uncompromising Positivism of 
our author is perhaps best shown in the state- 
ment on page 196 : ''Nature abhors the weak." 
To us it seems that Nature has good use for the 
weak no less than for the strong, and in her 
minute economy wastes no material, not even 
the apparently most contemptible. Indeed, we 
are inclined to state, with a well-known econ- 
omist, that without the weak the strong would 
not be ; the strong rest on the support of the 
weak, both are necessary, hence Nature employs 
both. And pray what in the merciless order of 
"Nature" constitutes strength but a momentary 
advantage ? If the old scholastic subservience 
to certain pet phrases (of scientific color but 
speculative origin) could be eliminated from 
late philosophic literature, there would be more 
soundness and fewer fads. The survival of the 
fittest is a theorem almost done to death in all 
popular speculation, but what this mysterious 

fitness really stands for in the subtle household 
of Nature still remains to be seen. 

Mr. Adams's book is unquestionably a very 
courageous and interesting attempt at solving 
the problem of transmission of energy in the 
world's development from one centre of activity 
to another. It is suggestive of much keen obser- 
vation, incessant study, and logical combination 
of facts. It certainly presents a much more 
thorough cooperation of philosophic and scien- 
tific method than commonly prevails. But it 
nevertheless strongly suggests the same old 
necessity of careful study of detail, in order 
that if generalization on a large scale is hence- 
forth to be the order in American liberal 
education, the facts shall truly support the 
conclusion, and that synthesis in all its generous 
breadth shall be upheld in the basic particulars 
by a stout and reliable analysis. 

A. M. Wergeland. 

For LiOVers of R. Zt. S.* 

There are certain of our literary passions 
(to borrow Mr. Howells's phrase) that have in 
their composition a curious admixture of jeal- 
ousy. The Borrovians, for example, remain 
more than content that their author should be 
without honor in the form of popularizing ar- 
ticles in the literary journals ; and lovers of the 
FitzGerald of the Letters do not welcome the 
uncountable pocket copies of the " Rubaijat." 
Mr. J. A. Hammerton, the compiler of " Steven- 
soniana," is not likely, however, to find himself 
offending any such sentiment, for the most 
bookish among Stevenson's admirers have 
never regretted his appeal to the unliterary 
reading public. Nor need the relevance of the 
book, which is announced as a " miscellany of 
anecdote and criticism, inscribed to the lovers 
of the man and admirers of the artist R. L. S. 
the world over," be questioned. That element 
in the Scottish character which complements 
the traditional reserve was sufficiently strong 
in Stevenson to absolve the editor of any such 
volume from the charge of impertinence. 
We have cause for gratitude in the fact that 
Stevenson never approached dangerously near 
the line crossed by so many of his literary com- 
patriots, from Carlyle and the Laird of Auch- 
inleck to Mr. Crockett and Mr. Barrie. He was 
not merely a Scotchman, but, as Henry James 
put it, a Scotchman of the world. But it re- 

*Stevensoniana. Edited by J. a. Hammerton. Illus- 
trated. New York : A. Wessels Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

mains true that his personality was " a mar- 
ketable thing," to quote the phrase wrathfully 
uttered by W. E. Henley in his memorable out- 
burst of two years ago; and no publication 
which recognizes that aspect of the Stevenson 
of literature and life is wholly without excuse 
for existence. 

The literary and critical merit of the com- 
pilation is decidedly uneven. It could hardly 
be otherwise ; since, as we are informed, the 
editor searched for his material in the " for- 
gotten pages of English and American period- 
icals " (and newspapers, it should be added), 
as well as in " books by writers of eminence 
not entirely concerned with Stevenson." To 
the devout Mussulman, no scrap of paper that 
bears the sacred name of Allah is worthless. 
It was possibly a modified form of this rever- 
ential spirit which actuated Mr. Hamraerton in 
pursuing his researches ; for not a great part 
of the rescued " copy " which makes up the 
first seven or eight chapters of the book has 
any value as a contribution to our knowledge 
of Stevenson. A description, by Mr. Charles 
Warren Stoddard, of Stevenson as he appeared 
during his California days is worth quoting for 
the sake of comparison with a different esti- 
mate lately expressed. 

" A man of the frailest physique, though most unac- 
countably tenacious of life; a man whose pen was in- 
defatigable, whose brain was never at rest; who, as far 
as I am able to judge, looked upon everything from a 
supremely intellectual point of view. ... A man un- 
fleshly to the verge of emaciation, . . . whose sympa- 
thies were literary and artistic; whose intimacies were 
born and bred above the ears." 

In the recently published " Faith of Robert 
Louis Stevenson " we find Mr. John Kelraan 
emphasizing the close relation between the flesh 
and the spirit indicated in Stevenson's expres- 
sion of his personality. " At all times he is a 
spirit very deeply embodied in flesh," he says in 
a passage which " The Athenaeum," in review- 
ing the book, praised for its penetration. "In 
the flesh, as he depicts it, you constantly discern 
the spirit breaking through ; in the spirit, you 
seem still aware of the red tinge of flesh." Pro- 
fessor Stoddard knew Stevenson personally, 
Mr. Kelman knows him only through his 
works ; and we have again the old contrast 
between the " rosy-gilled athletico- aesthete " 
whom Mr. William Archer discovered in the 
Stevenson of the essays, and the " rickety and 
cloistered spectre, R. L. S." 

An interesting reminder of an amusingly 
incongruous episode in Stevenson's career is 
the article reprinted from the " Daily News " 

of London, and containing extracts from the 
testimonials given by Stevenson's friends in 
1881, at the time of his application for the 
Edinburgh chair of history. Sir Leslie Ste- 
phen wrote : " I know of no writer of Mr. 
Stevenson's standing of whose future career I 
entertain greater expectations "; John Ad- 
dington Symonds spoke of him as " having 
the temperament of an artist who cannot ac- 
quiesce in work that falls below his own stand- 
ard "; Mr. Andrew Lang described him as " the 
most ingenious and refined writer of his genera- 
tion." Mr. Robert Leighton's letter, quoted 
from "The Academy" of March 3, 1900, 
recalls the fact that for several years after this 
incident of his candidature, the recognizable 
earnings of the most ingenious and refined 
writer of his generation continued to be chiefly 
limited to praise. Thirty shillings per column 
of twelve hundred words was the "higher 
terms " demanded four years later by the author 
of " Treasure Island," when the serial publica- 
tion of " Kidnapped " was being arranged for. 
The El Dorado of the American magazine was 
as yet an undiscovered country, whose frontier 
had not been reached by the Amateur Emigrant. 

A paragraph in Mr. Harold Vallings's 
" Temple Bar " essay, describing Stevenson at 
Davos in 1881, shows him in a more familiar 
light than that of a candidate for professorial 

" I have a most vivid recollection of a first view of 
him homeward bound from one of these before- breakfast 
[tobogganing] expeditions. He was dragging himself 
wearily along, towing a toboggan at his heals, his nar- 
row, hunched-up figure cut clear against the surpassing 
brilliance of the white Davosian world. With that 
pathetic half-broken figure making so dominant a note 
in one's recollections, one marvels indeed at the forti- 
tude that made possible his later achievements. Through 
the closing weeks of that winter season it was my hap, 
through sheer good luck, fostered in some measure by 
a nascent enthusiasm for Art, to foregather pretty fre- 
quently with the courageous invalid, and only once do 
I remember his uttering a despondent word. * I can't 
work,' he said to me one day. ' Yet now that I've 
fallen sick, I've lost all my capacity for idleness.' " 

Most can raise the flower love of idleness to- 
day, but twenty years ago the lament quoted 
above could have been uttered by no one but 
the author of the " Apology for Idlers." 

An Auckland, New Zealand, newspaper fur- 
nishes a report of an interview with Stevenson 
on the subject of the best course of study for 
young men with literary aspirations, in which 
he said : 

«' If a young man wishes to learn to write English, 
he should read everything. I qualify that by excluding 
the whole of the present century in a body. People 




will read all that is worth reading out of that for their 
own fun. If they read the seventeenth century and the 
eighteenth century; if they read Shakespeare and Sir 
Thomas Browne, and Jeremy Taylor, and Dryden's 
prose, and Samuel Johnson, — and, I suppose, Addison, 
though I never read him myself, — and browse about 
in all the authors of those two centuries, they will get 
the finest course of literature there is. Those are the 
two extremes. What we have tried to do in this cen- 
tury is to find a middle-road between the two extremes, 
mostly and usually by being more slovenly. I have 
only one feather in my cap, and that is, I am not a 

Among contemporary writers, Stevenson 
found Sir Leslie Stephen and Mr. George 
Saintsbury best worth recommending to the 
colonial aspirants after a literary style. And 
the comment upon Scott is characteristic. 

" I would have your students read Scott, — but I 
wish you could put down my expression when I say 
this; it would save a good deal of explanation. He 
was undoubtedly slovenly. He makes me long to box 
his ears — God bless him I — but to a luminous and 
striking degree he was free from the faults that a great 
many of us possess." 

In the chapter headed "Miscellanea" are 
quoted the dedications to the set of his works 
presented by Stevenson in 1888 to his physi- 
cian in the Adirondacks, Dr. Trudeau. They 
will probably be new to most readers. " Kid- 
napped " bears the following inscription : 

" Here is the one sound page of all my writing. 
The one I 'm proud of, and that I delight in." 

" Prince Otto " has this verse : 

•* This is my only love-tale, this Prince Otto, 
Which some folks like to read, and others not to." 

" Familiar Studies of Men and Books" is thus 
prefaced : 

"My other works are of a slighter kind; 
Here is the party to improve your Mind! " 

Best of all is the amiably ironical comment 
upon his " Travels with a Donkey ": 
" It blew, it rained, it thawed, it snowed, it thundered, — 
Which was the Donkey? I have often wondered." 

An article in the same division, on the inter- 
esting Trevor-Haddon collection of " Letters 
to an Artist " contains an error which the 
editor was probably not in a position to detect. 
Instead of there being only five copies of the 
book in existence, as stated in the review 
quoted, several hundred copies were printed 
by the American publisher, and the regret that 
" only a favored few will ever have an oppor- 
tunity to read the letters in their entirety " is 
consequently unwarranted. 

More than a dozen poems to Stevenson are 
grouped in a separate chapter. Among the 
poets represented are Mr. William Watson, 
Mr. Hichard Le Gallienne, Miss Guiney, Mr. 

James Whitcomb Riley, Mr. Austin Dobson, 
and Mr. Bliss Carman, who has two poems, 
one the fine threnody "A Seamark." Mr. Ed- 
mund Gosse's beautiful dedication to his volume 
" In Russet and Silver," — " To Tusitala in 
Vailima," — which called forth the last and 
the saddest letter Stevenson ever wrote, is 
printed at the beginning of the chapter on 
" Island Days." It is a pity, unhappily familiar 
as we are with the reverse of the medal, that 
Henley's exquisite lyric " To R. L. S.," with 
the unforgettable closing lines — 

" And we lie in the peace of the Great Release, 
As once in the grsss together," 

should not have been included among the me- 
morial poems. 

The editor's labors in gathering his material 
for the chapters on " Stevenson the Man," 
" Stevenson the Artist," and " R. L. S. and 
His Contemporaries," were better rewarded 
than in the case of the biographical selections. 
Almost every contemporary writer of note, 
professional critic or not, is represented in the 
excerpts from critical articles. Mr. Henley's 
famous " Pall Mall Gazette " essay is quoted 
at great length. The unsigned article from 
"Blackwood's" (pp. 252-3), — from the pen 
of Professor Millar, if internal evidence based 
on resemblance to the Stevenson chapter in the 
" Literary History of Scotland " has any value, 
— is the only other example of criticism not 
entirely sympathetic. Even those writers who 
emphasize their recognition of Stevenson's 
limitations, as do Sir Leslie Stephen and Mr. 
David Christie Murray, do not maintain an 
unqualifiedly judicial attitude. And some of 
the novelist-critics, notably Mr. Quiller-Couch 
and Mr. Crockett - — to whom many literary 
sins should be forgiven for the sake of the 
phrase " His heart remembers how " in the 
dedication to the " Stickit Minister," — have 
touched their highest point of sincerity of ex- 
pression in the essays called forth by the death 
of the fellow- worker whom they loved. A 
comparatively unfamiliar piece of serious crit- 
icism, represented by several extracts, is Miss 
Alice Brown's fine though somewhat dithy- 
rambic " Study of Robert Louis Stevenson," 
which was printed, for private circulation, in 
1895. It concludes as follows : 

" That Stevenson could hold up his head and troll 
his careless ditties to the sun, after that Miserere of 
the soul, opens the mind like a flower to the possibilities 
of human regnancy. One man has looked hell in the 
face and stayed undaunted. One man has peered over 
the gulf where suns are swinging and unmade stars 
light up the dusk, and yet retained the happy sanity 



[Jan. 1, 

of our common life. He returned from his Tartarean 
journey lifting to the unseen heaven the great, glad cry 
of ultimate obedience. Therefore will we not despair, 
nor wish one thorn the less had sprung before his feet. 
We are the stronger for his pain; his long conflict 
helps to make our calm. For very shame we dare not 
skulk nor loiter now; and whither Stevenson has gone, 
there do we, in our poor halting fashion, seek the way." 

Few readers, even though they be Steven- 
sonians, will close this book without realizing 
anew the truth of the old charge that Stevenson 
has been overpraised. Some of his critics have 
loved him so well that they have judged him ill. 
Yet it is not inevitable that the personal affec- 
tion which Stevenson alone of the writers of our 
day knew how to inspire should result in loss 
of critical balance. It is possible to feel all the 
charm of his marvellous style, so imitative and 
yet so unique, and still be incredulous when 
Dr.Watson says, " We judge that our master 
will go to the high table and sit down with 
Virgil and Shakespeare and Goethe and 
Scott." And in the picturesquely erratic wan- 
derer we may be content to recognize some- 
thing less than a guide, and yet be blind to 
none of the beautiful spectacle of his life and 
death. ]yj^ j^ 

Rkcext Fiction.* 

Mr. Crawford's new novel, " The Heart of 
Rome," makes the usual presentation of those 
types of Roman society that have been so fre- 
quently limned by the author as to become very 
familiar to us. There is the wealthy Baron Vol- 
terra, banker and politician, whose past is too shady 
to bear investigation, and his wife, whose one desire 
is to obtain admission into the charmed circle of the 
aristocracy. Then there is the dowager Princess 
Conti, with all the faults and prejudices of the older 
generation, and her daughter Sabina, in whose 
sincerity and simple strength the younger genera- 
tion is most charmingly typified. This exquisite 
creature makes a highly engaging heroine for the 

* The Heart of Rome. A Tale of the " Lost Water." By 
Francis Marion Crawford. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

The Strange Adventures op Mr. Midoleton. By 
Wardon Allan Curtis. Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

When 1 Was Czar. A Romance. By Arthur W. March- 
moDt. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer. A Romance of the 
Spanish Main. By Cyrus Townsend Brady. New York: 
Q. W. Dillingham Co. 

Hesper. By Hanilin Garland. New York: Harper & Bros. 

The Web. By Frederick Trevor Hill. New York : 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 

The Beaten Path. By Richard Lawrence Makin. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

The Mills of Man. By Philip Payne. Chicago : Rand, 
MoNally & Co. 

romance ; the hero is found in a man of resolution 
and intellectual power, by birth an aristocrat, but 
by choice a republican, an engineer, and an arcbse- 
ologist. So much for the personnel of the story. 
The substance is provided by the search for a treas- 
ure asserted by legend to be hidden beneath the 
foundations of the Palazzo Conti, and by the danger 
offered to such a search by the " lost water *' which 
flows beneath many Roman buildings, and for which 
arcbseologists have never been able satisfactorily to 
account. In the course of the story, the treasure 
is discovered, and turns out to consist of two ancient 
statues of priceless value. When the discoverer 
takes the heroine to see what he has unearthed, the 
" lost water " floods the passages through which 
they have entered, and threatens both with death 
from starvation. By working almost to the point 
of exhaustion, the hero breaks open a way of escape, 
and both lives are saved. This problem solved, the 
social problem must next be grappled with, for the 
situation has been a horribly compromising one in the 
eyes of the world, and the reputation of the heroine 
is sure to be lost if the fact ever becomes known. 
There are other complications which we have not 
space to consider, but will simply state that all 
difficulties are in the end cleared away. It is even 
more enjoined upon us to say that the story is sur- 
prisingly interesting — far more so than anything 
else that Mr. Crawford has done of late years, — 
and this for the very reason that he has in a meas- 
ure left bis well-beaten track, and centred his 
new novel about a situation which is both freshly- 
conceived and ingeniously contrived. 

"The New Arabian Nights" has evidently served 
as a model for "The Strange Adventures of Mr. 
Middleton," by Mr. Wardon Allan Curtis. Mr. 
Middleton is a young clerk in a lawyer's office who 
is found one rainy night on South Clark Street, 
Chicago, carrying back to the emporium of Mr. 
Marks Cohen the dress-suit which he has recently 
rented from that obliging Hebrew for the purpose 
of taking part in a certain social function. Taking 
refuge from the rain in a shop which he happens 
to be passing, he is invited within, and there makes 
the acquaintance of the hereditary emir of the tribe 
of Al-Yam. This engaging Oriental has come to 
America to mingle with the Feringhis in order to 

Over the Border. By Robert Barr. New York: 
Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

The Baronet in Corduroy. By Albert Lee. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Hetty Wesley. By A. T. Quiller-Couch. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

Barbe of Grand Bayou. By John Oxenham. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Stella Fregelius. A Tale of Three Destinies. By 
H. Rider Haggard. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Doctor Xavier. By Max Pemberton. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 

The Masterfolk. By Haldane MaeFall. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

The Relentless City. By E. F. Benson. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 




collect some new stories for the entertainment of 
his royal master, who had got tired of the old <' tales 
of genii and magicians, of enchantments and spells, 
devils, dragons, and rocs." He has learned many 
strange things during his "Western sojourn, and is 
confident that the Arabian potentate will be much 
impressed by their interest and novelty. But he 
thinks it wise to try them upon someone else as a 
preliminary, and invites his new acquaintance to 
play the part of sympathetic listener. This is the 
framework which serves to connect a most surprising 
series of adventures, recounted from night to night 
in the Clark Street shop. The stories show a fresh- 
ness of invention and a sense of humor much out of 
the common, and we could wish that there were 
many more of them. In the end, the emir becomes 
enamoured of an American maiden whom he has 
met at Green Lake, Wisconsin, and in consequence 
renounces his country, his religion, and his leanings 
toward polygamy, joins the Presbyterian Church, 
and becomes united to the object of his affections. 
Through his generosity, young Mr. Middleton is 
enabled to marry a young woman of Englewood 
upon whom his heart has long been set, and all ends 
happily, save for the Arabian potentate who thus 
loses his chance of being regaled with the choice in- 
ventions of our author. But this loss is our gain, and 
we cannot be expected to have more than a shadowy 
sort of sympathy for this modern Shahriyar. 

" When I Was Czar," by Mr. Arthur W. March- 
mont, is a story and nothing else. It is, moreover, 
a highly sensational story, made up of nihilist plots, 
and court intrigues, and ambushes, and murders. 
The hero is an American of magnificent " nerve," 
and the heroine is a wronged Russian princess whose 
champion and deliverer he becomes. Mr. March- 
mont has in this case indulged himself in a more 
extravagant invention than heretofore, and has cast 
aside all pretence of tolerable diction. The book is 
one that has no conceivable relations with literature, 
yet we must admit that as a story its interest is 
fairly absorbing. 

The history of "Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer " 
provides a stirring subject for the latest romance 
from the Rev. Cyrus Townsend Brady's prolific pen. 
The story is concerned with the final phase of Mor- 
gan's life, when the death of Charles II. in 1685 
loses him his governorship of Jamaica, and he goes 
buccaneering again. The author has taken great 
liberties with history, which are perhaps justified by 
his romantic ends. He gives us, for once, a tale 
that has a Spanish gentleman for its hero, and the 
change from the long succession of Spanish villains 
is both welcome and historically just. In the char- 
acter of Morgan, we have a real pirate, a composite 
study from many documents, about whom there is 
no glamour save that of resourcefulness and reck- 
less daring. 

Mr. Garland's "Hesper" tells the story of a 
young woman, bred to the life of society in the 
narrow and ignoble sense, and profoundly dissatis- 
fied with it, yet seeing no way of escape from its 

deadening influences, until a happy chance sends 
her to the far West — to the mountains and the 
mining-camp. The needs of a young brother, in 
delicate health, bring about this change of scene, 
and then begins for her a process of regeneration 
which is destined eventually to vitalize her interests 
and strengthen her character. At first she revolts 
against the bitter necessity of contact with the rude 
manners of the frontier, and of association with 
people whose breezy energy and primitive good 
temper are not sufficient to atone to her for their 
lack of what she has hitherto called cultivation. 
Meanwhile, the sickly younger brother — a genuine 
and lovable boy, albeit more slangy than was really 
necessary to make him convincing — takes to the 
new life like a duck to water, and the sister finds it 
impossible either to leave him or to take him home 
with her. The hero is introduced at an early stage 
in the story, being presented as the foreman of a 
ranch to begin with, and afterwards as an adventurer 
in the uncertain game of mining. He has upon him 
the shadow of a mysterious past, and is equipped in 
the present with most engaging qualities of courage, 
resolution, and downright manliness. As the story 
nears its climax, it becomes the record of a strike 
in the mining-camps, and the author holds his scales 
with judicial balance, recognizing the rights and the 
wrongs of both parties to the conflict. He also suc- 
ceeds in making the narrative one of breathless ex- 
citement, without resorting to sensational devices. 
The romantic outcome is what the reader has a 
right to expect, and he closes the book with the sense 
of having assisted in a dramatic spectacle, and at 
the same time of having witnessed a consistent de- 
velopment of character in the case of the heroine, 
at least, if not in that of the hero. We do not hes- 
itate to say that " Hesper " represents the best work 
that Mr. Garland has done ; in it he has sloughed 
off most of his earlier defects of thought and expres- 
sion ; his asperities have become softened, and his 
rawness has undergone a transformation into some- 
thing very like urbanity. And all this evolution 
has been accomplished without any diminution of 
the earnestness and the energy which first directed 
attention to him as a writer. It is a far cry from 
" Main- Travelled Roads " to the present voliAne, it 
seems almost too far to be accounted for by a mere 
matter of fifteen years. 

" The Web," by Mr. Frederick Trevor Hill, is a 
novel which takes us into the thick of American 
business life, the region in which unscrupulous cor- 
porate interests, legal chicanery, and corrupt poli- 
tics are inextricably interwoven. Such is " the web" 
which we are called upon to disentangle. A divorce 
suit and a murder provide interests of a more pri- 
vate nature. All this material is skilfully combined 
into a story that moves logically from point to point, 
and is told most successfully from the constructive 
point of view. It is intensely real, if not exactly 
inspiring, and the types of character presented are 
faithful studies from the life. Such fiction as this 
is the inevitable product of such a civilization as 



[Jan. 1, 

we now boast; it certainly fulfils the purpose of 
holding the mirror up to nature as it is here and now, 
and exhibiting the form and pressure of the time in 
which our lot is cast. 

In " The Beaten Path " by Mr. Richard Lawrence 
Makin, a new writer whose further acquaintance we 
shall hope to make, a path of invention is chosen 
which, if not already " beaten," is by way of becoming 
so. The story is of labor, capital, and politics, of 
fraudulent company promotion on the one hand, 
and of the rising tide of socialism on the other. Yet 
we fancy that the intention of the author in selecting 
bis title was rather to emphasize those private rela- 
tions between men and women which served fiction 
for a beaten path long before the political and social 
issues of the present day came into the foreground 
of our life. Be this as it may, Mr. Makin has given 
us a novel of unusual strength and interest, informed 
by high ideals of public and private morality, yet 
by no means taking the form of a sermon explicitly 
formulated. As a study of political corruption, the 
scene of the novel is very fittingly placed in what is 
probably the most corrupt of the American Com- 
monwealths. The Leverson Car Works, about which 
the story centres, are situated in one of the smaller 
cities of Pennsylvania, and the formation of the 
" trust " of which they are the basis affords a con- 
venient opportunity for illuminating the methods of 
modern finance and politics alike. All this serious 
matter is skilfully interwoven with a skein of com- 
plex personal interests that excite the sympathies to 
an unusual degree, and lead up to a climax which, if 
a trifle melodramatic, supplies the arch with a most 
effective keystone. There are half a dozen or more 
studies of character drawn with singular firmness 
of hand, and offering types of strongly contrasted 
interest. Altogether, the performance is an exceed- 
ingly creditable one, and we congratulate the author 
upon a highly successful first book. 

Another first book is "The Mills of Man," by 
Mr. Philip Payne, a brother of Mr. Will Payne, 
who already has several good books to his credit. 
This work, like the one just mentioned, is steeped 
in actuality, and presents a picture of present-day 
politics which is almost brutal in its realism. It 
■combines a political struggle for the reelection of a 
Republican Senator from Illinois, as well as for the 
Slate ticket, with a corrupt scheme for obtaining 
franchise control over the public utilities of Chicago. 
All the principal types of politician are represented, 
— the city boss, the free silver demagogue, the 
foxy old-timer, and the wealthy aspirant for public 
honors. The reformer also appears, but only in 
unworthy caricature, and the mention of his activ- 
ities always provokes a sneer and leaves a disa- 
greeable impression. Mr. Payne's political figures 
are not portraits of existing individuals, but com- 
posites in which we recognize now one, now another, 
of the men who have recently played conspicuous 
parts in the politics of Illinois and Chicago. A 
great deal of the book is jargon — it could not deal 
truthfully with its subject were it written in pol- 

ished English — but the author is capable at need 
of a dignified and impressive form of speech, as in 
the following passage, which illustrates the reflec- 
tions of a cultivated woman spectator upon a scene 
in the State Convention. The advocates of free 
silver have made a strong showing under the lead- 
ership of the Governor of Illinois, in whose figure 
one may easily recognize some, at least, of the char- 
acteristics of the late Mr. Altgeld. " Who were 
nobler, those men of riches in the cities, with their 
loose morals, their cynical contempts, their concep- 
tion of the world as an exchange to make profits in 
and as a mart to buy sensual luxuries in, or those 
country lawyers and unpolished yeomen, morally 
austere, who cherished in this corrupt day the eth- 
ical ideals of the high Anglo-Saxon race, and who 
were animated now by a vision of Justice enthroned 
and human brotherhood become an institution ? 
Mrs. Corlis poignantly suspected in her soul that 
the dream of these men might be the authentic 
modern vision of the weal of Saint Augustine's 
Civitas Dei, the City of God." A few such gleams 
of idealism light up the pages of Mr. Payne's book 
here and there, and give heart to the reader well- 
nigh disheartened by an exhibition of greedy and 
selfish motives that he must sadly recognize as only 
too truthful. 

Mr. Barr's " Over the Border " is a straight- 
forward historical romance of the Long Parliament 
and the Civil War. Strafford and Cromwell are the 
leading figures, as far as the history is concerned, 
and the romance is supplied by a daughter of the 
attainted Earl and a venturesome Scottish free 
lance. The intrigues of Charles with his Scottish 
allies are at the basis of the action, which relates 
mainly to a mission sent by the latter to the King 
at Oxford to obtain legal warrant for their partici- 
pation in his cause. Hero and heroine make the 
perilous journey in company, and the outcome is 
what the seasoned novel reader expects. Mr. Barr 
does not slobber over his work, as is the wont of 
many writers of this sort of fiction, but gives us a 
clean-cut and logically-developed narrative, which 
economically adjusts the means to the ends, and 
exhibits trained craftmanship at every point. 

Mr. Albert Lee, in writing "The Baronet in 
Corduroy," has deserted the romantic times of 
Spanish rule in the Netherlands for the compara- 
tively prosaic life of England at the close of the 
seventeenth century. The Stuart plot to invade 
England provides a certain element of romance to 
the narrative, which is otherwise concerned with the 
debtor's prison, the gossip of the coffee-houses, and 
the follies of fashionable society. The baronet in 
corduroy is a reckless and dissipated noble who 
wastes his substance in gambling and debauchery, 
yet contrives by superficial qualities of grace and 
heroism to win the love of a pure-souled country 
maiden, the heiress to a large fortune. The mar- 
riage, the miseries that follow, and the subsequent 
release of the heroine from an abhorred union make 
up the substance of the story, which is of only 




average qaality, and in no way particularly note- 

A novel that verges close upon history is pro- 
vided by Mr. A. T. Quiller-Couch in his " Hetty 
Wesley." The heroine is the wayward sister of 
John and Charles Wesley, and the story of her life, 
as told largely in the family letters, is profoundly 
moving. As the story progresses, we become in- 
timately acquainted, not only with the unfortunate 
Hetty, but also with all the other members of the 
remarkable household to which she belonged until 
driven forth for her sin by a stern parent. The 
author handles his theme with delicate sympathy, 
and is remarkably successful in imparting vitality 
to his scenes and characters. 

" Barbe of Grand Bayou," by Mr, John Oxenham, 
is a story of the Breton coast. A young woman 
and her morose father live together in a lighthouse. 
The girl has grown up with no other human com- 
panionship, and promptly falls in love with a youth 
whom one day she happens to rescue from the boil- 
ing waters. Presently a rival appears, who con- 
trives to put the favored lover out of the way by 
hurling him into a cavern. Incidentally, the rival 
falls in himself, breaks most of his bones, and dies 
a lingering death. His victim, on the other hand, 
survives, lives for some weeks among the stalactites, 
eats rock-doves and their eggs, has a desperate fight 
with a devilfish, and finally attracts the attention 
of his friends by contriving a sort of torch which 
he thrusts through a cleft in his prison-walls. No 
sooner is he rescued than he is charged with the 
murder of his rival, who, it will be remembered, 
had disappeared on the same day with his victim. 
When finally acquitted through evidence unearthed 
by his friends, and by the aid of a brilliant Parisian 
advocate, he marries the girl, and the story ends. 
It is a thrilling sort of tale, related with the author's 
keen sense of dramatic and picturesque effect, al- 
ready well-proved by his previous romances. The 
devil-fish episode is a little too obviously imitated 
from Hugo, but what is the poor novelist to do if 
all the good situations are debarred him by the fact 
of their having been used before? 

Mr. Rider Haggard has strayed far from the 
wonted paths of his invention in the composition of 
"Stella Fregelius." Here we have no fantastic rec- 
ord of adventures in strange lands, but a story of sim- 
ple English life, made romance by investment with 
an air of mysticism. The hero is a dreamer whose 
dreams receive practical embodiment in an invention 
called the aerophone, which is an application of 
Marconi telegraphy to the telephone. Circumstances 
of a very natural and material sort lead him to 
marry a practical, domestic, sweet-tempered English 
girl, a creature of flesh and blood as distinctly as he 
is a creature of the spirit. The heroine proper is a 
maiden of Norse ancestry whose life he rescues from 
shipwreck (in a literal sense). She is a somewhat 
uncanny person endowed with something in the 
nature of second sight. Becoming the real com- 
panion of his life (although in all purity), she is 

tragically taken from him. He broods over her 
death, and seeks by force of concentrated will to 
summon her spirit back into his existence. In other 
words, he deliberately cultivates a morbid tendency, 
and the hallucination for which he yearns is finally 
vouchsafed him. Ideally, this means the accom- 
plishment of bis desire ; practically, it means that 
he becomes insane, and dies of an overwrought 
condition of cerebral excitement. The story is 
developed with considerable skill, but Mr. Haggard 
does not know how to join his visions with his facts. 
Realism and Spiritualism stand side by side through- 
out the work but remain ever incongruous and dis- 
united. Perhaps we can best express our meaning 
in this criticism by saying that the author needs the 
peculiar power displayed by Bulwer in "Zmoni" 
and " A Strange Story," and unfortunately does 
not possess a whit thereof. He attempts what is to 
a writer of his temperament and matter-of-fact 
imagination the impossible, and thus fails to produce 
the desired effect. 

There is a strain of mysticism, mingled with much 
sensuous and dramatic material, in Mr. Max Pem- 
berton's " Doctor Xivier." In one aspect, the 
writer seems to have emulated so cheap a model as 
Mr. Boothby's Doctor Nikola; in another, the pro- 
totype of his fiction seems to have been the sort of 
romance which we view in " The Prisoner of Z-nda" 
and its numerous literary progeny. The malign 
purpose of Doctor Xavier is to gain control of a 
petty Spanish principality on the Pyrennean border; 
be seeks to accomplish this end through the medium 
of an innocent young woman upon whom he exerts 
a semi-hypnotic iiifluence, but who in the end escapes 
from his toils' and thwarts his villainy. The story 
cannot be taken seriously from any literary point 
of view. 

"The Masterfolk," by Mr. Haldane Mac Fall, is 
a depiction of Bohemian life in London and Paris 
which seems at the start to have the makings of a 
capital story. Until we get half-way into the book, 
or thereabouts, there is variety of incident and ac- 
tion, and the unfolding of a pietty plot. Then the 
author seems to lose his grip, the narrative becomes 
disjointed and chaotic, and we get callow philosophy 
in the place of dramatic vigor. Toward the end, we 
fairly lose our way in a moi ass of incoherent ravinjjs, 
and the story vanishes clean out of sight. Mr. 
MacFall should beware of fine writing ; he has in this 
instance suffered ignominious defeat for attempting 
it. He should aho cultivate compression, for he is 
garrulous beyond endurance. The title of the novel 
is a Nietzschian suggestion, we may add by way 
of explanation. 

We thought that Mr. Benson had lived down the 
memory of " Dodo." Certainly he has made a 
strenuous effort to do so, and he showed himself to 
be made of sterner stuff when he chose the war of 
Greek independence for the subject of two excep- 
tionally strong novels. But his latent novel, although 
far from being the mere froth of his first early 
indiscretion, shows him still beset by the temptation 



[Jan. 1, 

to tarn oat sparkling epigrams, and to make the 
daily intercoarse of average mortals an exchange of 
labored repartee. It is called " The Relentless 
City," and the reason thereof is a mystery. A part 
of the story is placed in New York, and that metrop- 
olis is pictured as an insatiate monster which makes 
exhausting demands upon the vitality of its denizens. 
If this be the explanation, the title is badly forced, 
but we can suggest no other. Mr. Benson's mental 
attitude toward things American is curious. He 
seems to have spent a few weeks among us, and to 
have seen the sort of things that are usually seen by 
the properly accredited visiting Englishman. He 
writes of society ( in the vulgar sense) in New York 
and Newport, and depicts it as the pursuit of hollow 
joys by persons of unbounded wealth. Of American 
life, properly speaking, he seems to know absolutely 
nothing. But in dealing with the phases he has seen 
(or perhaps only imagined), he exhibits a singular 
striving to be sympathetic, if patronizing, and then 
undoes all his efforts by indulgence in a kind of 
caricature more grotesque than was ever imagined 
by Dickens. His English types bear, of course, some 
resemblance to life, although even that is marred 
by the sort of conventional literary glitter with which 
he feels bound to invest them. There is a good deal 
of writing in the book that is merely slovenly, and 
there is no constructive art worth speaking of. We 
cannot congratulate Mr. Benson upon his latest 
performance. William Morton Payne. 


" The Ambassadors " (Harper) is one of the longest, 
if not the very longest, novel Mr. Henry James has yet 
written. It is in something of his earlier manner, — 
his earlier manner, that is, with all the keenness of 
analysis his superior age and all the subtlety of treat- 
ment his advancing art make possible. His style is 
less involved here than in other comparatively recent 
writings of his, yet it is far too intricate to permit the 
conscientious reader any of the delights of skipping with 
the possibility of understanding all that happens after 
the break. The two most engaging characters in the 
book are those of an elderly man who regards himself 
as a failure because he is merely the editor of a very 
minor magazine published through the money of an 
elderly widow who is interested in him, and of a gentle- 
woman courier whom he meets in England while on his 
way to France to extricate the son of the widow from 
an entanglement with an altogether enchanting French- 
woman. It will be seen that in such an argument 
Mr. James has abundant room for the display of his 
finest qualities, and "The Ambassadors" will no doubt 
rank with bis more notable achievements. 

Once granting that no such character as Mr. Alfred 
Henry Lewis has drawn for the title role in " The Boss " 
(Barnes) could by any possibility talk or write in the 
language assigned him — a shrewd mixture of the Tudor 
translator and the western cowboy, — we must recog- 
nize in the story an interesting and accurate study of a 
modern human phenomenon, and one of the most artis- 

tically conceived and executed works of fiction among 
the number of similar books recently published. From 
a street boy the " Boss " becomes the arbiter of the 
destinies of the city of New York. Mr. Lewis points 
out, far too clearly to admit of misunderstanding, that 
it is only through intimate alliance with the so-called 
" best element " in the community that the boss is per- 
mitted to thrive as a licensed land-pirate. The moral 
element of the tale, above and beyond the sordidness of 
the chief character and his associates in crime against 
the body politic, is to be found in the retribution which 
follows him through life, inflicted in the bosom of his 
family as an indirect result of bis iniquity, though never 
consciously accepted by him as such. 

Another political boss — in Philadelphia this time — 
figures in " The Chasm " (Appleton), a book written 
by Messrs. Reginald Wright Kauffman and Edward 
Childs Carpenter. Here, again, one has to make allow- 
ances, for the authors assume that a shrewd Irishman 
is foolish enough to think that an education begun in 
private American schools and rounded out at Oxford 
and by continental travel will fit his only son to take up 
his political power and carry it from municipal bossism 
into international statesmanship. The failure of the 
experiment is as complete as it is inevitable; though 
this is the engineering feat by which the chasm between 
the Irish boss and an American girl of mature age and 
excellent position is finally bridged. There is much 
movement in the story. 

The passing of the Mississippi steamboat as the dic- 
tator of transportation, and the coming into power of 
the railway, form the theme of " Tennessee Todd " 
(Barnes), which Mr. G. W. Ogdeu rightly describes in 
his sub-title as " A Novel of the Great River." The 
potentate of the steamboat trade and the coming rail- 
way magnate are partners. Fair warning is given of 
the passing of the power of the river boat when the 
partnership is dissolved, but a losing fight is promptly 
begun and persisted in with all the eventual ferocity of 
a fixed idea. The son of the railway man and the 
daughter of the steamboat man fall in love; and the 
young, uncontrolled, but essentially womanly young 
person who gives title to the book adds her mite to the 
other asperities of the situation to keep its course from 
running smooth. Mr. Ogdeu records a chapter in na- 
tional development that is being rapidly forgotten, and 
does it acceptably and with forcefulness. 

While it is the catching of the masculine affections 
" on the rebound " that gives its name to Miss Mary 
Moss's "A Sequence in Hearts" (Lippincott), and the 
story is mainly interesting as a study of psychology in 
love among Philadelphians of the better class, there is 
a real comprehension of the problems presented by 
monopoly and labor that has more than ordinary perti- 
nence at this time, the scene of the conflicting interests 
being the anthracite fields of Pennsylvania. One of the 
characters in the book — and the most engaging of its 
masculine figures — is the owner of a mine, and he 
purposes settling his differences with his men without 
interference from his fellow-operators. The book can 
be read not only for the interest of its story, but also 
for the actual information it contains, evidently based 
as it is on first-hand knowledge. 

Four short stories make up Mrs. Mary Hallock 
Foote's volume entitled " A Touch of Sun, and Other 
Stories" (Houghton), and all are done with that exact 
touch and cleverness which have so long been accredited 
to this acceptable writer. They are tales of life on the 




Pacific side of the Great Divide, and interpret the vari- 
ance in character which gives California and its people 
so mnch of individuality among the states of the Union. 
The first of them, the story that lends its name to the 
volume, is admirably made up of a semi-tropical back- 
ground before which, in a semi-tropical atmosphere, is 
enacted a tale of love, with the young man a fine pro- 
duct of all that is best in the ordered life of New En- 
gland and the young woman all that is different on the 
other edge of the continent. The second story, " Pil- 
grims to Mecca," presents a similar contrast between 
East and West; and the two others, while not variants 
on the same theme, are filled with keen knowledge and 
analysis of character. 

From such work as this to Miss Frances Parker's 
"Marjie of the Lower Ranch" (C. M. Clark Co.) 
implies the passing from polite and clever comedy to 
melodrama, pure and simple. Marjie is a nice young 
girl who is manifestly out of place on a western ranch 
among the mountains. Not far from her dwells an out- 
law, who is still guardian for the grown son of a friend 
who has gone to his reward. There are ensuing mys- 
teries, and the course of true love is sadly cluttered with 
many things. But it all comes right in the denouement. 
The book is interesting, though sensational. 

Mrs. Harriet Prescott Spofford's "That Betty" 
(Revell) is a pretty little story of a humbly circum- 
stanced New England girl, written with a more direct 
appeal to other young girls than to the general public. 
It has humor, pathos, self-sacrifice, and the eventual 
reward in its pages, and is genre work of the better 
sort, with a moral lesson not too obtrusively dragged 
into the main current of events. Such love as is shown 
here, like faith, will move mountains, and every diffi- 
culty of life, present, past, and to come, would disappear 
before it as the world's one alcahest. 

The ravings of insanity fill most of the pages of 
Mr. Horace Mann's «' The World-Destroyer " (Lucas- 
Lincoln Co.), its protagonist being a rich young man 
who has conceived himself to be the Emperor of the 
World. In the course of his more public demonstra- 
tion of his qualifications for the office he is confined in 
a mad-house, and there his book is supposed to be writ- 
ten. As the lucid intervals are in no way designated, 
it is impossible for the reader to separate fact from 
frenzy, and the book is none the less morbid because 
the young man is desperately in love. 

The charm of such a community (of course with due 
allowance for differences of time and country) as Gray 
depicted in his " Elegy " is in Mrs. .Margaret Deland's 
" Dr. Lavendar's People " (Harper), a book of char- 
acter sketches of real literary refinement. The kindly 
old clergyman, rector of the most human of parishes, 
acts as the deus ex machind for all the adversities which 
untoward circumstance and mortal frailty can inflict 
upon his parishioners, — boys and girls, men and women. 
This interposition of the wise and kindly old man en- 
ables Mrs. Deland to spiritualize every one of the six 
novelettes which make up the volume, and leaves it a 
book to be admired on every account. 

The old Indiana road that ended at Fort Dearborn 
gives title to "On the We-a Trail" (Macmillan), in 
which Mrs. Caroline Atwater Brown tells the tale of 
whites and Indians during the second war of indepen- 
dence, and tells it with a knowledge of and sympathy 
for the aborigines which gives it a place by itself. Their 
actual savagery is never minified ; but its causes, so often 
springing from rivalries among European nations and 

white Americans, are also detailed, and one is permitted 
to see that they are quite as human as their lighter 
skinned brethren. Especially well-drawn is the char- 
acter of the old French priest, while an Indian maiden 
preserves something of the Pocahontas tradition. The 
romantic atmosphere of the narrative is finely rendered, 
and the book one of sustained strength. 

Coming down a long generation to a scene geograph- 
ically proximate, Mr. Charles Major has written " A 
Forest Hearth" (Macmillan) in the somewhat saccha- 
rine manner he has done so much to make his own. 
His people live in Indiana in the third or fourth decade 
of the last century, the real hero of the narrative being 
an excellent English gentleman, exiled by an unhappy 
love, who is the keeper of the general store in the little 
settlement. The pretty young girl who grows up under 
his fostering protection, which shields her against a 
mother with a hypertrophied sense of justice, is far 
more sensible than her youthful lover, who allows him- 
self to be shot at twice from behind by his deadly rival 
and mortal enemy. It is a book which will be read 
for its profusion of sentiment, and admired by the 
judicious for its almost forgotten background of semi- 
rustic life long ago. 

The curious reversal of process which turns a dra- 
matic work into a romance or a romantic history, the 
annals of literature pointing all in the other direction, 
is responsible for Mr. Justin Huntly McCarthy's " The 
Proud Prince " (Russell), a novel based on the play 
lately written for Mr. E. H. Sothern. The practice of 
this phase of fictional art seems too slight to permit of 
results truly literary, and the story remains essentially 
dramatic. This latter effect is heightened by the use of 
reproduced photographs of the characters in the drama 
as illustrations for the book, thus emphasizing the dif- 
ferences between stage conventions and the art of the 
illustrator, just as the text serves to show the differ- 
ences between the convention of the play and of the 
romance. The product seems illegitimate in a real 
sense, much as if sculpture and painting had been com- 
bined in a single work to produce a given effect, one 
deriving directly from the other. The play was inter- 
esting, the book is readable yet not artistic. 

The Rev. Joseph Hocking, like his brother the Rev. 
Silas K. Hocking, has a mighty following in Great 
Britain as a writer of pious romance. His newest 
book, "A Flame of Fire" (Revell), is a story simple 
enough in both conception and execution. Its action 
takes place in the spacious times of Queen Elizabeth, 
just previous to the sailing of the Great Armada. 
Three men set out from England to rescue from Span- 
ish hands the kinswoman of one and the former love of 
another of the trio. These doughty heretics defy and 
put to scorn not only the dreaded Inquisition, — con- 
ducted on this occasion by the Jesuits, — but Philip 
himself. The corpus upon a wonder-working crucifix 
performs a miracle to save the English party, and, of 
course, it all comes right in the end. 

The short stories that make up the contents of Mr. 
W. W. Jacobs's " Odd Craft " (Scribner) are in some- 
thing of the author's best manner, though less related 
to the sea and those who go down into it in ships than 
any of his former writings. He deals with the lower 
classes with the same inimitable humor that has char- 
acterized all of his work, his turn of thought and play 
of light fancy bringing a chuckle with almost every 
paragraph. Mr. Jacobs delights in situations almost 
picaresque, and the ne'er-do-well with a genius for 



[Jan. 1, 

roguery plays no small part in the fourteen tales that 
conapose the present volume. The admirable illustra- 
tions of Mr. Will Owen are almost as mirth-provoking 
as the text. 

Miss Una L. Silberrad has a touch in fiction per- 
fectly secure, and her new and strangely-named novel, 
»« Petronilla Herroven " (Doubleday, Page & Co.), is 
additional proof of the fact. Her present theme, as in 
previous books, is unusual, and her characters original. 
A young girl of uncertain parentage and humble cir- 
cumstances is insulted by a wealthy and influential man 
who later procures her dismissal by her putative father's 
mother. Self-contained from childhood, Petronilla goes 
slowly on to her revenge until her utterly unscrupulous 
enemy decides upon her murder. Here a higher fate 
interposes, and with security comes love and abundant 
compensations for earlier unhappiness. The book is 
vividly written, yet with restraint, and is fairly fasci- 
nating in its developments. It leaves, moreover, a faith- 
ful impression of English village life, touching with 
fidelity upon several social grades in humbler life. 

" Wanted — A W^ife, By A. Bachelor" (D. V. Wien 
& Co.) is not exactly fiction, though the teller of the 
story is something of a hero. His desire is for a life- 
partner who shall be above everything else womanly. 
In nominating his ideal he tramples on the toes of most 
of the modern prejudices in favor of sexual equality, 
and contrives to hit at both mankind and womankind, 
as they flourish to-day, with fine impartiality. " Men 
who are considered intelligent have not a single original 
thought," he remarks; "their conversation reproduces 
with more or less exactness the contents of their news- 
papers, and one is startled to see how many people who 
should know how to think for themselves have lost all 
initiative in the working of their mental apparatus." 
There are pages of this sort of thing; but the book is 
dull, and it will be finished with the conclusion that, 
after all, "A. Bachelor" deserves as his reward that 
English ideal: a stupid wife. 

A cruise in the Caribbean Sea is the motive of 
Mr. F. Frankfort Moore's " Shipmates in Sunshine " 
(Appleton), which may be described as a book of 
travel fictionized by the introduction of four or five 
little romances among the writer's fellow-passengers. 
There is thus an opportunity to describe the various 
islands of the West Indies where landings were made, 
with their people and habits and manners as seen in 
this casual way. The book must have been a pleasant 
one to write, and its equable tale of sunny days and 
balmy climes is certainly pleasant to read. 

In "The Strife of the Sea" (Baker & Taylor Co.) 
Mr. T. Jenkins Hains undertakes to do for the denizens 
of the sea and its shores what Mr. Ernest Thompson 
Seton has done for land animals and their human 
hunters and companions. He does it in practically the 
same manner, also, and seems to find it easy to assign 
a fairly human psychology to pelicans, penguins, and 
albatrosses on one side, and to rorquals, loggerhead 
turtles, sharks, albicore, and the giant rays or devil- 
fish on the other. Most of the stories deal with man- 
kind as well, but the essential thing is the sea bird, 
cetacean, or huge fish which he has described. As the 
inhabitants of the waters and their shores are predatory 
in the extreme, there is slaughter and to spare through- 
out the book, though lives are saved almost as often 
as they are lost. The book is striking, and in subject 
matter — though not in treatment — is sufficiently orig- 

Bkiefs on New Books. 

In his recent Huxley Memorial Lee- 
S7C&. t"'^^' Professor Karl Pearson lays 

each stress on the importance of 
heredity as to discourage belief in the influence of 
environment and in the efficacy of individual exer- 
tion toward self-improvement. Bishop Spalding, 
in his "Glimpses of Truth" (McCiurg), preaches 
the contrary doctrine, holding that what man " has 
produced within himself transcends, directs, and con- 
trols that which is born in him "; and consequently 
that " in law, in medicine, and in the ministry, the 
greatest students, not the greatest talents, reach the 
summit." In literature, he adds, education and 
endless pains take the precedence of rude genius. 
This hopeful view, not only of the certainty of free- 
will, but of its infinite power of accomplishment, 
gives its helpful and inspiring character to the 
whole book. Yet the author seems to contradict 
himself when, emphasizing the vanity of things 
earthly, he says, *' Mankind would be much what 
they are had their heroes never lived." Surely, he 
cannot mean that the real heroes of progress and 
reform have left no mark on the race. Although 
he returns again and again to the all-importance of 
the inner life, of study and meditation, he counsels 
us to refrain from analyzing our knowledge and 
our faith. But he must admit that to a thoughtful 
man that is not knowledge which cannot stand the 
test of analysis, and none but a reasoned faith can 
gain his acceptance. Indeed, only seven pages fur- 
ther on he writes : " They who think are the only 
noblemen. They are the masters of all they know, 
have overcome what they understand." This little 
book, of about the size of the " Imitatio Christi," 
contains frequent reminders of Thomas k Kempis, 
who might well have written such a sentence as 
this : " If thou art censured, examine thy conscience ; 
if praised, believe it flattery"; or this: "Thy vir- 
tues are all the more real the less thou thinkest of 
them ; but thy vices thou canst not study too assidu- 
ously." Now and then occurs an aphorism sug- 
gestive of Emerson. " Consistency is a virtue of 
the unprogressive," recalls the " hobgoblin of little 
minds." That our philosopher is no mere dreamer 
is proved by his daily life, as well as by his valued 
service on the late Anthracite Strike Commission; 
and his book is all the better for this. 

. , . , J One of the most interesting and in- 

A patriot and w« »^ « , , ,. c uv 

jiuancier of structive of the lives of our public 

the Bevoiuiion. ^g^ jg ^]^^^ which has been newly told 
by Dr. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer in his volume en- 
titled "Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier" 
(Macmillan). The important part that Morris 
played in the desperate conditions of our Revolu- 
tionary struggle is not generally appreciated ; to 
many his name is not even known. In several 
textbooks the reviewer finds no mention of his 
name, and in others no mention is made of the 
great part that he took in the emergencies of 




the war. But one biography of Morris has been 
previously written, the small volume by Professor 
Sumner, who could not obtain the privilege of using 
Morris's papers in the preparation of his book. 
These papers have now been purchased by the 
government, and Mr. Oberholtzer's book has been 
written mainly from these and from other materials 
found in Philadelphia. It is a thorough piece of 
work, and the story of Morrid's life is told in an 
interesting way, though it is so full of dramatic 
contrast as well as of historical value that it could 
not be uninteresting in any hands. The publishers 
have given the work a most appropriate and taste- 
ful dress; in paper, binding, illustrations, and index, 
it is thoroughly satisfactory. The life of Robert 
Morris is typically American. A poor boy of ob- 
scure parentage, he showed himself apt in business, 
and became a merchant prince ; called to public 
life he was ready to accept the greatest responsi- 
bilities ; he was magnanimous and patriotic, giving 
himself and his wealth without stint to meet the 
necessities of the government ; the intimate friend 
of Washington, and entertaining with lavish hospi- 
tality all the distinguished people of the day, he 
finally lost all that he had through over-sanguine 
speculation and the booming of land companies, and 
spent more than three years in a debtor's prison, 
from which he emerged a broken man of sixty-eight, 
dependent on his family and friends. The rare 
ability and complete devotion that he gave to the 
financial needs of his country in her darkest days, 
and his buoyant faith in her glorious future, entitle 
him to a place among great Americans. 

In an article in these columns, about 
bX^oman'"^' ^^^ J^^rs ago, the question of "Wo- 
man and the Essay" was discussed, — 
with the practical conclusion that we have no women 
essayists. Some of the arguments then used were 
that the essays of women, while often clever, are 
too frequently overweighted by voluminous read- 
ing ; that they are too labored and profound, or too 
flippant and diffuse ; that they lack personality and 
distinction of style, and are also lacking in humor 
and impartiality — for women are apt to be self- 
conscious, and are by nature partisan. It is pleasant 
to find an absence of many of the above-mentioned 
faults, and the presence of qualities most to be 
desired in the light essay, in Mrs. Isa Carrington 
Cabell's volume entitled "The Thoughtless Thoughts 
of Carisabel" (Holt). Over a range of subjects as 
wide as from "The New Man" to " How Belinda 
Had the Grippe," this woman essayist is always 
good-natured and always herself. There is no un- 
due self-consciousness or weak sentimentality even 
when she writes of such subjects as love and mar- 
riage ; and there is considerable humor and in- 
sight into human character when the subjects are 
" Servants," " Dinner Parties," and " Conversa- 
tion." In short, it is the sort of book which on its 
arrival in the house finds its fresh-cut leaves turned 
by each member of the household. A second or 

more critical reading often reveals defects in style 
and a lack of finish, but there is not a chapter in 
the collection which does not afford amusement and 
pay for the reading. The point of view — "the 
unfashionable and passS opmion of a survivor of 
a past age," — applied to most of the modern sub- 
jects of the day, both fads and fancies, is a charm- 
ing combination consistently carried out. 

It is refreshing among the multitude 
thiZ^s!" of books devoted to Japan, to open 

one that has some sense of perspect- 
ive. In most of them the geisha is apt to occupy a 
place out of all proportions to the body social or 
politic. The author of " A Handbook of Modern 
Japan" (McClurg), Mr. Ernest W. Clement, is by 
no means a novice, either in his knowledge of Japan 
or in the making of literature. At Mito in the island 
empire, one of the old seats of feudal glory, knightly 
culture, and native learning, a decade and a half 
ago he spent several years not only as American 
teacher, but as an eager and patient investigator of 
Japanese history. He who knows well the transac- 
tions of the Asiatic Society of Japan (out of which 
so many books on " the sunny isles " are made in 
New York and London) knows also Mr. Clement's 
scholarship and literary industry. This handbook 
is a thesaurus of information concerning modem 
Japan. Fifty years ago, such enterprise would have 
cost Mr. Clement imprisonment. Now, however, 
the Japanese government vies with the foreigner in 
making public all things — except unbaked delica- 
cies of diplomacy and contemporaneous military 
information. So, out of his own treasures and the 
superb annual RSsumi Statistique of the Imperial 
Cabinet in Tokio, Mr. Clement has given us a double 
portion. We have here a feast served by a chef of 
long experience; everything has been proved by 
tasting, and all the ingredients and flavors known 
before being spread on the banquet table. The gen- 
eral excellence of the book extends to the proof- 
reading, and to the index also. Clear and abundant 
illustrations reinforce the text, and the bibliogra- 
phies at the end of the various chapters are the 
selection of a scholar at home among the very mixed 
crowd of books that represent and, for the most part, 
misrepresent Japan. In Mr. Clement's bibliogra- 
phies, books of this latter class are conspicuous by 
their absence. It would be difficult to name an 
important theme left unnoticed in this handy volume. 
History, industry, modern politics, manners and 
customs, the new woman, literature, language, 
sesthetics, religions, Christian missions, — all are 
discussed in a most pleasant and readable manner. 
The appendix is full of interesting items, — as for 
instance, we are told that in the Peking campaign, 
the Japanese, as compared with French, German, 
Russian, and American soldiers, had the fewest sick 
and disabled by disease. This is the book for the 
hour when Russia looms and Korea shrivels, or for 
the year and decade when — the map of Eastern 
Asia may be arranged. 



[Jan. 1, 

More of the ^^ *^® third volume of his " History 

■German struggle of the German Struggle for Liberty " 
/or liberty. (Harper), Mr. Poultney Bigelow con- 

tinues his story from 1815 to 1848. As in the 
preceding volumes, the method is biographical, and 
the author's journalistic training enables him to 
present, in his separate chapters, vivid pictures of 
individual characters or of single incidents. But 
the absence of any series of striking events, such as 
marked the Napoleonic wars, deprives the work of 
that chronological sequence that is essential in 
historical narrative. Mr. Bigelow recognizes this 
defect in his work, but urges, in his preface, that 
any other method would have been " dull beyond 
comparison." This statement is at least debat- 
able; aTid certainly the selection of characters and 
grouping of events might have been such that the 
whole would not have made the impression of a 
hopeless jumble. As it is, the reader requires a 
clear outline of the salient facts in German history 
in order to understand, in many cases, what the 
author is driving at. A more objective treatment 
would also have been an improvement. We have, 
for example, a series of chapters on Jahn. A 
single one might have told better every fact given, 
and have shown better the influence of the patriot's 
life, had the atmosphere of personal impression not 
been attempted. Carlyle could flash the person- 
ality of Frederick the Great upon us in a series of 
vivid sketches, or Freytag could group the history 
of a period about a single figure. Mr. Bigelow 
lacks the genius of the former and the systematic 
method of the latter. Entertaining and pleasant 
his book doubtless is, but it neither adds to our 
available knowledge of the subject nor is a work 
that can, without reservation, be recommended to 
the general reader. 

EngiUh society ^r. Fitzgerald Molloy's latest work, 
and politics in " The Sailor King, William IV., his 
the thirties. Q^urt and his Subjects" (Dodd), 

contains comparatively little about William himself, 
and still less about his nautical proclivities. But 
this is well; for who could endure the infliction of 
two octavo volumes on the sayings and doings of 
"Silly Billy"? We have, instead, an abundant 
flow of entertaining but not always edifying chron- 
icle and gossip concerning the noted people of the 
time. That Charles Greville's Journal is one of 
the author's chief sources of information, will suffi- 
ciently indicate the character of the narrative. 
Byron's and Shelley's and the Honorable Mrs. 
Norton's domestic tragedies are again rehearsed 
at length ; Disraeli's early eccentricities and un- 
blushing audacities add something of piquancy to 
a twice-told tale; and the whole is generously em- 
bellished with portraits and dignified with wide 
margins and clear type. The author's way of ex- 
pressing himself sometimes provokes a smile. The 
ages of his characters are reckoned bv summers. 
Browning is spoken of as being in 1836 a " youth 
■of barely twenty summers," which leaves four sum- 

mers of his life unaccounted for. A fire, even the 
burning of old letters, is a " holocaust." A false 
assertion of Byron's is stigmatized as "mendacious 
untruthfulness." No example of veracious untruth- 
fulness is given. Disraeli is " a mighty important 
personage." We are told that Mary Shelley gave 
birth to " a delicate girl baby who survived about 
ten days, much to its parents' grief." More regard 
for the little points of accuracy and the careful 
choice of words, even at the cost of a diminished 
output of his attractive volumes, is respectfully 
urged upon this popular writer. 

The second volume of " Appletons' 
c/nTrS:" World Series" maintains the prom- 

ise made in the volume on " Britain 
and the British Seas " some months ago. To Dr. 
Joseph Partsch, Professor of Geography in the 
University of Breslau, was assigned the labor of 
treating Central Europe. He prepared his work 
in German, in which language it is yet to appear in 
his native country. To adapt it to the needs of the 
series of essays descriptive of the great natural 
regions of the world, appearing under the editor- 
ship of Mr. H. J. Mackinder, M.A., the Oxford 
Geographer, it required not only translation for the 
benefit of English-speaking readers, but some cur- 
tailment as well. The work of author, translators, 
editor, and cartographers has been so admirably 
done that we have a volume replete with informa- 
tion, not only geographical, but ethnographical, 
historical, political, and economic, regarding the 
most important and one of the most populous re- 
gions in the world, including Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and 
the Balkan-Danubian states. This region is of 
perennial interest because of its position and world-' 
relation, and has been the scene of events unparal- 
leled in importance in the world's history. The 
appearance of the present work is especially timely 
because of the ethnic conditions which are an im- 
portant element in the ever-recurring " Eastern 

Dr. van Dyke's There are few persons to whom we 
selections from should be willing to entrust the edit- 
Tennyson-'s poems, j^g ^f Xennyson's poems, but Dr. 
Henry van Dyke may surely be reckoned among 
the competent few. His choice from " The Poems 
of Tennyson," comprised in a neatly-bound volume 
of moderate size (Ginn), is the first representative 
selection ever published, all previous abridgements 
having been confined to some special form of verse. 
The poems are arranged and classified so as to show 
the growth of the poet's art from simple melody to 
the higher forms of poetical expression. The one 
hundred and thirty-six selections are chosen from all 
the fields of Tennyson's poetry except the dramas, 
which for obvious reasons could not well be repre- 
sented. The shorter pieces are given in their en- 
tirety, and the text is that of Tennyson's latest 
revision. The introduction furnishes a scholarly 




guide to the perusal of the poems. It outlines 
Tennyson's life, discusses his place in the literature 
of the nineteenth century, his use of the sources 
from which he drew his material, his revision of his 
work, and the qualities of his poetry ; besides fully 
explaining Dr. van Dyke's system of classification 
as followed in this volume. The illustrations include 
two portraits of Tennyson and two views of his 
homes. The frontispiece is from Partridge's head 
of the poet in marble, which is owned by Dr. van 
Dyke. Paper and print are of excellent quality, and 
the binding is simple and dignified. The volume 
will be a good one for introductory study or for 
familiar reading of Tennyson. 

A fresh reading of the essays of the 
^*ay*6y jat-g Frank Norris, collected under 

Frank Noms, ,. mi -ri m m- • .• 

the title of '' IheKesponsibihties of 
the Novelist, and Other Literary Essays " (Double- 
day, Page & Co.), leaves one with a sense of their 
virility and sincerity, combined with a certain rough- 
ness and crudeness characteristic of them through- 
out. Such expressions as the " razor contingent," 
for men, and the " G. A. N." for the " Great Amer- 
ican Novelist," with a frequent use of trite slang 
phrases, ofPend the taste in a serious discussion of 
literary subjects. It is reasonable and fair, how- 
ever, to presume that had Mr. Norris lived to revise 
these writings he might have given them the polish 
which they lack in their present form. They are 
full of wholesome truths and ideals for the young 
aspirant in literature, and their appeal for something 
more racial and more vigorous than has yet been 
produced in American literature is sounded with 
Mr. Norris's usual courage and hopefulness. 


"The Unit Books" of Mr. Howard Wilford Bell, 
which we mentioned a year or more ago in connection 
with the English inception of the enterprise, have now 
been transplanted to American soil, and the first issues of 
the series are at band. These books give us carefully- 
edited reprints, with notes, of books that are both 
famous and interesting, published with the authority 
of the owners (if there are any), and sold at the low rate 
of one cent for twenty-five pages. The two volumes 
now before us are Hawthorne's " The Marble Faun," 
at twenty-one cents, and a volume of Lincoln's letters 
and addresses. For thirty or fifty cents additional, the 
books may be had in cloth or leather covers. This 
seems to us a very commendable undertaking, and 
we wish it success. One hundred titles are already 
announced, and suggestions for additional volumes are 

Canon Ainger's volume on Crabbe, in the series of 
" English Men of Letters " (Macmillan) is a piece of 
graceful and accomplished literary biography, dealing 
with its subject in a spirit of full sympathy, yet 
making no extravagant claims. Crabbe's memoir by 
his son, some notes by FitzGerald, a few letters, and 
the poet's own manuscript sermons and commonplace 

books, constitute the material with which Mr. Ainger 
has worked. Good taste and scholarship characterize 
the work throughout. The right of Crabbe to a place 
in this series was hardly to be disputed, and, so much 
being allowed, he could not have hoped for a more 
judicious biographer. 

" Gemme della Letteratura Italiana " is a handsome 
thousand-page volume published by Mr, Henry Frowde 
in connection with Signor Barbara of Florence. The work 
is edited by Professor Joel Foote Bingham, whose por- 
trait appears as a frontispiece. This extensive anthol- 
ogy is provided with biographies, critical notes, and 
other apparatus, including a series of appendices, deal- 
ing with the Italian Academies, and giving synopses of 
the most important works in Italian literature. The work 
covers the entire period of Italian literary history, from 
the origins down to the writers of the present day, and 
constitutes a small library in itself. There is not an 
English word in the volume from the first page to the 

In this age of reprints, Charles Lamb has not had his 
due share of attention until recently. The neglect m 
now more than atoned for by the nearly simultaneous 
appearance of three editions of his works. The first of 
these editions, of which four stout volumes are at band,^ 
has been prepared under the supervision of Mr. E. V. 
Lucas, and gives us " The Works of Charles and Mary 
Lamb." The American publishers are the " Messrs. 
Putnam. The apparatus of notes is very extensive. 
There are to be seven volumes of the works, beside* 
two of biography. The edition published by Messrs. 
E. P. Dutton & Co., in connection with Messrs. Dent 
of London, extends to twelve volumes, and is edited 
by Mr. William Macdonald. The pictorial feature of 
this edition is one of its most marked characteristics. 
There are also abundant notes. These two editions 
may be regarded in a sense as rivals; the third one be- 
fore us, published by the Messrs. Scribner, is a mere 
reprint in a single volume, which is of pocket size,^ 
although the use of thin paper extends its dimension* 
to over eight hundred pages. 

It would be difficult to praise too highly the work 
done by Misses Charlotte Porter and Helen A, Clarke 
in their new editions of Shakespeare, published by 
Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co, The "Camberw«U" 
Browning of these industrious literary workers has 
already left us deeply in their debt, and the obligation 
is more than doubled by the work of Shakespearian 
editing upon which they are now engaged. There are 
two editions, the " First Folio " and the " Pembroke," 
The former we have mentioned on a previous occasion,, 
and need at present do no more than repeat the state- 
ment that it gives us a play to a volume, and supplies 
with each play an amount of critical and " variorum '^ 
material which is ample for all the ordinary needs of 
the student. The text is absolutely that of 1623 in 
every respect. This edition is coming out slowly, and 
"The Comedie of Errors," just issued, is the third vol- 
ume thus far published. Meanwhile, the " Pembroke "^ 
edition comes to us complete in twelve volumes. Here 
also we have the text of 1623, together with a simplified 
critical apparatus which will quite satisfy the general 
reader. Each play has an introduction and a running 
glossary, and each volume has a portrait in photogra- 
vure, " Pericles," of course, is reprinted from the first 
quarto of 1609. The twelfth volume of the set con- 
tains the poems and sonnets, together with a brief 
biography of the poet. 



[Jan. 1, 


Early in the present year Messrs. Frederick Warne 
& Co. of New York will publish " Frona Paris to New 
York by Land," written by Mr. Harry De Windt, 
F.R.G.S., author of "The New Siberia," etc., and who 
is now lecturing in this country. 

" The Omar Calendar " for 1904 is an attractive pro- 
duction issued by Messrs. Fox, Duffield & Co. It is 
printed on uncalendared Japan paper, and each of its 
twelve sheets bears one of the Rubaiyat, set in a deco- 
rative border designed by Mr. Austin Smith. 

The year-book for 1902-3 of the Bibliographical 
Society of Chicago has just appeared, and contains 
several interesting studies, the most important of which 
is " Some Bibliographical Notes on Italian Communal 
History," contributed by Mr. A. M. Wolfson. 

A " Text-Book Bulletin for Schools and Colleges " 
just issued by Messrs. Ginn & Co., has an unusual fea- 
ture in the shape of a very interesting leading article on 
" Some Landmarks in the History of Latin Grammar," 
illustrated with many facsimiles, contributed by Pro- 
fessor George Lyman Kittredge. 

« The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes " and <« The 
Refugees" have just been added to the new library 
edition of Sir Arthur Couan Doyle's novels, published 
by the Messrs. Appleton. To the similar series of the 
writings of '« Anthony Hope " two volumes have also 
been added, one containing " Rupert of Hentzau," 
the other containing "The Dolly Dialogues" and 
" Comedies of Courtship." Both these editions are 
sold in sets, by subscription. 

Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. announce that they 
have just completed arrangements for the publication 
in England of Miss Liljencrantz's popular romances 
" The Thrall of Leif the Lucky " and " The Ward of 
King Canute." The English editions are to contain 
the color pictures which have proved so strong a factor 
in the success of the books. It may be noted in this 
connection that the Kinneys, whose pictures for these 
stories first attracted public attention to their capabili- 
ties as book illustrators, have just closed a contract for 
a series of paintings to be used in a story which Messrs. 
McClurg will issue in the Spring. 

A volume interesting to the bibliophile on several 
accounts is " The History of Oliver and Arthur," lately 
added to the Riverside Press special editions by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The work was originally 
written in French in 1511, and was translated into Ger- 
man in 1521. It is from the German edition that the 
present English version, by Mr. William Leighton and 
Miss Eliza Barrett, has been made. In printing the 
volume the publishers have endeavored to preserve 
something of the mediaeval flavor of the work. It is 
printed on hand-made paper, in " black letter " type 
with rubricated initials, and set in a double-columned 
page. Some forty engravings, redrawn from the old 
wood cuts which appeared in the original, serve as 

The Massachusetts Civil Service Reform Auxiliary 
offers, free of all expense, pamphlets on civil service re- 
form to all high schools, normal schools, and colleges 
willing to make these pamphlets the subject of a lesson 
in their civics course. The titles of the pamphlets 
are " The Merit System — The Spoils System," by Mr. 
Edward Cary, and "The Merit System of Municipali- 
ties," by Mr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff. As the circu- 

lation of this offer directly to the heads of colleges and 
schools must of necessity be gradual, the Massachusetts 
auxiliary takes pleasure in announcing to teachers and 
others interested in the subject that copies of the above 
pamphlets together with other of its publications may be 
obtained free on application to the Assistant Secretary, 
Miss Marian C. Nichols, 55 Mount Vernon Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

Topics in HjEAding Periodicals. 

January, 1904. 

Advertising. Psychology of. Walter D. Scott. Atlantid. 
Americans. Some 19th Century. M. A. DeW. Howe. Atlantic. 
America's Unconquered Mountain. F. A. Cook. Harper. 
Arbitration, Two Treaties of. Thomas Barclay. No. Atner, 
Art, An American Palace of. Sylvester Baxter. Century. 
Brangwyn, Frauk. M. H. Spielmann. Scribner. 
Bridgman, Laura. William James. Atlantic. 
Cnribbean Domination. Frederic C. Penfield No.Amfrican. 
Chess Tournaments, International. Erail Kemeny. Forum. 
City Underground, A Busy. W. R. Stewart. World^s Work. 
Colombia. Thomas S. Alexander. World's Work. 
Colonial History, A Neglected Chapter of Our. Harper. 
Derelict-Hunters, The. Henry H. Lewis. Harper. 
Dog. Our Friend, the. Maurice Maeterlinck. Century. 
English, Is it Becoming Corrupt? T. R. Lounsbury. Harper, 
Eskimo Seal Hunters. F. Swindlehurst. World's Work. 
Fair, Main Plan of the. E. H. Brush. World's Work. 
French Polities, Storm-Centre of. O. Querlae. Century. 
Gladstone, Morley's. Qoldwin Smith. North American. 
Gladstone, Morley's Life of. RoUo Ogden. Atlantic. 
Government, Scientific Work of the. S. P. Laneley. Scribner. 
House to Live in, The Best. Joy W. Dow. World's Work. 
Immigration Restriction. H. C. Lodge, F. P. Sargent Century. 
Invention, The Home of. Arthur Goodrich. World's Work. 
Jewish Question, The. Arnold White. North American. 
Journalism, School of. Horace White. N orth American. 
Labor Met by its Own Methods. World's Work. 
Lhasa, Latest News from. Rev. E. Kawagnchi. Century. 
Negroes, Lynching of . Thomas N. Page. No. American. 
New Year, The : Prosperity or Depression ? Hev. of Reviews. 
Panama and Colombia. John M. Williams. World's Work. 
Parsifal. Lawrence Oilman. North American. 
Poetry of America. Churton Collins. North American. 
Politician in Life and Fiction. F. C. Williams. World's Work. 
Post-Office Department, Argus of the. Review of Reviews. 
President's Message and the Isthmian Canal. No. American. 
Public. Catering for the. Bliss Perry. Atlantic. 
Public Schools about New York. AdeleShaw. World's Work. 
Radioactive Elements, Disintegration of the. Harper. 
Radium. Ernest Merritt. Century. 
Radium and Radioactivity. Mme. S. Curie. Century. 
Root, Elihu. Walter Wellman. Review of Reviews. 
Root's Services in the War Department. North American. 
Russo-Japanese Imbroglio, The. Forum. 
Sarpi. Fra Paolo. A. D. White. Atlantic. 
Scab, The. Jack London. Atlantic. 

Sex Superiority. Woman's Assumption of. No. American. 
Shakespeare's King Richard III. Ernest Rhys. Harper. 
Singapore. Elizabeth W. H. Wright. Atlantic. 
Sky, Blue Color of the. T. J. J. See. Atlantic. 
Slave-Market at Marrakesh. S. L. Bensusan. Harper. 
Southwestern Oil Industry. Status of. Review of Reviews. 
Spencer, Herbert. F. J. E. Wood bridge. Rev. of Reviews. 
Spencer, Herbert. George lies. World's Work. 
Spencer, Herbert. William H. Hudson. North American. 
Street Railway Legislation in Illinois. E B. Smith Atlantic. 
Texas Cattle Fever. C. S. Potts. Review of Reviews. 
Theatre of the People, The. A. Schioz. Ltppincott. 
Transcendental Period, The. T. W. Higginson. Atlantic. 
Valley of Wonders, A New. F. S. Dellenbaugh. Scribner. 
Walnut, English, in Southern California. Review of Reviews. 
War of 1812, The. A. T. Mahan. Scribner. 




LiisT OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 4S titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue. 1 


The Story of a Soldier's Life. By Field-Marshal Viscount 
Wolseley. In 2 vols., with photogi:avure portrait, and 
plans, large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$8. net. 

Life and Letters of Robert Lewis Dabney, By Thomas 
Gary Johnson. Ulus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 585. Richmond : Presbyterian Committee 
of Publication. $2.50 net. 


Ledger and Sword ; or. The Honourable Company of Mer- 
chants of England Trading to the East Indies (1599-1874). 
By Beckles Willson, In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, 
etc., large 8vo. Longmans, Green, & Co. $7. net. 

Historical Lectures and Addresses. By Mandell 
Creighton, D.D.; edited by Louise Creighton. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 346. Longmans, Green, & Co. $2. 

Where American Independence Began: Quiney, its 
Famous Group of Patriots, their Deeds, Homes and De- 
scendants. By Daniel Munro Wilson. Second edition, 
enlarged. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 327. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. $2 25 net. 

The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. Edited by Emma 
Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson ; with his- 
torical Introduction and additional Notes by Edward 
Gaylord Bourne. Vol. VIll., 1691-1593. Illus., large 
8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 320. Cleveland : Arthur H. Clark 
Co. $5. net. 


My Cookery Books. By Elizabeth Robins Pennell. Lim- 
ited edition ; illus., 4to, uncut, pp. 171 . Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co. $20. net. 

A History of Classical Scholarship, from the Sixth Cen- 
tury. B.C., to the End of the Middle Ages. By John 
Edwin Sandys, Litt.D. 12mo, pp. 672. Macmillan Co. 
$3.50 net. 

An Examination of the Shelley Manuscripts in the 
Bodleian Library. By C. D. Locock, B.A. With fac- 
simile, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 75. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. $2.50. 

A Book of American Humorous Verse, and A Book of 
American Prose Humor. Each 16mo, gilt top, uncut. 
H. S. Stone & Co. Per vol., $1.25. 

The Book of the Short Story. Edited by Alexander 
Jessup and Henry Siedel Canby. 12mo, pp. 507. D. 
Appleton & Co. $1.25. 


The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, By 
Robert Louis Stevenson; illus. in photogravure, etc., by 
Charles Raymond Macauley. Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 189. Scott-Thaw Co. $2. net. 

The Four Socratic Dialogues of Plato. Trans and 
edited by Benjamin Jowett ; with Preface by Edward 
Caird, M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 274. Oxford University 
Press. $1.15. 

Selections from the Confessio Amantis of Gower. Ed- 
ited by Q. C. Macanlay, M.A. With frontispiece, 16mo, 
pp. 302. Oxford University Press. $1.10. 


Pat M'Carty, Farmer, of Antrim; His Rhymes, with a 
Setting. By John Stevenson. 12mo, uncut, pp. 351. Long- 
mans. Green, & Co. $2. net. 

The Temple of Friendship, and Other Poems. By Vin- 
cent Benson. 12mo, uncut, pp. 149. Oxford: B. H. 

Random Verse. By Herman Knickerbocker Viel6. 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 89. Brentano's. $1.20 net. 

Voices and Visions. By Franklin Baldwin Wiley. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 92. Boston : R. G. Badger. $1.25. 

The Colonel's Opera Cloak. By Christine C. Brush. New 

edition, illus. by E. W. Kemble and A. E. Becher. 12mo, 

pp. 262. Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 
From Kingdom to Colony. By Mary Devereux. New 

edition; illus., 12mo, pp. 382. Little, Brown, & Co, 75c. 

My Struggle for Light: Confessions of a Preacher. By 

R.Wimmer. 12mo, pp. 216. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 
Visions of the Christ. By Levi Gilbert. 16mo, pp. 284. 

Jennings & Pye. $1. 
Temple Series of Bible Characters. New vols. : The 

Religions of India, by Rev. Allan Menzies, D.D.; Old 

Testament History, by Rev. O. R. Barnioott, LL.D. 

Each with frontispiece, 24mo. J. B. Lippinoott Co. 

Per vol., 30 cts. net. 
The Book of Psalms. 32mo, gilt top, pp. 311. Jewish 

Publication Society. Leather. 


Round Kangchenjunga: A Narrative of Mountain Travel 
and Exploration, By Douglas W. Freshfield. Illus., 
4to, uncut, pp. 373. Longmans, Green, & Co. $6. net. 

From Saranac to the Marquesas and Beyond : Letters 
Written by Mrs. M. I. Stevenson during 1887-88 to her 
Sister. Edited and arranged by Marie Clothilde Balfour ; 
with Introduction by George W, Balfour, M.D. With 
frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 313. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $2. net. 

Pioneering in Central Africa. By Samuel P. Verner. 
Illus., 8vo, pp. 500. Richmond: Presbyterian Committee 
of Publication. $2. net. 


The Relations between Freedom and Responsibility 
in the Evolution of Democratic Government. By Arthur 
Twining Hadley. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 175. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $1. net. 

Elements of Political Economy. By J. Shield Nichol- 
son, M.A. 8vo, pp. 538. Macmillan Co. $2.25 net. 

International Exchange, Its Terms, Parts, Operations, 
and Scope: A Practical Work on the Foreign Banking 
Department and its Administration by American Bankers. 
By Anthony W. Margraff. With portrait, large 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 299. Chicago : Fergus Printing Co. $5. 

Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc. By George Francis 
Atkinson. Second edition ; illus. in color, etc., large 8vo, 
pp. 323. Henry Holt & Co. $3. net. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 
8vo, gilt top. "Newnes' Art Library." Frederick 
Warne & Co. $1.25. 

A List of Books on the Philippine Islands in the Library 
of Congress. By A. P. C. Griffin ; with chronological list 
of maps, by P. Lee Phillips. 4to, uncut, pp. 397. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 


Fam,ous Battles of the Nineteenth Century. Described 
by various writers; edited by Charles Welsh. Vol.1., 
1801-1817; Vol. II., 1861-1871. Each illus., 12mo. 
A. Wessels Co. Per vol., $1. net. 

The Manor School. By Mrs. L. T. Meade. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 337. The Mershon Co. $1.25. 

Foxy Grandpa's Mother Goose. Illas. in color, 4to. 
F. A. Stokes Co. $1. 

The Grown Baby Book. By F. Strange KoUe. Illus., 
Svo, pp. 71. Boston : R. G. Badger. $1. 


Two Centuries of Costume in America. By Alice 
Morse Earle. In 2 vols., illus., Svo, gilt tops, uncut. 
Macmillan Co. $5. net. 

The New American Navy. By John D. Long, Secretary 
of the Navy 1897-1902. In 2 vols., illus., large Svo, gilt 
tops. New York: The Outlook Co. $5. net. 

Manual of Library Economy. By James Duff Brown. 
Illus., Svo, pp. 476. London : Scott, Greenwood & Co. 

Japanese Physical Training. By H. Irving Hancock. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 156. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25 net. 

Christmas in Old Times and in Many Lands : A Christmas 
Masque in Two Acts. By Evelyn H. Walker. Illus., large 
Svo, pp. Yl. Chicago: W. M. Welch Co. $1.50. 

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam Calendar for 1904. De- 
signed by Austin Smith. Large Svo. Fox, Daffield & 
Co. $1. 



[Jan. 1, 


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C\\ ITT WP^T* edited by Chas. P. Lummis, is beyond question or comparison the foremost magazine in the greater half of the 
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[Jan. 1, 1904. 



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of the times. Underlying the relation between 
the two is the ethical basis of democracy, 
which cannot be ignored without fatal results." 
— Philadelphia Ledger. 

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31 S>emUMont]j[v Journal of ILiterarg dLxitici&m, ©iscussion, ant Ilnfarmatt0n. 

No. 4^2. 

JANUARY 16, 1904. Vol. XXXVI. 






Bhoades 39 

AMERICAN MOTHS. T. D. A. Cockerell . 



Barrows 42 


John J. Halsey 44 


Estelle Cook . 46 


Ogg 47 


Freeing the imprisoned mind. — The history of dra- 
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topics. — Recent theories about Interest. — The 
trip to California. 





We quote the following words from a recent 
number of " The Educational Review ": 

" Complaint is heard in England from South African 
educators that whatever may be the merits of the scheme 
adopted for the award of Rhodes scholarships, that 
scheme is in flat contradiction to the founder's will and 
expressed intention. It is claimed that Mr. Rhodes had 
no wish to establish post-graduate courses at Oxford, 
but rather to bring students from other English-speaking 
countries under the influence of the Oxford undergradu- 
ate system." 

We believe the stricture to be entirely just, 
and the case affords a fresh illustration of a 
tendency that is frequently met with among 
men who are charged with the responsibility 
of administrating trust funds devised for edu- 

cational or other purposes. Whether the in- 
tention of Cecil Rhodes in founding his Oxford 
scholarships was wisely conceived is not now 
the question ; the intention itself was distinctly 
formulated, and his trustees have distinctly lent 
themselves to its perversion. 

While the terms of the will under which the 
Rhodes scholarships are instituted do not state 
in absolutely explicit words that the benefici- 
aries shall be boys just entering college, it is 
impossible to read the document attentively 
without perceiving that such was the wish of 
the testator. The colonial schools which are 
expressly named as having the right to send 
scholars are preparatory schools in the strict 
sense, and the entire tenor of the will makes 
it evident that the writer had schoolboys in 
mind rather than university students midway 
in their career. In proof of this assertion we 
need do no more than quote the following 
words : " I direct that in the election of a stu- 
dent to a scholarship regard shall be had to 
. . . his exhibition during school days of 
moral force of character and of instincts to lead 
and to take an interest in his schoolmates." 
The sort of Oxford student whom Cecil Rhodes 
had in mind was clearly the English public 
school boy of seventeen or "eighteen and not 
the student having several years of college life 
behind him, the impressionable youth and not 
the man of mature ideals. 

As a preliminary to their administration of 
the Rhodes foundation, the trustees of the will 
appointed Dr. Parkin, the president of a Cana- 
dian college, to make a careful study of edu- 
cational conditions in the colonies and in 
America, and report a detailed plan of pro- 
cedure. This report was duly made, and as a 
consequence thereof, the trustees have published 
a " memorandum" for American educators, set- 
ting forth the details of the plan which they 
have adopted. The essential feature of this 
" memorandum " is found in the following 
sections : 

" It has been decided that all scholars shall have 
reached at least the end of their Sophomore or second 
year work at some recognized degree-granting univer- 
sity or college of the United States. 

" Scholars must be unmarried, must be citizens of 
the United States, and must be between nineteen and 
twenty-five years of age." 

Under these conditions it is fair to assume 



[Jan. 16, 

that the successful candidates will be university 
graduates, or men not far from graduation, and 
that their average age will be nearer the maxi- 
mum than the minimum limit here fixed. Thus 
the purpose of the testator will be completely 
thwarted, and his estate be put to a use abso- 
lutely unwarranted by the terms of his will. 

It is not difficult to understand how this 
result has been brought to pass. Dr. Parkin, 
himself a college president, travelled through 
the United States consulting college presidents 
right and left, and got from them the advice 
that was to be expected. Obviously, this was 
too good a thing to be given up ; here was an 
educational prize of an unprecedented value, 
and no mere scruples based upon the wishes of 
the testator could weigh for much in compari- 
son with the importance of annexing such an 
opportunity to the sphere of university influ- 
ence. With practical unanimity these coun- 
sellors declared that it would never do to bestow 
the Khodes scholarship upon boys just out of 
school, that the benefits of the foundation would 
be far better appreciated by men of university 
training. Incidentally, the importance of every 
higher institution in the country would be en- 
hanced by its being able to hold out to its 
students the prospect of a possible Rhodes ap- 
pointment. It is not the point to insist that 
these considerations are reasonable ; it may be 
that they are. The point is that they set at 
naught the intentions of the founder, and use 
his bequest for a purpose totally different from 
that designated in his will. 

The real reason for the decision to send 
university students, and even university gradu- 
ates, to Oxford as the beneficiaries of the Rhodes 
fund has been made sufficiently evident by the 
foregoing statements. The ostensible reason 
will doubtless be found in the plea that our 
American public school and academy graduates 
are not as well prepared for university work as 
are the boys sent from Eton and Harrow. 
This is undoubtedly true, for the reason that 
our schools do not restrict their work almost 
exclusively, as the English schools do, to pre- 
paration in mathematics and the classics. The 
average American sohool graduate would find 
the " responsions " test, with its requirements 
of prose composition and advanced reading, 
beyond his powers. But the force of the ob- 
jection vanishes clean out of sight when we 
consider that the question is not of sending 
students to Oxford in large numbers, but of 
finding one picked student every year or two 
in each State who is equal to the test. Now 

there is not the slightest doubt that each of 
the United States could provide annually one 
or more students fully equipped to pass "re- 
sponsions," students quite the equal of the 
average product of an English public school. 
This objection disposed of, we fail to see any 
other that might reasonably be urged in de- 
fence of the plan now formulated. If that plan 
be persisted in, the wishes of the testator will 
be thwarted in their most vital aspect. 

The plan as now made public throws the 
whole weight of administration into the hands 
of our universities. Each State has a com- 
mittee for the selection of candidates, and in 
each case the chairman of that committee is 
the president of some university. The ma- 
chinery is now complete, and within a few 
weeks the process of selecting Rhodes scholars 
" between nineteen and twenty-five years of 
age " will be in active operation. We take no 
particular pleasure in recalling the fact that 
this perversion of the trust was foreseen by us, 
and the danger clearly pointed out, when we 
commented upon " The Rhodes Benefaction " a 
year ago last May. We spoke then of the like- 
lihood that the methods decided upon would 
be determined by our " educational moguls," 
and our argument had for its most important 
conclusion " the simple one that college and 
university interests should not have the pre- 
dominant voice in the administrative organiza- 
tion," but that " the men who stand officially 
for the larger educational systems of States 
and cities, together with the men who stand 
for the secondary educational interest most 
directly affected by the Rhodes endowment, 
should prove the main reliance for its efficient 

That view of the matter has been, as we 
feared it would be, completely ignored by those 
who are responsible for the administration of 
the fund, and we have no idea that they will 
now reconsider their decision. But we have felt 
it our duty to make the present protest, and its 
seriousness will be better understood after the 
lapse of another two years, when a hundred 
Rhodes scholars from this country will be 
living in Oxford, scattered among the many 
colleges, it is true, yet forming a class by 
themselves, several years older than their En- 
glish undergraduate associates, pursuing more 
advanced studies, and missing almost com- 
pletely the community of fellowship and the 
sympathy of social interest that it was the man- 
ifest desire of Cecil Rhodes to create and to 





The cod-fishery is the principal business of the 
little Basque islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon; 
and since the French government offers a bounty 
upon all the product of the fishery which is sold out 
of France, the fishermen of these islands have an 
advantage over the Newfoundland fishermen which 
gives rise to many disputes and animosities. I was 
repeatedly told at St. Pierre that the people who 
lived on the adjacent coasts of Newfoundland were 
pirates ; that they would not aid the French fisher- 
men, even in distress ; and that whenever a fishing 
vessel was wrecked on their shores, everything was 
stolen. The cry of " Per/w^e Albion " finds its echoes 
among the fogs of the Newfoundland banks ; and 
there are controversial writings, elaborate and pas- 
sionate, over the wrongs committed in these distant 
waters by the Saxon upon the Gaul. 

I have before me a large octavo volume, with 
tables, maps, and illustrations, setting forth the 
grievances of the French fishermen. It is entitled, 
" The French at Newfoundland, and on the Shores 
of North America. The Great Cod Fishery of New- 
foundland, since the Discovery of the New World by 
the Basques in the 14th Century. By Adolf Bellet."* 
Although written as late as 1902, it sounds like a 
controversial writing of the Middle Ages. It opens 
with a stately exordium celebrating the glories 
of the fishing industry ever since the creation of man. 
The first chapter is therefore entitled "As Old as 
the World." Then the author descends from gen- 
eralities to specialties ; from the world at large to 
France; from fishing as a whole to cod-fishing in 
particular ; and he declares that 

" If France is not the first country in the world where cod- 
fishing has been raised to the state of a national industry, she 
is at any rate in the first rank of maritime nations which are 
devoted to it, and notwithstanding all her political storms, 
notwithstanding the dark days of mourning through which 
she has passed, the disasters she has undergone, and which, 
on repeated occasions have ruined ' from turret to foundation 
stone ' both her national marine and the immense colonial 
empires she has founded, this industry, still flourishing after 
more than five centuries, has been perpetuated across the 
ages, and yet remains as active as on the day of its birth. 
It is precisely this extraordinary vitality, which nothing has 
yet been able to reach, that exasperates and enrages our 
foreign competitors, and especially the English." 

This patriotic Frenchman next throws a new 
flood of light upon the question of the discovery of 
America. It seems that the reputations of Colum- 
bus and Leif Ericsson are mideserved, since the 
real discoverers of America were the Basques ! 
M. Bellet tells us that while the expedition by the 
Northman was soon forgotten, it was not the same 
with the French Basques. He says : 

" It is to this first landing ef the whale fishermen of Cape 
Breton, on the shores of Newfoundland, that we should trace 
the true discovery of the new world, and the establishment 
of the first route really commercial between Europe and 
America I Unfortunately it is impossible to give a fixed date 
to this historical event. What we can affirm is, that it pre- 
ceded by a century and a half the first expedition of Colum- 

* Published in Paris by A. Challamel, 1902. 

bus ; which, besides, was only organized by the Genoese navi- 
gator, upon the information given by other Basques, whom 
the wind had driven upon the Antilles about the year 1480." 

And here M. Bellet tells of a Basque pilot, who, 
after twenty-nine days of storm, found an island 
without a name, which it is believed must have been 
San Domingo ! Out of his crew of seventeen men, 
only five got back to Terceira (one of the Azores ) ; 
but one of these was the pilot, who took up his 
lodging in the house of Columbus, who was then 
making navigation charts, and it was upon this 
pilot's story that Columbus formed the design of 
discovering America ! This anecdote (related by 
one M. Fournier, " whose learning is beyond ques- 
tion ") must greatly weaken the aureole of glory and 
of genius of the Genoese sailor, "which an unreason- 
able enthusiasm . . . had consecrated as the great 
discoverer of continents, since Columbus did not 
himself discover the route of the Antilles, but merely 
followed a track which had been pointed out to 
him." It would seem that a series of monuments 
to the Basque fishermen is now in order. 

But the great object of the book is to justify the 
exclusive rights of France to what is known as the 
French Shore of Newfoundland, comprising the 
Western and part of the Northeastern coast. The 
author, after claiming for his country in the past a 
vast colony, extending from Baflfin's Bay to the 
Gulf of Mexico, of which the French were unjustly 
despoUed by England, declares that in the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713 the fishermen caused to be in- 
serted a clause protecting their rights on this French 
shore. Article 13 declares that Newfoimdland and 
the adjacent islands should belong absolutely to 
Great Britain; that France should not establish any 
habitation therein except scaffolds and cabins neces- 
sary for drying fish; nor should the French land 
upon the island at any other time than was proper 
for fishing, nor on any part of the island except 
from Cape Bona Vista up to the northern end and 
thence along the west coast to Pointe Riche. This 
treaty receives from M. Bellet the very liberal con- 
struction that it was equivalent to a division of the 
island between the two nations ! 

Gradually, we are told, the wicked aggressions of 
the English deprived the French of their just rights. 
The English colonists became accustomed to the 
occupation of fishing, which they had at first dis- 
dained ; but when, fifty years afterwards, the treaty 
of Paris took away Canada from France, the rights 
of the French fishermen to the French shore were 
confirmed, and as a base of operations England ceded 
to France the two little islands of St. Pierre and 
Miquelon. Again, by the treaty of Versailles, after 
the American Revolution, these unconscionable and 
astute Englishmen, " in spite of the successes obtained 
by our fleets during the wai-, found the means of 
despoiling us of part of the coast which belonged to 
us for sixty-six years, under the pretext of rectifi- 
cation of boundaries, or rather exchange of coast, and 
took away from us the richest parts of the French 
shore, the most accessible for our fishermen, and 



[Jan. 16, 

replaced them by a more distant shore with fewer 
fish on the west coast. All the advantage was in 
favor of England." But an act additional to this 
treaty provided that the king of England would 
take positive measures to prevent his subjects from 
troubling by their competition the French fishermen 
during the temporary exercise of their right on the 
coasts of Newfoundland, and would withdraw any 
settlements established there. The French were to 
erect nothing but their scafPoldings, limiting them- 
selves to repairing the other buildings they had 
constructed, and not wintering there ; and the En- 
glish were not to molest them nor disturb their 
scaffoldings during their absence. 

The controversy between the two nations, as set 
forth by M. Bellet, also involves the important 
question of the definition of the lobster and the 
crab. It will be remembered that in an early En- 
glish dictionary the crab was defined to be a small 
red fish which walks backward ; whereupon a critic 
remarked that the definition was perfect, except 
that the crab was not red, was not a fish, and did 
not walk backward. The people of Newfoundland 
now deny to the French the right to take lobsters 
on the French shore, on the ground that the lobster 
is not a fish. This, M. Bellet denounces as a great 
wrong, for the reason that the lobster was a fish when 
the treaty was made ! He says : "The lobster, like 
the crab, was regarded as a true fish, and naturalists 
currently classified it in the category of shell-fish; 
and the expression ' to fish for lobster,' which was 
then the only one used, has been continued every- 
where throughout the fishing world." 

In accordance with the declaration of 1783, says 
M. Bellet, England prohibited the colonization of 
the French shore of Newfoundland. Roads could 
not be made, nor houses constructed, nor lands en- 
closed, within a zone of six miles from the coast ; but 
in 1810 the Home Government began to act differ- 
ently, and the English colonists have succeeded in 
establishing settlements upon several points of this 
shore, so that there are now more than 15,000 in- 
habitants there. The French neglected to expel 
these English settlers, and naturally they grew in 
number and in boldness. 

In 1854 England gave an autonomous govern- 
ment to Newfoimdland, "which now thinks that it 
has become a veritable power, and is unwilling to 
bear the servitude which rests as a burden upon its 
national patrimony for the profit of Frenchmen." 

In 1857 a convention was signed at London which 
gave to the French the exclusive right of using the 
French shore for fishing purposes during the fishing 
season, from April to October of each year, and 
provided that the French subjects should have the 
right to buy bait upon the south shore of Newfound- 
land (part of the English shore), on the same footing 
as English subjects. It was further provided that 
the coast reserved for the exclusive right of the 
French should extend from a third to a half a mile 
inland, and that no English enclosure and construc- 
tion should be made or maintained on the French 

shore except for military defence or public admini- 

One would think that it would be self-evident that 
the conditions prescribed by this convention could 
not continue indefinitely. According to these terms, 
the English cannot use the shores of their own island, 
however valuable these may be ; nor can the French 
use them, except temporarily, during the fishing 
season and for fishing purposes alone. To tie up 
natural resources in this way, permanently and use- 
lessly, is clearly impossible ; yet it is the purpose of 
the treatise of M. Bellet to insist that this shall be 
done. Naturally, the Newfoundlanders will establish 
settlements, construct railways, and build cities, 
wherever the needs of the country require it, no 
matter what the treaties may be ; and it would be 
the part of wisdom to make some exchange of terri- 
tory by which the land could all be used. But this 
is precisely what M. Bellet insists shall not be done. 
After a panegyric upon the activity which reigns 
upon the little desert islands of Miquelon and St. 
Pierre, the two points which France has been able to 
wrest from " Britannic rapacity," he insists that no 
part of the French shore shall ever be surrendered. 

" We have seen the French Basques discovering the New 
World more than a hundred years before Columbus, and 
establishing fishing stations, the first foothold of Europeans 
on the American Continent. While we claim for our people 
the honor of being pioneers of the first trans-atlantic route, 
we are happy to be able to cast upon others, less scrupulous 
of the choice of means, the horror of the almost complete 
destruction of the race of aborigines, whose honor, sweetness 
and generosity are recognized by impartial judges ! ... It is 
not for vain glory that we would maintain ourselves upon 
the French shore, nor is it to injure the interests of the New- 
foundlanders, nor to draw from them a petty revenge for all 
the chicaneries of which they have been guilty for more than 
two centuries. We rise above all these little meannesses, 
and the only motive which moves us in the affair is the 
defense of the higher interests of the French codfishing in- 
dustry. The French shore of Newfoundland is the stumbling- 
block of our American fisheries, the foundation and the sine 
qua non on which rests the future of our codfishing industry. 
We offer here only two arguments in support of this thesis ; 
but they are decisive and irrefutable. The first relates to 
the cod itself ; the second rests upon the question of bait, 
without which the fishery would become impossible. On the 
point of the cod, we have said that this fish, without being 
migratory, is essentially a traveller. He has during these 
last years almost completely disappeared from the French 
shore ; and it is precisely this disappearance which has led 
to our progressive abandonment of the place where our fisher- 
men formerly went to seek him. Who, then, can assure us 
that, by a contrary phenomenon, he will not come to abandon 
the banks where we are now actively exercising our industry, 
to return again to the shores which have been conceded to us ? " 

M. Bellet becomes equally irresistible in his logic 
when he approaches the question of bait. The 
Government of Newfoundland passed an act forbid- 
ding Newfoundlanders to sell bait to the French- 
men. For the time, this act has not caused much 
mischief, since the French have been able to catch 
other kinds of bait on the banks, far out from land ; 
but this other bait is becoming more scarce, and 
perhaps they may have to return to the French 

"It is therefore absolutely necessary to keep the whole 
of that shore. If the Newfoundlanders want to exploit the 




mines there, or build railroads, a commission might be chosen 
to select for them, for a just compensation, certain points, — 
but to abandon our rights upon the shore, even in part, we 
must never think of it ! Better deliver to them our entire 
national fleet, for we could rebuild it; but if we abandon 
Newfoundland, we cannot find the sailors to equip the ships 
that assure our national defense. It is by the great fishery 
that we planted ourselves first in the New World of North 
America ; and it is for the purpose of defending this industry 
that we must remain there at whatever cost. The superior 
interest of our country demands it." 

Such is the French side of this interesting con- 
troversy, a controversy which does not seem any- 
where near a settlement. 

It would look as though French seamanship were 
in pretty bad straits, if the maintenance of the 
Newfoimdland codfishing is necessary to its preser- 
vation. Germany, with natural facilities infinitely 
more limited than France, has been able without 
any such aids to establish a merchant marine as 
well as a navy which is respected everywhere. If 
there be any difficulty with the French upon the 
sea, it proceeds more from the peculiar Gallic tem- 
perament than from the lack of facilities for mari- 
time activity. Most Frenchmen are not fond of 
the water ; and they are too much enamored of the 
delights of their own beautiful France to be willing 
to abandon them for the trackless paths of "the 
unharvested sea." 

I had a striking illustration of the incompetency 
of French seamanship upon my return from St. 
Pierre to Cape Breton. The captain of the " Pro 
Patria," on my outward voyage, was a man of con- 
siderable experience, who had commanded the vessel 
for a number of years. But he was dismissed sum- 
marily on landing at St. Pierre, not because of any 
complaint against him personally, but because he 
was related by marriage to certain persons who were 
obnoxious to the new proprietor of the vessel. In 
his place there was appointed the captain of one of 
the fishing-craft coming to St. Pierre, a man who 
was not only without knowledge of the course of the 
vessel (which is intricate and difficult), but who had 
never been in command of a steam vessel before. 
Luckily, however, on my return voyage the old cap- 
tain was on board the steamer as a passenger on lus 
way to France. It was a beautiful moonlight night 
when we steamed out of the harbor, — an impossible 
night, one would think, for a commanding officer to 
lose his vessel. Yet on the following morning the 
captain called his predecessor up on the bridge, and, 
pointing to a coast ahead, asked him what land that 
was. He was told that it was Ingonish and North 
Cape. In a single night he had gone more than 
twenty miles out of his course ! A few hours later, 
while I was at breakfast, there was a tremendous 
crash. I asked the cabin-boy what was the matter, 
and he answered, "Oh, it's nothing but the wharf! " 
and going on deck I found that we had dexterously 
taken ofp a corner of the pier at North Sidney. 
French seamanship will hardly become an object 
of admiration so long as such things occur. 


i H^to %aokB. 

Bismarck and his Empbror.* 

Since the death of Prince Bismarck, a large 
amount of biographical material and several 
formal biographies have appeared. The result 
is that to-day the world at large knows, or may 
know, the Iron Chancellor more fully, and may 
understand better the definite trend of his whole 
policy, than was possible during his life-time 
for any except the few who were favored with 
his personal friendship and intimate confidence. 
His letters to his wife revealed a side of his 
nature of which the public had little idea ; ten- 
derness and sentiment are not qualities that had 
been generally attributed to him. In similar 
fashion, though not in so great a degree, the 
recently published volumes of Correspondence 
between William I. and Bismarck not only 
throw new light upon the Emperor's policy, 
but bring out most clearly the characters of 
both men, and especially that of Bismarck as 
the German citizen and Prussian subject. The 
volumes also contain much material of value to 
the close student of the Bismarck period, and 
even serve to confirm or to modify views that 
are already coming to be accepted as historicaL 
To the ordinary reader, however, it is the for- 
mer aspect of the work that will be the more 
interesting ; and from that point of view it is 
worth while devoting a little space to its exam- 

One of the most striking characteristics of 
the letters is the tone of sincere personal friend- 
ship and warm affection that runs through the 
notes not purely official. "Your faithfully 
devoted Wilhelm," " Your affectionate King," 
and, added in the Emperor's own hand, "Your 
faithfully devoted friend Wilhelm," are exam- 
ples of the royal signature. The Chancellor,, 
for whom etiquette dictated simply " v. Bis- 
marck" as the proper form, frequently ex- 
presses in the body of his communication the 
most cordial sentiments. One rather long pas- 
sage deserves to be cited. In acknowledging 
a gift from his sovereign, on the occasion of his 
silver wedding, Bismarck wrote: 

" Your Majesty justly emphasizes happiness in the 
home as being among the chief blessings for which I 
have to thank God ; but part of the happiness in my 
house, for my wife as well as myself, comes from the 
conscionsness of your Majesty's satisfaction, and the 

•Correspondence op Kaiser Wilhelm I. and Bis- 
marck. Edited by Horst Kohl. Translated from the Germaiv 
by J. A. Ford. In two volumes. Illustrated. New Yorkt 
Frederick A. Stokes Co. 



[Jan. 16, 

exceedingly gracious and kindly words of appreciation 
which your Majesty's letter contains are naore beneficial 
to afflicted nerves than is all medical assistance. In 
looking back over my life, I have such inexhaustible 
cause to thank God for His unmerited mercy, that I 
often fear everything will not go so well with me until 
the end. I recognize it as an especially happy dispen- 
sation that God has called me on earth to the service 
of a master whom I serve joyfully and with love, as the 
innate fidelity of the subject never has to fear, under 
your Majesty's leadership, coming into conflict with a 
warm feeling for the honour and the welfare of the 

This note of cordial personal attachment is 
sounded again and again by the Emperor, nut 
only in connection with gifts and honors con- 
ferred upon his eminent servant, but even more 
strikingly in his emphatic protests against even 
entertaining the idea of Bismarck's retirement. 
Thus, in February, 1869, Wilhelm wrote: 

" How can you possibly imagine that I could even 
think of acceding to your idea ? It is my greatest hap- 
piness to live with you and to thoroughly agree with 
you. How can you be so hypochondriac as to allow 
one single difference [t. e., regarding a gift to the city 
of Frankfurt] to mislead you into taking the extreme 
step ? . . . Your name stands higher in Prussian his- 
tory than that of any other Prussian statesman. And 
I am to let that man go ? Never. Quiet and prayer 
will adjust everything. Your most faithful friend." 

The words in italics are twice underscored, in 
the last instance three times in the original. 
A few days later, in connection with the same 
matter, the Emperor wrote : 

" I understand all that [t. e., Bismarck's morbid state 
and exhaustion] perfectly well, for I feel the same ; but 
can or may I, for that reason, think of laying down my 
office ? Just as it is impossible for me to do that, so 
it is impossible for you ! You do not belong only to 
yourself; your existence is too closely bound up with 
the history of Prussia, of Germany, and of Europe, for 
you to withdraw from a scene of action which you have 
helped to create." 

After making some suggestions to lighten the 
minister's burdens, he adds : 

" Above all, never doubt my unaltered confidence 
and my unquenchable gratitude ! I " 

As is well known, there is some doubt just 
when and where the idea of turning the Ger- 
man Confederation into an empire originated. 
The question is too complicated for a discus- 
sion in this place, but it is worth while citing 
one or two statements by Wilhelm I. bearing 
upon it. On the occasion of the meeting of the 
first German Reichstag at Berlin, March 21, 
1871, his Majesty wrote to Bismarck : 

" It is to your counsel, your circumspection, your 
unwearying activity, that Prussia and Germany owe 
the world-historical occurrence which is embodied in 
my capital to-day." 

A year later, upon the anniversary of peace, 

he wrote : 

" We celebrate to-day the first anniversary of the 
glorious conclusion of peace, which was attained by 
bravery and sacrifices of all kinds, but through your 
circumspection and energy led to results which had 
never been dreamed of I " 

Again, in a letter of congratulation, he wrote, 
in July of the same year: 

" My prayers of thanksgiving . . . include thanks 
to God for having placed you at my side at a decisive 
moment, and thus opened up a career for my Govern- 
ment far exceeding thought and comprehension." 

In connection with Bismarck's distinguished 
services in founding the Empire, it is interest- 
ing to note his loyalty to Prussia. In 1869 
he wrote from St. Petersburg to Baron von 
Schleinitz, the Minister of State : 

" I should like to see the word * German ' written 
instead of ' Prussian ' on our banner only when we are 
bound more closely and more expediently to the rest of 
our countrymen than we are at present; it loses its 
charm when it is used too much in its Bundestag 

Nearly twenty years later, in acknowledging 
a fresh decoration conferred upon him, he 

wrote : 

" I have prayed to God more fervently than ever for 
the health which I need, in order to evince to your 
Majesty by deeds, as long as I live, my heartfelt grati- 
tude, and my fidelity as a born vassal of the Branden- 
burg ruling house." 

One passage of peculiar interest, as an ex- 
pression of Bismarck's ideal of a career, is 
found in a letter acknowledging the Emperor's 
Christmas gift of a copy of Ranch's monu- 
ment to Frederick the Great. He says : 

" I have always regretted that it was not permitted 
to me, according to the wishes of my parents, to mani- 
fest at the front rather than behind the writing-desk 
my attachment for the Royal House and my enthusiasm 
for the greatness and glory of the Fatherland. Even 
to-day, after your Majesty has raised me to the highest 
honours which a statesman can attain, I cannot quite 
suppress the regret that I have not won similiar pro- 
motion as a soldier. ... I should perhaps have been 
useless as a general, but if I had followed my own 
inclination I would rather have won battles for your 
Majesty . . . than diplomatic campaigns." 

So far, no mention has been made of the 
second, and in some respects more important, 
volume of the correspondence, — the letters 
other than those from and to Emperor Will- 
iam I. This volume includes some two hun- 
dred letters, of which about forty are from 
Bismarck, the others being addressed to him by 
various statesmen and royal persons. Space 
forbids any detailed examination of these, but 
one specially significant letter of 1859, showing 
Bismarck's far-sighted policy, deserves to be 
cited. He writes : 

" My eight years' experience at Frankfurt has con- 
vinced me that the Bund institutions are shackles on 




Prussia, galling in times of peace, and absolutely dan- 
gerous to her existence at critical periods. . . . Per- 
haps I go too far when I suggest that we should eagerly 
seize every lawful opportunity to assume the role of the 
offended party, and out of this to attain the revision of 
our mutual relations which Prussia needs in order that 
she may live permanently in satisfactory relations with 
the smaller German states. ... In my eyes, our rela- 
tionship with the Bund is an infirmity of Prussia's which, 
sooner or later, we shall have to heal ferro et igni if we 
do not take a favorable opportunity to combat it in 

The letters given to the public in these two 
volumes were selected by Prince Bismarck 
himself, and were found after his death, ar- 
ranged in portfolios. The translation, made by 
Mr. J. A. Ford, is in every way satisfactory, 
and particularly so when one considers the diffi- 
culties of German epistolary style. As in the 
German edition, some facsimile reproductions 
have been included — fewer in the English, 
however, than in the German. All in all, the 
work is one of more than passing interest and 
value. It will be indispensable in any library 
that deals, except in the most general way, with 
recent German history. 

Lewis A. Rhoades. 

American Moths.* 

In former times books with good colored 
illustrations of butterflies and moths were so 
expensive as to be quite beyond the means of 
ordinary individuals. Chromolithography, in 
the hands of experts, reached a high degree of 
excellence, and some very good works were 
published at fairly reasonable prices during the 
latter part of the nineteenth century. Indeed, 
the demand for such publications in England 
and Germany led to the appearance of an aston- 
ishing number of illustrated guides to various 
branches of entomology, which rendered the 
work of the amateur collector in those coun- 
tries comparatively easy. While it is true that 
these books appeared in response to a demand, 
they also served to create a further one, and 
80 the amateur study of natural phenomena be- 
came increasingly more prevalent and, I believe, 
more scientific. If I may judge from my own 
experience as a boy in England, the value of 
such literature to the cause of science can hardly 
be overestimated. In the old-fashioned schools 
of that country, science was practically ignored, 
and the student was obliged to resort to books 
and the public museums for information. The 

*Thb Moth Book. By W. J. Holland. Illustrated. 
New York : Doubleday, Page & Go. 

excellence of these agencies, however, made it 
possible to progress satisfactorily ; and it is 
even open to question whether such means, in 
the hands of an interested student, were not 
after all superior to class-instruction. I believe 
a strong argument could be presented for the 
abandonment of formal instruction in science 
as a means of education, except in relation to 
certain manifest utilities and technical trades, 
and the substitution of something more like the 
apparently hap-hazard method of the English 

In the United States, the amateur ento- 
mologist has not been so favorably situated, 
and his tribe has not increased as fast as we 
could wish. The excellent publications of the 
Division of Entomology of the Department of 
Agriculture have been very helpful, and there 
have appeared several general handbooks, and 
some works on special groups. Nevertheless, 
even among the butterflies and moths it has 
been very difficult for collectors to accurately 
determine their own captures, and they have 
depended upon the assistance of specialists 
whenever it could be obtained. This condition 
of comparative ignorance and dependence has 
not been favorable to the development of orig- 
inality, and many who might no doubt have 
done good work have been checked at the out- 
set by the obstacles to be overcome. The 
publication, a few years ago, of Dr. Holland's 
" Butterfly Book " marked a long step towards 
remedying these conditions. The new " three- 
color " photographic process was here put to a 
fair test, and the results were remarkably sat- 
isfactory. For the first time, all except the 
smaller and more obscure butterflies of the 
United States were well figured in colors ; and 
the book, containing also good descriptions and 
much other matter, was sold at a price which 
made it accessible everywhere. Now we have 
before us a similar but somewhat larger book 
on the American moths, by the same author. 
As there are over six thousand moths known in 
this country, it was found impossible to figure 
them all, and for that matter very many of 
them are too small to be treated successfully 
by the means employed. It was also found 
necessary to omit the descriptions, leaving the 
student to determine his specimens from the 
pictures, aided by such information regarding 
particular features, distribution and habits as 
could be furnished within a small space. Not- 
withstanding these unavoidable deficiencies, 
there are pictures of one-fourth of the known 
species, including nearly all of the larger and 



[Jan. 16, 

more conspicuous ones, and there is quite 8u£&- 
cient to give the student an excellent prelim- 
inary grasp of the subject. While the " Moth 
Book " is thus less complete than that on but- 
terflies, as compared with what was previously 
available it marks a considerably greater ad- 
vance, and from an amateur's point of view it 
puts the whole subject on an entirely new foot- 
ing. If it is necessary to replace it in a few 
years by something better, that will be the best 
proof of its success. 

Although the author took great pains to have 
the identifications of his moths correct, there are 
several errors, which have been pointed out by 
Dr. Dyar of the National Museum. In a future 
edition, these will of course be corrected, and 
one may perhaps be permitted to suggest that 
something more might be added concerning the 
characters which distinguish the various genera. 
It would also, I think, be an excellent plan to 
take a few more pages and give a full account 
(including all stages of development, distribu- 
tion, variation, natural enemies, etc.} of some 
one species, as a model for the student. One 
is a little afraid that there will be a tendency 
to merely match specimens with pictures, and 
forget that there is anything more to be done. 

Although this notice has been written with 
reference to the utility of the " Moth Book " 
to begineers and amateurs, it is proper to add 
that there is no specialist who will not find it 
of the utmost value. ^^ j^^ ^_ Cockerell. 

Abbott's Life of Bkecher.* 

In writing the biography of his distinguished 
friend and predecessor in Plymouth pulpit, Dr. 
Abbott aims, as his introduction states, to 
interpret Beecher's life and character. This 
purpose permits the writer to omit facts con- 
cerning ancestry and family life, obtainable 
elsewhere, and to utilize fully his intimate 
knowledge and sympathetic insight. These 
result from personal experience; for, as Dr. 
Abbott tells us, his life and theology were so 
revolutionized by Beecher in 1867 that he 
abandoned law for the ministry ; afterwards 
he helped Beecher prepare a special edition 
of sermons ; and still later, the two were 
for five years co-editors of "The Christian 
Union." That Dr. Abbott should attain distin- 

• Henry Ward Bebcbbr. By Lyman Abbott. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin &, Co. 

guished success in his interpretation was there- 
fore to be expected. 

As a chief means of understanding the per- 
sonality of Beecher, his conception of Christian 
truth and his two motives " love for God " and 
" desire for God's love " are explained and em- 
phasized until the reader perceives in them the 
key to Beecher's nature, to his intense activity 
and power of relaxation, to his courage and 
caution, his outspokenness and reserve, his self- 
confidence and self-depreciation, and also to his 
continually present and potent qualities, " the 
spontaneity of his humor, his love of beauty, the 
strength of his conscience, his chivalry toward 
women and children, and his transparent sin- 
cerity." To this portrayal, Dr. Abbott's own 
reminiscences lend life and value. For exam- 
ple, he thus describes a scene when, at his 
instigation, Beecher was endeavoring to revise 
the proof of a sermon : 

"He cut out here; interpolated there; again and 
again threw down the proof in impatience; again and 
again I took it up and insisted on his continuing the 
task. At last, sticking the pencil through the proof 
with a vicious stab, and throwing both upon the table 
before him, he said, < Abbott, the thing I wanted to say 
I didn't say; and the thing I didn't want to say I did 
say; and I don't know how to preach anyhow.'" 

Illustrations of Beecher's humor are numerous. 
Dr. Abbott says: 

" After I took the editorship of « The Christian 
Union ' I urged him to give his views on public ques- 
tions through its columns. ■ « As it is now,' I said, « any 
interviewer who comes to you gets a column from you; 
and the public is as apt to get your views in any other 
paper as in your own.' 'Yes,' he said, * I am like the 
town pump: anyone who will come and work the handle 
can carry o£E a pailful of water.' On one occasion I 
argued for Calvinism, that it had produced splendid 
characters in Scotland and in New England. 'Yes,* 
he replied, < Calvinism makes a few good men and 
destroys many mediocre men. It is like a churn: it 
makes good butter, but it throws away a lot of butter- 

The Beecher herein interpreted is not 
simply a remarkable personality, but a writer, 
preacher, and orator ; and here too we catch 
Dr. Abbott's enthusiasm, as he illustrates 
and analyzes Beecher's power in the pulpit of 
Plymouth Church and in England. The chap- 
ter called " The Yale Lectures on Preaching " 
is an excellent piece of criticism. We like 
also his characterization of Beecher as com- 
pared with Webster, Phillips, Sumner, Gough, 
Gladstone, and other contemporary orators. 
Dr. Abbott points out Mr. Beecher's superi- 
ority to George William Curtis " in inflaming, 
convincing, coercing power," though lacking 
Curtis's "grace and perfect art"; his method 




of reaching " the conscience through ideality," 
as contrasted with Finney's coercion through 
" logic aflame "; his spontaneity, and his use of 
illustrations from life, as opposed to Dr. Storrs's 
more artificial rhetoric and illustrations from 
books ; and the description of Phillips Brooks 
as " a greater preacher " and of Beecher as a 
" greater orator." Throughout the book the 
exposition of Beecher's oratory is such that we 
are left with Dr. Abbott's impression: 

" If the test of the oration is its perfection, whether of 
structure or of expression, other orators have surpassed 
Mr. Beecher; if the test of oratory is the power of the 
speaker to impart to his audience his life, to impress 
on them his conviction, animate them with his purpose, 
and direct their action to the accomplishment of his 
«nd, then Mr. Beecher was the greatest orator I have 
ever heard; and, in my judgment, whether measured 
by the immediate or the permanent effects of his ad- 
dresses, takes his place in the rank of the great orators 
•of the world." 

We are particularly grateful for the repre- 
sentation we here find of Beecher's scholarship 
and statesmanship, which the more brilliant 
qualities of his orations have obscured. In 
Beecher's speeches in England, Dr. Abbott 
discovers " great accuracy of historical infor- 
mation," "detailed acquaintance with the 
economic and industrial aspects of the slavery 
question," " clear apprehension of constitu- 
tional issues involved," and unanswerable 
logic. That Beecher had a statesman's clear- 
ness of insight and practical grasp of difficult 
situations, is continually made evident. Though 
aflame with anti-slavery fire, he was not an 
abolitionist, and foresaw the possible final 
overthrow of slavery by limiting its territory. 
Though a man who never lowered his ideals, 
his common-sense led him to insist upon prac- 
ticable methods. For example, though believ- 
ing in universal suffrage, he advocated that, 
in the case of the negroes, suffrage for a time 
be restricted by educational and property 
qualifications. He has been represented as 
inconsistent, not only by people who have 
over-emphasized seeming discrepancies in his 
statements, and by those to whom the merri- 
ment and reverence for which he was distin- 
guished seemed incompatible, but by those who 
misunderstood his shifting political affiliations 
and later theological views. Some of these 
inconsistencies are explained by this concep- 
tion of him as scholar and statesman. He 
always believed principles more binding than 
party, and his statesmanship led him to side 
with Andrew Johnson and the Democratic 
leaders in desiring the speedy *' restoration of 
all the States late in rebellion to their Federal 

relation," for " their own health, as indirectly 
the best policy for the freedmen, as peculiarly 
needful for the safety of our Government." 
Moreover, a life-long individualist and student 
of economics, he consistently believed in Free 
Trade, for which Mr. Cleveland stood ; and 
the fact that he spent years in studying Evolu- 
tion accounts for the new emphasis in his later 
preaching. The insignificance of the theo- 
logical adjustments that he found necessary, 
and his courage in advocating new truths years 
before their common acceptance, awaken his 
biographer's admiration. 

Dr. Abbott gives much information con- 
cerning American religious and political life 
during the last century. In Chapter I. we 
read that the legacy left by eighteenth- century 
Puritan theology was 

"A fear of God; a reverence for his law; a strenuous 
though narrow and conventional conscience; but also a 
religion divorced from ethics; a Church silent in the 
presence of intemperance and slavery; without mis- 
sionary zeal or missionary organization; threatened by 
the intellectual revolt which eventually carried from 
it some of its wisest and noblest men; and surrounded 
by a community lapsing into indifference and neglect 
or combining in open and cynical infidelity." 

Equally valuable is the account of the theology 
which regarded religion as a " form of life," 
and which, under the leadership of Horace 
Bushnell " the apostle of faith," Charles G. 
Finney " the apostle of hope," and Henry 
Ward Beecher " the apostle of love," succeeded 
in replacing Puritan rationalism. Chapter III. 
gives a picture of Cincinnati and Indianapolis 
in the thirties and forties, and a suggestive 
contrast between the methods then in vogue 
of fitting men for life and those used to-day. 
The chapter called " Parenthetical " contains 
a comprehensive and clearly defined exposition 
of the complications of the anti-slavery issue, 
and a description of the three parties that in 
1847 clashed in the North. In Chapter IV. 
are found a statement of the principles of 
Congregationalism, a comparison of Congre- 
gational and quartette singing, and a division 
of churches into two classes — the one empha- 
sizing worship, the other preaching ; the one 
building a cathedral, the other a " meeting- 
house." For classification, Dr. Abbott has a 
veritable genius, separating prayers into three 
groups, and lives of Christ into eight. 

Doubtless the introduction of so much that 
is but indirectly ancillary to the writer's main 
purpose greatly enriches the book. And such 
is Dr. Abbott's ability to summarize and sub- 
ordinate that this seemingly extraneous mat- 



[Jan. 16, 

ter in no way impairs its structural unity. 
Thus our attention throughout centres on 
Mr. Beecher, *' a man of great spiritual and 
intellectual genius, whose faults were super- 
ficial, whose virtues were profound, whose 
influence will outlive his fame, and who has 
probably done more to change directly the 
religious life, and indirectly the theological 
thought in America, than any preacher since 
Jonathan Edwards." 

Mart Eleanor Barrows. 

A Seventeenth Century 


One of the most interesting discussions in 
literary history has grown from the attempt to 
fix the responsibility for certain statements in 
Father Hennepin's later publications concern- 
ing the original exploration of the lower Mis- 
sissippi by members of the La Salle expedition. 
In 1673 Joliet and Father Marquette descended 
the Mississippi, by the gateway of the Wiscon- 
sin, as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas, 
returning by way of the Illinois river and Lake 
Michigan to Green Bay. Although these ex- 
plorers did not reach the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi, they had gone far enough to determine 
that it had its outlet not in the '■*■ South Sea " 
but in the Gulf of Mexico. The chevalier 
La Salle, who for some years, from his deri- 
sively named outpost of La Chine on the St. 
Lawrence, had been seeking a way overland 
to China, caught a new inspiration from the 
new discovery, and turned his purposes from 
the West to the South. No longer a trade 
route to the further East but a French empire 
in the nearer Southwest, became the goal of 
his ambitions. 

That great pro-consul. Count Frontenac, 
whose name shines in the temple of fame along- 
side that of his less fortunate successor who 
perished on the heights of Abraham, was ruling 
in the French colony on the St. Lawrence. 
His vision was one with that of La Salle. Both 
saw a great opportunity for French ascendancy, 
political and commercial, in the still unoccupied 
valley of the Mississippi, where prompt meas- 
ures would plant a greater France and at the 
same time place an eternal barrier in the face 
of English aggression. Less intent upon the 

* Hennepin's A New Discovery op a Vast Country 
IN America. Reprinted from the second London edition 
of 1698. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. In two volumes. 
Illustrated. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co. 

personal welfare of the American Indian than 
upon the exploitation of the undeveloped re- 
sources of his broad lands, they looked at first 
with cold indifference on the noble services 
rendered to humanity by the Jesuit fathers. 
But their indifference changed to a more pos- 
itive disfavor when the plans for exploitation 
on the one hand and for salvation on the other 
clashed over an " Indian policy " in regard to 
" fire water " and other doubtful blessings of 
civilization. Consequently when La Salle's little 
band went out into the wilderness in 1678 they 
took with them as spiritual advisers and mis- 
sionaries four members of that more tractable 
religious brotherhood, the RecoUet Order of 

That one of this group who has become well 
known through his narrative of the expedition 
was Father Louis Hennepin. Born about 1640, 
in the province of Hainault in the Spanish 
Netherlands, he entered the RecoUet order 
while still a lad. But his spirit and his aspira- 
tions were hardly those of a friar and recluse. 
He says : 

" I was passionately in love with hearing the rela- 
tions that masters of ships gave of their voyages. I 
used oft-times to skulk behind the doors of victualling- 
houses to hear the seamen give an account of their 
adventures. This occupation was so agreeable and 
engaging that I have spent whole days and nights at 
it without eating; for hereby I always came to under- 
stand some new thing, concerning the customs and ways 
of living in remote places, and concerning the pleasant- 
ness, fertility, and riches of the countries where these 
men had been." 

After serving for a time as an army chaplain 
in the wars with France, his desires were grati- 
fied in 1675, when the superior of his order 
commanded him to sail with four others to the 
help of Frontenac in Canada. Going out on 
the same ship with La Salle he did not again 
come in touch with him until in 1678, when, 
again at the order of his superior in Paris, 
he joined La Salle for his great journey to 
the unexplored West. Two years were spent 
as chaplain at the outpost of Fort Frontenac 
on Lake Ontario, where, he says, "I gave 
myself much to the reading of voyages, and 
encreas'd the ambition I had to pursue my 
design of making this discovery." Another 
year was spent in convent at Quebec, " in order 
to prepare and sanctifie myself for commencing 
our discovery." In September, 1678, the party 
was made up, with La Salle at its head, 
ably seconded by Henri de Tonty, Hennepin, 
Ribourde, and Membi e, who were to carry the 
gospel to the western Indians. 




The winter rendezvous was above the falls of 
Niagara, where a vessel of forty-five tons called 
the " Griffon " was built. On the seventh of 
August, 1679, the expedition sailed for Lake 
Michigan on this ship — the first keeled boat 
that ever navigated the great lakes. The win- 
ter of 1679-80 was spent on the Illinois River, 
where Fort Crevecoeur was built near Lake 
Peoria. At the beginning of March the party 
separated. La Salle with four companions re- 
turned to Frontenac for supplies, Tonty and 
fifteen Frenchmen remained to hold the out- 
post on the Illinois, and Father Hennepin, in 
company with Michael Accau and Antoine 
Augel, started on the now famous canoe voy- 
age to explore the Illinois to its junction with 
the Mississippi and to further ascend the latter 
river as far as feasible. Although Hennepin 
always poses as the leader of this expedition, 
Accau, who knew the Indian languages, was 
the official leader. But the man of the pen, 
as usual, has triumphed over him of the sword, 
and the fame of this daring adventure will 
always be Hennepin's. Captured by a party of 
Sioux near Lake Pepin, the little band of white 
men made an involuntary acquaintance with the 
higher reaches of the Mississippi as far as the 
Falls of St. Anthony. Here they were rescued 
by a party of five coureurs de hois led by 
that great adventurer and explorer, Daniel 
Greysolon du Lhut. This masterful man, who 
could go with safety almost alone among In- 
dians hostile to the white man, was welcomed 
with as much joy by the Sioux as by the pris- 
oners, and in his keeping the whole party of 
whites came out, by the Wisconsin and Win- 
nebago route, to spend the winter of 1680-81 
at Mackinac. 

In the summer of 1681 Hennepin was once 
more at Quebec, and in the fall he sailed for 
France and his career as an explorer ended. 
At the beginning of 1683 he published at Paris 
a work entitled " Description de la Louisiane," 
and its narrative of the events of the spring 
and summer of 1680 are fully authenticated 
in the independent narratives of La Salle and 
du Lhut. But while Hennepin at St. Germain 
in 1682 was writing his book. La Salle, who 
had returned to the Illinois country in 1681, 
was making his wonderful voyage down the 
Mississippi to the sea, and Father Membre 
was of his party. In 1690 was published 
Le Clercq's " Etablissement de la Foi," which 
contained Membre's narrative of that expedi- 
tion. But Le Clercq's book was almost imme- 
diately suppressed, and its contents and the 

achievements they narrated appear to have 
been known only to a few persons. Here was 
a literary opportunity that appealed to the 
mercurial mind of Hennepin. In 1697 he 
published at Utrecht his "Nouvelle Decouverte 
d'un tres grand Pays, situe dans I'Ameriqiie." 
In this volume he boldly appropriates Membre's 
narrative and La Salle's glory, and incorporates 
the voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi into 
his trip of 1680 as a preliminary to the voyage 
on the upper river. This claim was in the 
face of the statement in his earlier book that 
" the tribes that took us prisoners gave us no 
time to navigate this river both up and down." 
His party left the Illinois in a canoe about the 
twelfth of March, and were captured near 
Lake Pepin on the eleventh of April. Yet the 
latter book claims for this month a canoe voy- 
age of 3300 miles, two-thirds of the distance 
against the current of the Father of Waters ! 

All the authorities, with one exception, from 
Jared Sparks to Mr. Thwaites, have duly char- 
acterized the mendacity of Hennepin, who if 
an honest man might have achieved a worthy 
fame with one immortal voyage and one praise- 
worthy book. The exception is John Gilmary 
Shea. In his " Discovery and Exploration of 
the Mississippi," published in 1852, Mr. Shea 
joins in the general condemnation of Hennepin's 
monumental " steal," but in his " Hennepin's 
Description of Louisiana," published in 1880, 
he puts forward the ingenious theory that 
Hennepin was the guileless victim of a sup- 
posititious editor whom Broedelet, the Utrecht 
publisher, employed to refashion Hennepin's 
genuine narrative. A detailed investigation of 
the whole matter leads one to follow Mr. 
Thwaites when he says : " A careful compari- 
son between Louisiane and its successors leads 
us irresistibly to the conclusion that, as Shea 
originally held, the blame must rest upon the 
shoulders of Hennepin quite as much as upon 
those of his publishers." 

This imposture, the "Nouvelle Decouverte," 
published in 1697, while containing Henne- 
pin's true voyage, and much other matter 
true and false, omits the valuable accounts of 
the Indian life and manners contained in the 
" Louisiane." However, it went through many 
editions speedily, and was translated into nu- 
merous languages. In 1698 a third work of 
his, the " Nouveau Voyage d'un Pais plus 
grand que I'Europe," was published at Utrecht. 
This is a patchwork of Indian customs from 
the " Louisiane " and travels by La Salle 
and others from Le Clercq. The same year 



[Jan. 16, 

was published at London an English transla- 
tion of Hennepin's works entitled " A New 
Discovery of a Vast Country in America." 
This consists practically of the "Nouvelle 
Deeouverte " and the " Nouveau Voyage," with 
some added material cribbed from earlier trav- 
ellers. It is this English translation or version 
that Mr. Thwaites has undertaken to edit, so 
that with Shea's reprint of 1880 we may have 
a complete set of the voyages by Hennepin. 
The work, as we expect from this editor, has 
been splendidly done. An introduction deals 
with the career and literary duplicity of the 
author, and Mr. Victor Hugo Paltsits of the 
Lenox Library furnishes the first accurate 
bibliography of Hennepin. Excellent copies 
of the original maps and engravings are in- 
cluded. The publishers have given this accu- 
rate reproduction a worthy setting in paper, 
print, and binding to delight a book lover. 
Besides the regular edition, in two volumes, 
there are 160 numbered copies beautifully 
printed on handmade paper. 

John J. Halsey. 


The unbeliever who has read all the books 
that have been written on colonial times, would 
have said that there was not enough material 
left for another. But he would have under- 
rated both the potency of Mrs. Alice Morse 
Earle's divining-rod, and the richness of trea- 
sure which lurks in the subject of clothes. 
That potency and richness are proved by two 
ample and sumptuous volumes recently pro- 
duced by Mrs. Earle under the title " Two 
Centuries of Costume in America." 

Being content, for the most part, to leave 
the deeper and vaguer phases of her subject to 
Carlyle, who as a mere man and philosopher 
cannot enter with joy into the details of actual 
dress, and having moreover disposed of the 
more scientific side in " Customs and Fashions 
in Old New England," Mrs. Earle is free in the 
present work to revel in all the gorgeousness 
of historic finery. And what an array she 
gives ! From the beautiful Van Dyck costumes, 
and the plain dress of the Quakers and early 
Puritans, through the ugly ornateness of Res- 
toration times, to the prettiness of Watteau's 

*Two Cbnturibs of Costume in America. By Alice 
Morse Earle. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

conceits, the "witless bravery " of hoop skirts, 
and the immodest scantiness of Empire fash- 
ions, — all are here, described in Mrs. Earle's 
piquant style, and made real by a wealth of 
illustrations which form a treasure-house in 
themselves. The author's love of the glint and 
rustle of brocade and the soft witchery of gauze 
and lace is testified on every page ; and who- 
ever does not feel a responding love in his own 
soul is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils. 
Let not the eternal masculine scoff. He will 
love to read of his past glories, or he is not of 
the same race as the Boston groom of whom it 
is recorded that " his dress was so much more 
striking than the bride's that she had a hearty 
fit of crying over it." 

Historically, of course, the book is of great 
value, especially the chapters on the Evolution 
of Coats and Waistcoats, and of Pantaloons 
and Pantalets. Shorn of the embroidery of 
quaint terms and clever phrases, some of the 
interesting general facts which are developed 
are these : that as a class Americans from 
1650 to i860 dressed more expensively and 
fashionably than Englishmen; that men were 
not less gorgeously clad than women, nor less 
anxious to be in " the high kick of fashion "; 
that " the most devoted follower of fashion in 
the present day gives no more heed to dress 
and the modes than did the early American 
Colonists"; and that even the Puritan who 
dressed in " sad color " was not necessarily 
sombre in attire, since "sad color" included 
purple and green, and many a Puritan wore 
a red waistcoat. 

It is dangerous to quote, for there is no place 
to stop. But one cannot resist repeating the 
mere words in this list of colors : 

" Billymot, phillymurt, or philomot (feuille-mort), 
murry, gridolin (gris-de-lin or flax blossom), puce 
color, Kendal green, Lincoln green, barry, milly, stam- 
mel red, zaffer-blue." 

This is irresistible, too, though the tribute is 
to an Englishman : 

'< The guards of lace a finger broad laid on over the 
seams of the gown are described by Pepys in his day. 
He had some of these guards of gold lace taken from 
the seams of one of his wife's old gowns to overlay the 
seams of one of his own cassocks and rig it up for wear, 
just as he took his wife's old muff, like a thrifty husband, 
and bought her a new muff, like a kind one. . . . Really 
a seventeenth century husband was not so bad." 

Here is a description of the ornaments of 
headdresses which shows what extravagancies 
our ancestors were capable of : 

" It would be idle to enumerate the various designs 




which were borne on the heads of women at about the 
time of the American Revolution. There were • gar- 
den ' styles with flowers; 'kitchen-garden' modes with 
vegetables fastened to the side curls and heaped on top; 
* rural ' styles had windmills, which turned in the wind, 
a sportsman and deer, a shepherd and sheep. The 
•peal of bells' was a headful of ringing bells; the 
■• treasurer ' showed the hair dangling with coins. The 
'naval battle ' displayed a French ship of war in full 
sail, in spun glass." 

Mrs. Earle dedicates her book very aptly 
and deservedly to Mr. George P. Brett, Presi- 
dent of the Macmillan Company. Happy 
indeed is the author who can apply to her pub- 
lisher the words which poor George Wither, 
after many vexations at the hands of the 
*'cotrary" sort, gave as his "definitio of an 
honest stationer" — one that '■'• exercizeth his 
mystery with more respect to the glory of God 
and the publike than to his owne Commodity ^^^ 
and for whom " the whole Company of Sta- 
tioners ought to prayP 

May Estelle Cook. 

A Century of Expansion.* 

In his account of "A Century of Expansion" 
Mr. Johnson has sought to do more than write 
a mere sketch of territorial acquisitions by the 
United States. In the first place, his concep- 
tion of his subject is such that he finds it 
necessary to devote a third of his book to a 
description of conditions and events prior to 
the first accession of territory under the Con- 
stitution. The forces which rendered American 
expansion " not only possible but inevitable " 
are declared to have " preceded the formation 
or even the conception of the Republic " — in 
fact to have been "anticipated in the very 
circumstances of the Columbian discovery." 
More striking than this is the scope which 
Mr. Johnson attaches to the term "expansion." 
*' The history of American expansion," he says, 
*' is something far more than a record of geo- 
graphical extension, or even of wars and treaties. 
It involves the history, in large measure, of 
constitutional development and interpretation, 
of domestic institutions, of foreign relations, 
and of our whole national life." This, of 
course, makes of expansion an exceedingly vast 
subject. The author disclaims any intention 
to do more than present, in a spirit of candor 
and impartiality, the salient features of the 

*A Cbnturt of Expansion. By Willis Fletcher 
Johnson. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

great story. The history of American expan- 
sion is recognized to be not all " pride and 
sunshine." " The nation," we read, " has not 
always acted wisely and well. There are things 
to condemn as well as to commend. Acts are 
not always necessarily right just because our 
country performs them." This is sound doc- 
trine, and while it does not represent any new 
revelation, it cannot be preached with too 
great frequency. It is gratifying to encounter 
a writer who proclaims the truth so straight- 

Mr. Johnson writes thus from such a whole- 
some point of view, and draws the bold outlines 
of his subject in such a convincing manner, 
that one cannot but regret the more deeply 
his occasional superficiality and carelessness in 
handling details. It would be an easy matter 
to make up a long list of more or less serious 
errors into which he has fallen. For instance, 
it was in 1716, not 1718, that Lieutenant- 
Governor Spotswood and his fifty " Knights 
of the Golden Horseshqg " crossed the Blue 
Ridge. And why spell it "Spottswood " ? 
The worthy gentleman himself did not do so. 
Pittsburg is spoken of as existing in 1764, 
although " the Forks " did not bear that name 
until nearly a decade later. The story of a 
Jesuit college at Kaskaskia in the first quarter 
of the eighteenth century, as ridiculous as it is 
oft-repeated, is scrupulously preserved. The 
extent of westward migration prior to the 
Revolution is considerably exaggerated. The 
fact of George Rogers Clark's conquest of the 
Northwest in 1778-79 played no part in the 
peace negotiations at Paris in 1782, though 
the contrary is here strongly implied. Western 
state-making during the Revolution is very in- 
adequately treated. It is certainly quite un- 
necessary to explain Clark's acquiescence in 
Genet's intrigues for the alienation of the 
West from the United States on the theory 
that he was " partially insane "; else such in- 
sanity must have been frightfully common 
about 1793-94. The utterly unanticipated 
character of the purchase of Louisiana is ob- 
scured by an exaggerated statement of an 
alleged American determination about 1800-2 
to oust Spain and France completely from the 
Mississippi Valley. Throughout the discus- 
sion of the Louisiana annexation there is, if 
not too much praise for Hamilton's enthusiastic 
defiance of European powers, at least a very 
stinted recognition of the fact that, after all, 
events proved Jefferson's policy of " palliation 



[Jan. 16, 

and endurance " unquestionably the wisest that 
could have been pursued under existing con- 
ditions. The treaty by which Florida was 
purchased from Spain was signed in 1819, 
not 1818. It is mere waste of space to set 
down the Louisiana Purchase as in any degree 
a basis of American claim to Oregon. The 
Marcus Whitman legend still lives, though in 
a rather emasculated condition, in this book. 
Though the author does not go so far as to 
attribute to Whitman any actual influence in 
" saving Oregon," yet he represents Whitman's 
famous trip to the East in the winter of 
1842-43 as made for that purpose absolutely. 
In view of Professor Bourne's convincing 
argument that Whitman's mission was entirely 
for religious, not political, purposes, there can 
no longer be excuse for such blunt adherence 
to the old view, with not the slightest mention 
of the new. 

The most satisfactory portions of the book 
are the chapters on the Mexican and Oregon 
acquisitions, "Our Afctic Province — Alaska," 
" Mid-Sea Possessions," and " The Spanish 
Islands." There are perhaps no better brief, 
non-technical treatises on these topics in print. 
Despite the avowed popular character of the 
book, it is a matter for regret that there are 
no citations of sources and authorities. The 
author clearly believes the expansion which 
has thus far marked the career of the United 
States to have been quite inevitable. To him 
the annexation of the Philippines did not mark 
any new departure in American policy — did 
not even make America for the first time a 
" world power." The thesis is ardently main- 
tained, and with a good deal of success, that 
" from the very beginning America has been 
a world power and a participant in world poli- 
tics." The only region, however, in which 
further territorial acquisition may be expected 
is the West Indies. Finally the author, after 
his survey of the whole field, arrives at the 
following concisely stated conclusion : 

" Expansion has never been and never should be an 
end in itself, but merely a means of working out our 
highest national destiny. It has in the past proved such 
a means, absolutely essential and inestimably profitable. 
It would hereafter be deplorable, and deserving of 
strongest condemnation, for America to sieze upon any 
additional territory, great or small, through mere lust 
of land. It would be equally deplorable and worthy of 
condemnation for America to decline the acquisition, 
whether by peaceful purchase or by forcible conquest, 
of any territory the control of which by us was dictated 
by humanity or honor, or the possession of which was 
essential to our own safety, peace, and prosperity." 

Frederic Austin Ogg. 

Briefs on New Books. 

That mind is something more than 
ZpZlled mind. » product of material evolution has 

never been more convincingly brought 
home to the thoughtful observer than by the lives 
of Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller. How the 
latter was led oat of darkness into light has recently 
been told us. To this account is now added an 
equally interesting and instructive narrative, illus- 
trated by copious extracts from her joarnal and 
letters, of Laura Bridgman's remarkable history. 
In some respects, this is the more noteworthy vol- 
ume of the two ; for hers was the earliest case of 
its kind successfully treated, and we are made to 
follow, almost with bated breath, the first groping 
and tentative efforts of teacher and pupil to break 
through the thick wall of darkness which the skep- 
tical public believed to be impenetrable. The book 
— its title in full is " Laura Bridgman, Dr. Howe's 
Famous Pupil, and What he Taught her" — is 
written by two of the philanthropist's daughters, 
Mrs. Maud Howe Elliott and Mrs. Florence Howe 
Hall, is illustrated (sparingly) by a son-in-law, Mr. 
John Elliott, and is published in attractive form by 
Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. It is a filial tribute 
to Dr. Howe, as well as an account of his remark- 
able pupil. More impressive even than the won- 
derful unfolding of the afflicted girl's mind is the 
free and natural development of her fine moral 
sense, — until sectarian influences, despite Dr. 
Howe's watchful care, were brought to bear on her 
during a vacation at her home in New Hampshire. 
The worst effects of these largely wore off with 
time ; but one perceives here a sad interruption to 
the spontaneous and harmonious growth of her 
religious nature. The student of language will find 
in this volume much that is both amusing and in- 
structive, as well as pathetic, in poor Laura's heroic 
struggle to express herself in writing. 

Professor Brander Matthews has col- 
Thahutoryof lected into a volume, which is pub- 

dramatxe art. ,.,,, , tr i~.-i 

hshed by the Messrs. bcribner, a 
course of ten lectures on " The Development of the 
Drama," which he has given during the past two 
or three years before various audiences in England 
and the United States. It is not a very stout book, 
but it sketches the history of dramatic art in its 
great epochs both ancient and modern, and tells a 
story that has not heretofore been told, as far as we 
are aware, within the limits of a single volume. 
Other and more extensive histories of dramatic 
literature there are, no doubt, but as Mr. Matthews 
points out, they are " unduly distended " by bio- 
graphical and controversial matter, and fail to give 
adequate attention to the shaping influences of cir- 
cumstances and intellectual environment upon the 
development of dramatic art. Summarized, this 
interesting volume gives us a preliminary chapter 
upon " The Art of the Dramatist," two chapters on 
the Greek and Roman drama, one on the drama 




of the Middle Ages, three upon the blossoming of 
the art in Spain, England, and France, respectively, 
one each upon the stage of the eighteenth and the 
nineteenth century, and a final forecast of " The 
Future of the Drama." Throughout, the material 
is judiciously selected, and the treatment is fresh 
and suggestive. The author is mainly concerned 
with the technical aspects of dramatic art, and 
brings to bear upon his treatment an extensive 
knowledge of stagecraft, based upon a thorough 
historical study of the theatre, ancient and modern. 
Those who think primarily of the drama as a spe- 
cies of literature will wince more than once at the 
author's remarks about the great poets, but the 
criticisms which he makes of their work, although 
sometimes startling, may fairly be allowed if we 
remember that an exposition of dramatic technique 
rather than of literary expression is the main pur- 
pose which he has in view. By way of illustration 
of both the author's style and the comprehensive- 
ness of his survey, we will close this notice of an 
extremely interesting book with a passage from the 
closing chapter. 

"Thus it 18 that Ibsen stretches back across the centuries 
to clasp hands with Sophocles ; and a comparison of the sus- 
taining skeleton of the story in ' Oedipus the King ' with that 
in ' Ghosts ' will bring out the fundamental likeness of the 
Scandinavian dramatist to the Greek, — at least in so far as 
the building of their plots is concerned. Inspired in the one 
case by the idea of fate and in the other by the doctrine of 
heredity, each of them worked out a theme of overwhelming 
import and of weighty simplicity. Each of them in his drama 
dealt not so much with action in the present before the eyes 
of the spectator, as with the appalling and inexorable con- 
sequences of action in the past before the play began. In 
both dramas these deeds done long ago are not set forth in a 
brief exposition more or less ingeniously included in the ear- 
lier scenes : they are slowly revealed one by one in the course 
of the play, and each at the moment when the revelation is 
most harrowing." 

The truth of this comparison is unassailable, how- 
ever it may be scoffed at by the classicist, who is 
scandalized at the very idea of naming the two 
poets in the same breath. 

The Shakespeare Jwo interesting and somewhat sim- 
eountry described ilar Contributions to Shakespeariana 
andiuuxraied. jj^^g recently made an almost sim- 
ultaneuus appearance. " The Shakespeare Coun- 
try " — first issued in the " Country Life Library " 
and now reprinted and imported by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons — is notable chiefly for its pic- 
tures ; though the text, by Mr. John Ley land, is 
far from being without intrinsic value. Mr. Ley- 
land is wise enough not to attempt to theorize about 
the incidents of Shakespeare's life ; instead, he 
expends his efforts upon a reconstruction of Eliza- 
bethan Warwickshire, where without doubt — if 
we except the Baconian theory — Shakespeare 
spent much of his life. He puts a fresh and really 
impressive emphasis on the fact that, while we know 
not what manner of man Shakespeare was, nor how 
he brewed his magic potion out of hillside beauty, 
churchyard horror, and village revel, we can know 
with very accurate approximation his physical en- 

vironment, and so can get a background with which 
to surround, though not after modern methods to 
" explain," his very lonely personality. The illus- 
trations of this volume consist of over a hundred 
remarkably clear and beautiful half-tone plates, 
made from photographs. These picture all the 
interesting landmarks of Stratford and Shottery, 
and give glimpses of the neighboring villages, of 
Warwick, Kenilworth, and Stoneleigh Abbey. — Less 
popular in method and much wider in scope than 
the foregoing is the work entitled " Shakespeare's 
Home-Land " (Dent-Dutton). Its author, Mr. W. 
Salt Brassington, is an enthusiastic antiquarian, 
who cares little for mere landscape, but revels in 
tradition, legend, and genealogical lore. He at- 
tempts, however, to record accurately and pains- 
takingly his impressions of the country around 
Stratford ; and in this part of his work he is greatly 
aided by the dainty little pen-and-ink sketches which 
are thickly scattered through his pages. But he is 
most interesting, because most interested, when he 
is delving deep into the perplexing question of 
Shakespeare's ancestry or his possible connection 
with the Gunpowder Plot, collecting all the local 
traditions of the poet, giving an exhaustive account 
of the relics and portraits of him, and finally rang- 
ing far afield to gather all the historic and legendary 
associations of places within easy distance of Strat- 
ford, whether or not they have any connection with 
Shakespeare. To the stay-at-home reader, a perusal 
of the book may prove burdensome because of the 
wealth of material included ; but the pilgrim to the 
region around Stratford will find it a valuable 
companion for a leisurely jaunt through Warwick- 
shire and parts of the neighboring counties. 

" Watts was born with a delicate con- 
'o*rw^uJ!r.a. stJtution, and all his life has been far 

from robust ; indeed, often weak and 
sickly. ... It has often been noticed that strong 
men have one weak point, and their general con- 
stitution is not stronger than that one point." 
When Mr. Hugh Macmillan wrote these words in 
comment upon his friend George Frederick Watts, 
he little imagined that the work of revising the 
proofs of the book would devolve upon the subject 
of his study. As the title, " The Life- Work of 
George Frederick Watts," suggests, Mr. Macmillan 
has devoted himself to the explanation of Mr. 
Watts's pictures and methods of work rather than 
to what might be called a biography in the strict 
sense of the word. At the same time the several 
extracts from letters, and the scraps of conversa- 
tion, so skilfully used, tell of the close relation 
between writer and subject. Of Mr. Watts's por- 
traits, which were his first serious woiks in art, 
Mr. Macmillan says: "They do not depict the 
expression which happens at the moment to come 
into the face, but the inner mystery of the person- 
ality ; not the accidencies of life, but the essentials. 
. . . We have had no such perception of character — 
no such power to paint the mind as well as the body 



[Jan. 16, 

in portraiture, since Vandyke painted Charles I., 
Henrietta Maria, Strafford, Laud, or the Countess 
of Carlyle." From portrait-painting the artist 
passed to the broader field of imagination, to repre- 
senting the Greek myths and Hebrew stories in 
pictures; and then to what he considered his par- 
ticular sphere — Allegory. The didactic purpose 
of these pictures greatly impressed Mr. Macmillan; 
and the explanations of the allegories, the fitting 
out of Mr. Watts's suggestions by the author, pro- 
vide many points of interest. Yet we sometimes 
wish Mr. Macmillan had not admired his subject 
quite so ardently. Not that the subject is unde- 
serving of his praise, but the frequent reiteration 
of the artist's peculiar fitness for every department 
of his art is likely to pall upon us. The book is 
filled with many poetic and literary reminiscences, 
oftentimes merely quotations, but more frequently 
inwrought in the author's sentences. The accurate 
and comprehensive index renders the book valuable 
as a work of reference, not alone to Mr. Watts's 
work, but to contemporary art as well. 

Near the summit of Echo Mountain, 
Ech^MMin. overlooking the beautiful city of 

Pasadena, in the fertile San Gabriel 
Valley of California, is situated the Lowe Obser- 
vatory, the director of which, Mr. E. L. Larkin, 
entranced by the beauties of the scenes around him 
and by those of the overhanging vault of heaven, 
has written a little book in which he portrays the 
glories which flash from sun and star, and indicates 
the results which astronomers have won with the 
spectroscope and photographic plate. The title of 
the book, " Radiant Energy " (Los Angeles : Baum- 
gardt Publishing Co.), is doubly happy ; for it sug- 
gests not only the flashings of power from distant 
worlds, but also the exuberant spirit of the author. 
For him, '' The Galactic hosts are splashed and 
strewn in spray, in spirals, and are tumbled in con- 
fusion on a carpet of jet-black velvet, or cosmical 
hail of pearls and diamonds on blackened wastes of 
space, or piled in heaps, raked into windrows and 
rolled into banks and bulwarks, all flashing and 
blazing with supernal colors." To him, spectrum 
analysis is the " chief study that ever actuated the 
human brain "; and of the dark lines in the solar 
spectrum, he says, " Their discovery and translation 
is the chief event that has occurred on the earth 
within the period of written history." Of the men 
who make astrophysical investigations, we are told 
that " no labor ever performed by the human frame 
is more arduous and exacting than that hourly 
engaged in by a working astrophysicist. A trained 
astronomer is a machine of precision, with every 
phase of bodily life, every faculty of mind, every- 
thing in his being, an abject slave to indomitable 
will." Even the apparently insignificant decimal 
.00002010899 may produce in us a feeling of awe, 
when we are informed that it has " tremendous 
analytical power, and there is no escape from its 
clutch for any mass, if it is moving." The reader 

bows humbly before the parallax of Alpha Centauri, 
when he becomes aware that it is " that number 
whose value cannot be compared to anything in the 
possession of man." But the reader must go to the 
book itself to enjoy to the full the freshness and 
uncoDventionality of the author. After reading 
the last twenty-five pages, in which are described 
the beautiful location of the Lowe Observatory 
and the wonderful appearance of the starry vault 
above it, one may be pardoned for taking the next 
train to Southern California, in acceptance of Mr. 
Larkin's invitation found on p. 317, which runs as 
follows : " So, to geologists, biologists, entomologists, 
botanists, mineralogists, microscopists, meteorolo- 
gists, naturalists, lovers of nature in her most splen- 
did forms and modes, students of the sea, growers 
of fruit, engineers, electricians, railroad builders, 
mountain climbers, explorers, spectroscopists, pho- 
tographers, artists, and astronomers, it is said, come 
to this wondrous place — Echo Mountain." 

The autobiographical record of the 
o/lnA^itrZT^! formative influences in a notable life 

is always instructive; and such a 
record gains in interest when it is made to include, 
besides an account of the author's own work, nu- 
merous anecdotes and pen-sketches of great men 
with whom it was his good fortune to be asso- 
ciated. The earlier chapters of Professor New- 
comb's "Reminiscences" (Houghton) deal with the 
boyish yearnings of the author for something more 
than a mere living, and with his successful efforts 
to escape from the " world of cold and darkness " 
into the regions of " sweetness and light." Pro- 
fessor Newcomb writes of his early life in Nova 
Scotia, of his attempts to teach school in Maryland, 
and of the years he spent in fitting himself for 
his great work in astronomy, with simple candor 
and directness. More interesting still are the 
chapters dealing with the life-work of the author, 
connecting him with the great movements of astro- 
nomical thought and scientific progress during the 
past forty or fifty years. One great value of the 
book lies in its collection of sketches of scientific 
men. The author writes of personal contact with 
such men as Leverrier and Adams, the twin dis- 
coverers of Neptune, of Airy the Astronomer Royal, 
of Hansen, Holden, Barnard, Tyndall, Henry, Hill, 
Lord Kelvin, Struve, and many others. Some of 
the author's feats of observation read like the detec- 
tive stories of Conan Doyle. His method of clear- 
ing Father Hell of suspected forgery was worthy 
of the celebrated Sherlock Holmes himself. He is 
never wearisome, — and whether he tells us of his 
life in Paris at the time of the capitulation to the 
Prussians, or of the humorous antics of a Washing- 
ton newsboy during our Civil War, his words are 
full of that human sympathy which is a character- 
istic of the man. The book is readable throughout ; 
indeed, it is preeminently one of those of which 
it can truthfully be said that " there is not a dull 
page in it." 




Lectures ami To those who demand of a book 

addresses of that it shall be something more than 

a journalist. ^gj.g literature, " The Compromises 

of Life " (Fox, Duffield & Co.), by the editor of the 
Louisville " Courier-Journal," will give satisfaction. 
Written by a man of wide experience outside his 
chosen field of journalism, this collection of public 
addresses is a pleasing change from the lucubrations 
of the closet philosopher. Mr. Watterson is honest, 
outspoken, abundantly endowed with what is known 
as horse sense, always sanely optimistic, and never- 
failing in wit and humor. In his own way, and 
choosing his own illustrations, he preaches the gos- 
pel that the life is more than meat, and the body 
than raiment. That a public speaker should never 
contradict himself, is too much to expect ; and 
80 we find Mr. Watterson not entirely free from 
an Emersonian disregard of consistency. In the 
title-chapter of his book he deprecates the horrors 
of armed conflict, and declares, '' I would compro- 
mise war," adding that the occasions on which it is 
necessary are " most exceptional." Yet in a speech 
delivered only two years after the utterance of these 
words he does not hesitate to say, in reference to 
international arbitration, that the '' elimination [of 
war] makes the emasculation of the human species 
simply a question of time "; and again, in his ad- 
dress on Lincoln, alluding to the latter's attempts 
to avert civil strife, he rejoices that the war " was 
fought out to its bitter and logical conclusion." 
The best and most authoritative chapters in the 
book are those dealing with conditions in the South 
and with journalism. 

Denmark, once the sovereign coun- 
I/'hl'otJii' *^y <»* England, of Norway, and of 

Sweden, as well as of large portions 
of Germany and Russia (even Paris was once, in the 
ninth century, conquered by the Danes), is now the 
smallest of European kingdoms; but she is by no 
means the least important, — certainly not the least 
interesting. Specialists from almost all countries 
make it their business to study Danish institutions, 
with the result that these institutions are often 
copied elsewhere. Denmark has set the world an 
example in the adoption of a perfect cooperative 
system in connection with agriculture. In the re- 
clamation of barren lands for the formation of plan- 
tations of vast extent, she has shown other countries 
what things may be done, and how. Her breweries 
are models, her schools and hospitals are admirable. 
She has been conservative of her national customs 
in a manner quite at variance with the more push- 
ing and rushing nations and with young republics. 
The Dane is in no hurry. He does not come of age 
until he is twenty-five, nor attain to the parliament- 
ary suffrage until five years later. He takes time 
to do things thoroughly, and lives to a good old age. 
Denmark therefore offers an extremely interesting 
subject for a volume of the " European Neighbours " 
series (Putnam), and Miss Jessie Brochner treats it 
in her volume on " Danish Life in Town and Coun- 

try " with a thoroughness and sympathy that leave 
nothing to be desired. It may be that the town-life 
as exhibited in Copenhagen, the capital, is more 
fully treated than the country ; but the reader would 
be captious indeed who would find this a fault in 
the book. The half-tone illustrations, sixteen in 
number (three of them from paintings by Danish 
artists), prove that Denmark and Danish life are 
by no means deficient in the picturesque element. 

Mr. Anthony B. North Peat, an En- 
inthe iiLte*. "'"^ glishman in the service of the French 
government, took up newspaper cor- 
respondence in addition to his regular duties as 
attacks, and during the years 1864-69 furnished 
countless columns of French gossip to the " Morn- 
ing Star " and the " Yorkshire Post." About one- 
twelfth of this, harvest of an observant eye and 
a listening ear has been culled out by Mr. A. R. 
Waller for republication in a stout octavo entitled 
" Gossip from Paris during the Second Empire " 
(Appleton). The correspondent shows himself a 
wide-awake young man, ready to take an interest 
in anything that has a promise of " copy," and 
putting his matter into attractive shape for English 
readers. The very first letter of the volume has a 
humorous account of a retired grocer who chose to 
end his days as a Norman baron, building himself 
an ancient castle, with moat and keep and dungeon 
dark, and, with the sexton's aid, providing his es- 
tablishment with a graveyard skeleton for suspen- 
sion in chains over the tower-flanked entrance ta 
his frowning fortress. Turning a few leaves, we 
come to an instructive note on the fertilizing prop- 
erties of rags, which, we are assured, make an 
excellent dressing for siliceous soil. Some of the 
items partake of the grim and ghastly, others ap- 
peal to lovers of the frivolous or of the sensational,, 
but many are of literary or historical interest. A 
long extract is given from General Dix's speech 
to the American colony on his relinquishing his 
post as United States minister to France. Taken 
as a whole, the book will be found to have some- 
thing likely to interest all sorts and conditions of 


The long period of religious conflict 
Itli'ojFTancl t^at began with the Protestant Ref- 
ormation and closed with the Thirty 
Years' War will always be of great interest to all 
readers of history. Especially does it appeal to that 
class of students who delight in tracing the influence 
of human passion on the course of great events. 
Among the more recent books dealing with this 
century is a volume by Lieut.-Colonel Andrew C. P. 
Haggard, entitled "Sidelights on the Court of 
France " (Button). This work belongs to the bor- 
derland of history and biography; though the au- 
thor discusses such eminently historic subjects as the 
League, the fate of Mary Stuart, and the policies 
of Richelieu, his principal theme is the public and 
private life of Henry of Navarre. It cannot be said 
that his presentation is such that it adds much to 



[Jan. 16, 

oar general knowledge of that sinful period ; that 
the Bourbon court was not a place where morality 
was likely to thrive, is a fact too well known to 
need the additional emphasis given by a detailed 
account of weakness and wickedness like the one 
here presented. As for the author's treatment of 
Henry IV., it must be said that the unlovely side 
of his character is given undue prominence, and too 
little is said of the really great things that he did 
for France. The author's sources are apparently 
of the memoir type, and French memoirs are noto- 
riously untrustworthy. The book is written in an 
easy, spicy, and somewhat careless style, such as we 
should expect to find in a work so largely devoted 
to scandal and intrigue. 

They that rejoice in iniquity rather 
TheCariyie-Frtrnde ^^^^ j^ the truth are advised not to 

eate doted. i , , , ■, . . , , , 

read the latest (and, it is to be hoped, 
the final) plea in the unedifying controversy between 
the Froudites and the Carlylists. " The Nemesis of 
Froude" (Lane), by Sir James Crichton Browne 
and Mr. Alexander Carlyle, is an elaborate and con- 
vincing refutation of the flimsy charges contained 
in Froude's posthumous pamphlet, ''My Relations 
with Carlyle," recently published by members of 
bis family. A rejoinder was hardly necessary, as 
the writer of the pamphlet already stands convicted 
out of his own mouth, his self-contradictions de- 
stroying his credibility. It is the old story of forg- 
ing new falsehoods — or, which amounts to the 
same thing, new half-truths — to buttress the tot- 
tering structure of the old, only to make more sig- 
nal the final ruin. Pathetic, in view of what was 
to follow, are Carlyle's words to Miss Jewsbury, 
relating to a "mythical" portraiture of Mrs. Carlyle 
which she had submitted to his inspection, and which, 
although he expressly commanded its suppression as 
a distortion of the truth, Froude took pains to pub- 
lish in full. " No need," writes the sorrowing hus- 
band, " that an idle-gazing world should know my 
lost Darling's History, or mine ; — nor wUl they 
ever ; — they may depend upon it ! One fit service, 
and one only, they can do to Her or to Me : cease 
speaking of us through all eternity, as soon as they 
conveniently can." Late in the day though it be, 
let us take heed and obey. 

" The Public," a weekly paper pub- 
Vigorou, essay, y^^Yx^di j^ Chicago, has attracted the 

on vital toptct. . , , , , , i ■ 

attention of thoughtful men during 

the past four or five years by its exceptionally 
clear and vigorous discussion of public affairs. It 
has been particularly effective as a mouthpiece of 
those who are opposed to the bastard imperialism 
which has written into our national annals their 
most shameful chapters. No more effective pro- 
test against this ominous tendency of our public 
policy has been made than that which has been 
voiced in " The Public " from week to week by 
Mr. Louis F. Post, the editor of the periodical. 
Mr. Post has now collected his scattered papers 

upon this and other subjects of national concern 
into a volume called " Ethics of Democracy," fur- 
ther described as " a series of optimistic essays on 
the natural laws of human society," and issued by 
the Moody Publishing Co. Mr. Post is a strong 
and fearless thinker, with a remarkable gift of ex- 
position, and the radical system of Democratic 
ethics which he outlines is fairly self-consistent. 
In many respects it will command the hearty ap- 
proval of all honest thinkers, although to our mind 
it is vitiated by its acceptance of the single-tax idea 
with its sundry implications. "We do not object to 
the single tax as a theory so much as we object to 
the fashion in which Mr. Post and its other advo- 
cates override the most elementary considerations 
of justice in their propaganda for the institution of 
their pet reform. They have adopted toward the 
private holding of land the fanatical position of 
the extreme abolitionists toward the holding of 
human beings in slavery, and will not allow that 
the present owner of real property has any rights 
that need be considered in the economic readjust- 
ment which they aim to bring about. From this 
position to the advocacy of a lawless termination 
of such contracts as public franchises and even to 
the repudiation of public debts is an easy step, and 
one that the author does not hesitate to take. 
" Repudiation is a sacred right of the people " are 
his own words. We regret that this perverse polit- 
ical morality should be found underlying a book 
with which we are in many ways heartily in sym- 
pathy, which is so entirely right in its denunciation 
of imperialism, and which is so exceptionally sound 
and clear in its view of such matters as free trade 
and international balances. 

In M. Eugene Bohm-Bawerk's lat- 
Recenttheoriet ggj hook, " Recent Literature on In- 
terest " (translated by Mr. Wm. A. 
Scott and published by the Macmillan Co.), he has 
supplemented his " Capital and Interest " by giving 
a critical summary of the interest theories advanced 
from 1884 to 1889. The author has evidently at- 
tempted a criticism of the salient points in various 
men's arguments on this subject, rather than a 
lengthy exposition of the arguments themselves. 
Therefore the book presupposes a certain amount of 
intimacy with modern writers on interest; and for 
this reason it appeals primarily, if not exclusively, 
to the student of economics. M. Bohm-Bawerk 
keenly points out the fallacies in the use, the absti- 
nence, the labor, the productivity, and the exploita- 
tion theories of interest, and shows the weak position 
of the eclectics. His method of attack is to follow 
the premises of the various writers to their logical 
conclusion, — a reductio ad absurdum. Especially 
skilful are his treatments of Marshall's abstinence 
theory and Stolzmann's labor-cost theory. M. 
Bohm-Bawerk, as an advocate of the agio theory, 
draws the conclusion that " nowadays it may be 
considered as a recognized truth that the final causes 
of the phenomenon of interest are to be found, on 




the one hand, in certain facts of the technique of 
production, and, on the other, in the postponement 
of enjoyment." 

The tourist seeking facts concerning 
^if*^Ui *^® points of interest to be visited on 

a trip to the Pacific coast will find a 
deal of information in Mr. C A. Higgins's and Mr. 
Charles A. Keeler's volume "To California and 
Back " (Doubleday, Page & Co.). This book de- 
scribes the trip through New Mexico and Arizona 
by way of the Grand Cafion of the Colorado. The 
pueblos of the Southwest and the missions of Cali- 
fornia naturally receive full notice, and are abun- 
dantly illustrated. The wonders which irrigation 
has wrought in the deserts of Southern California 
are brought to the reader's notice, and the less 
exploited but no less interesting country of Central 
and Northern California is portrayed in attractive 
guise. Indeed, few ports on any continent present 
the variety of interests which now centre about the 
Bay of San Francisco, where the mountains meet 
the sea and the Orient jostles the Occident. The 
book is abundantly illustrated from new photo- 
graphs, and by sketches from the pens of Miss Louise 
M. Keeler and Mr. McCutcheon. The reminiscence 
of the railroad " folder " which clings to the book 
does not mar its interest or detract from its trust- 


Volumes Thirteen and Fourteen of Messrs. J. F. 
Taylor & Co.'s library edition of the writings of Charles 
Kingsley contain the letters and memoirs of his life, 
as edited by his widow, with an introduction by Mr. 
Maurice Kingsley, his oldest son. We are glad to have 
this satisfactory uniform edition of all of Kingsley's 
works that still find numbers of readers. His ser- 
mons, which fill many more volumes, and which are 
excellent of their kind, have gone the way of most 
sermons, and are not now likely to be reprinted. This 
edition does not contain any of them, nor does it include 
the historical lectures and miscellaneous essays, which 
is something of a pity, for they deserve to be remem- 

Messrs. A. N. Marquis & Co. have sent us their third 
issue of " Who 's Who in America," revised to the 
present year, and including 14,443 names instead of the 
11,551 and 8602 of the two earlier issues. As hereto- 
fore this work is under the skilful and competent editor- 
ship of Mr. John W. Leonard. Owing to the large 
number of deaths among those included in the previous 
editions (1108 in all), it is possible to state that more 
than half of the names in the present list were not in the 
first edition as published in 1899. The necrology alone 
makes a list of nearly thirty closely-printed pages. We 
have now a somewhat larger representation than for- 
merly of the financial and commercial callings, which 
gives a better balance to the work. Club memberships 
are now included in the information furnished. The 
educational, marriage, and age statistics compiled by 
the editor are of great interest. One man (who is not 
named, and whom we have not hunted down) was born 
in 1809 — the annus mirabilis of Tennyson, Gladstone, 

Lincoln, and Darwin — and is thus the oldest of Amer- 
ican " who-whos." The year which gave birth to the 
largest number is 1858, which claims 417 men and 
women, of whom President Roosevelt is one. The work 
in its present form is more valuable than ever, and we 
could not commend in terms too high the accuracy and 
the judgment displayed in the work of compilation. 

Nine new volumes have been added by the Messrs. 
Appleton to their series of reprints of famous old En- 
glish books, most of them noteworthy because of their 
illustrations, which are carefully reproduced. The 
volumes are as follows : " The Second Tour of Dr. 
Syntax," illustrated in color by Rowlandson ; " The 
English Dance of Death," in two volumes, also with 
Rowlandson's colored plates; "The Life of a Sports- 
man " and " The Analysis of the Hunting Field," both 
with colored illustrations by Henry Aiken; Ainsworth's 
" Tower of London " and " Windsor Castle," with 
drawings by Cruikshank ; «• The Fables of -3i8op 
and Others," with Bewick's engravings; and William 
Blake's " Illustrations of the Book of Job " — a thin 
volume of plates only, in miniature photogravure re- 

Volumes XII., XIII., and XIV. of "The New 
International Encyclopoedia," published by Messrs. 
Dodd, Mead & Co., have recently come to our table, 
and the end of the work is now brought within three 
volumes. Maximilian is the first entry in the volumes 
now at hand, and Rice- Bird is the last. The policy of 
rich illustration is still pursued in these new issues, 
and the full-page plates and maps, both plain and 
colored, are a source of great satisfaction, tempting us 
to turn the pages for the sake of the pictures alone. 
This is not said in disparagement of the text, which 
maintains, and perhaps improves upon, its earlier stan- 
dards of readableness and accuracy. 

The Dramatic Publishing Co. of Chicago send us a 
volume of " Modern Monologues " by Miss Marjorie 
Benton Cooke. The author is a young woman well 
known in Chicago as a talented amateur actress, and 
as the impersonator of the characters figured in this 
bright and entertaining volume. The success of the 
pieces, as presented by the author herself upon many 
semi-public occasions, has provided a very practical test 
of their effectiveness. Still another volume of " Mono- 
logues," the work of Miss May Isabel Fisk, is published 
by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. Many of these com- 
positions have previously appeared in " Harper's Maga- 
zine," and they certainly afford amusing reading. 
Gentle satire upon the foibles of society and of indi- 
viduals is the note of both these charming books. 

The following French texts are from the American 
Book Co. : " An Easy First French Reader," by Mr. 
L. C. Syms; " Fifty Fables by La Fontaine," edited by 
Mr. Kenneth McKenzie; Mdrimde's " Colomba," edited 
by Mr. Hiram Parker Williamson; and Chateaubriand's 
" Les Aventures du Dernier Abencerage," edited by 
Dr. James D. Bruner. From Messrs. Ginn & Co. we 
have '« A French Reader," by Messrs. Fred Davis 
Aldrich and Irving Lysander Foster; and George 
Sand's •' La Mare au Diable," edited by Dr. Leigh R. 
Gregor. The American Book Co. also send us two 
important Spanish texts: " A Practical Course in Span- 
ish," by Messrs. H. M. Monsanto and Louis A. Lan- 
guellier, revised by Professor Freeman M. Josselyn, Jr. ; 
and the " Dona Perfecta " of Senor B. Perez Galdds, 
edited by Professor Edwin Seelye Lewis, 



[Jan. 16, 


Mr. George Gary Eggleston has just finished a new 
story, which will be published early in the year by 
Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. 

" A First Course in Infinitesimal Calculus," by Dr. 
Daniel A. Murray, is a college text-book published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

« Public Relief and Private Charity in England," by 
Dr. Charles A. EUwood, is a sociological study in 
pamphlet form issued by the University of Missouri. 

The Scott-Thaw Co. publish a stately edition of 
Stevenson's " Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," provided with 
a series of illustrations that add greatly to the interest 
of the story. 

Two new volumes in Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co.'s 
magnificent Harriman Alaska series, which is the author- 
itative work on our Northern possessions, will be pub- 
lished this month. 

" Lessons in the Study of Habits," by Mr. Walter 
L. Sheldon, is a volume of " ethics for the young," to 
be used in homes and schools, published by the W. M. 
Welch Co., Chicago. 

The Iowa Park and Forestry Association publish in 
a stout pamphlet, with photographic illustrations, the 
proceedings of their second annual meeting, held in 
Des Moines a year ago. 

A school text of selections from Gower's " Confessio 
Amantis," edited by Mr. G. C. Macaulay, our foremost 
authority upon the poet, is published by Mr. Henry 
Frowde at the Oxford Clarendon Press. 

It is announced that Mr. Samuel M. Crothers, author 
of " The Gentle Reader," is preparing the volume on 
Lowell for the «« American Men of Letters " series, 
published by Messrs. Houghton, Miffiin & Co. 

A handsome edition of «' The High History of the 
Holy Grail," in the translation of Dr. Sebastian Evans, 
with decorative drawings by Miss Jessie M. King, is a 
recent publication of Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

A volume of more than usual interest to lovers of 
our native literature is that promised by Mr. Leon H. 
Vincent on "American Literary Masters," which Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. are to publish this spring. 

" The Four Socratic Dialogues of Plato," in Jowett's 
translation, with a preface by the present Master of 
Balliol, make a very attractive little book as published 
by Mr. Henry Frowde at the Oxford Clarendon Press. 
Mr. W. P. P. Longfellow's " Cyclopcedia of Works of 
Architecture in Italy, Greece, and the Levant," has just 
been sent us in a new edition, not evidently differing 
from the original, by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

"The Controversy between the Puritans and the 
Stage," by Dr. Elbert N. S. Thompson, is a recent issue 
of the "Yale Studies in English." The work is a 
doctoral thesis, and makes a substantial volume of 275 

Mr. John Lane publishes a reissue of White's 
« Selborne," as edited several years ago by the late 
Grant Allen. In its present form, the work stands as 
the first volume of a new " Crown Library " of reprints 
of popular books. 

" Money, Banking, and Finance," by Dr. Albert S. 
BoUes, is a text-book for high schools having commer- 
cial courses. It is published by the American Book 
Co., in uniform style with the " Political Economy " of 
Professor Laughlin. 

" An Unpublished Essay of Edwards on the Trinity,"^ 
with some remarks on the teachings of the great theo- 
logian, is the contribution of Dr. George P. Fisher to 
the Edwards bicentenary. The book is published by 
the Messrs. Scribner. 

One of the most important works on Economics that 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. have ever undertaken is 
" An Introduction to Economics," by Professor Henry 
R. Seager, of Columbia, which they expect to issue be- 
fore the end of this month. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. send us a fourth 
edition of the " Handbook of Commercial Geography " 
by Mr. George G. Chisholm, first published nearly 
fifteen years ago. The work now makes a volume of 
over six hundred closely-printed pages. 

"A Primer of Old Testament History," by the 
Rev. O. R. Barnicott, and " The Religions of India — 
Brahmanism and Buddhism," by the Rev. Allan Menzies, 
are two new volumes in the " Temple " series of Bible 
handbooks, published by the J. B. Lippincott Co. 

" Bridge " is coming to have a considerable literature 
of its own. The latest books are " The Laws and Prin- 
ciples of Bridge," by " Badsworth," published by the 
Messrs. Putnam; and "Sixty Bridge Hands," by Mr. 
Charles Stuart Street, published by Messrs. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

" The Colonel's Opera Cloak " was one of the most 
popular novels published in the " No Name " series of 
a quarter- century ago. It was afterwards revealed that 
Miss Christine C. Brush was the author. A new illus- 
trated edition of this book is now issued by Messrs. 
Little, Brown, & Co. 

Mr. Leonard Eckstein Opdycke's translation of 
Castiglione's " Book of the Courtier," published in a 
sumptuous limited edition a year or more ago, now 
reappears in a garb relatively more modest, yet still 
stately and worthy of the dignity of the text. The 
Messrs. Scribner are the publishers. 

"The Founder of Christendom," an essay by Pro- 
fessor Goldwin Smith, is published in a small volume 
by the American Unitarian Association. Primarily an 
address prepared for a Toronto audience, the discussion 
is at once so reasonable and so weighty that it was richly 
deserving of its present permanent form. 

With its current number, the quarterly " Book of 
Book-Plates " makes a change of title to " Books and 
Book-Plates," with a corresponding enlargement of 
scope and contents. The A. Wessels Co. are the Amer- 
ican publishers of this little periodical, which is both 
sensible in matter and attractive in form. 

Dr. Gordon Jennings Laing has edited a volume of 
" Masterpieces of Latin Literature," which is published 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The selections 
given illustrate seventeen authors, from Terence to 
Apuleius, and the translators are much more numerous, 
Catullus alone being represented by ten different hands. 
Each author is given a biographical sketch of two or 
three pages. 

" New England History in Ballads " is a volume of 
poems by Dr. Edward Everett Hale, his children, and 
some other people. These " other people " include 
several of our most famous poets, the aim of Dr. Hale 
having been to take the best existing poems in his field, 
and to piece them out with new ones made for the 
purpose, so as to cover everything of importance in 
New England history. Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. 
publish this interesting collection. 




Mr. Bliss Carman has just issued his Christmas poem 
entitled " The Word at St. Kavin's," privately printed 
at the Monadnock Press in New Hampshire, with an 
especially designed frontispiece and title-page by Mr. 
John M. Cleland. The edition is limited to 250 copies, 
to be obtained only through the Scott-Thaw Co. of 
New York. 

One of the interesting biographies promised for 1904 
is the Life of John A. Andrew, the war-governor of 
Massachusetts, to be brought out by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. The work is based upon both public and 
private records, the author, Mr. Henry G. Pearson, 
having had access not only to the abundant documents 
and letters in the State House, but also to private and 
family memorials. 

" Marriage in Epigram," compiled by Mr. Frederick 
W. Morton, is a recent publication of Messrs. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. It is described as a collection of 
" stings, flings, facts, and fancies from the thought of 
ages," which seems to be both accurate and pleasantly 
alliterative. We miss from the index the name of 
Schopenhauer, who might surely have been drawn upon 
to spice, if not exactly to enrich, this collection. 

This spring Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. are to 
have volumes of fiction from the following authors : 
Lafcadio Hearn, Baroness von Hutten, Hildegarde 
Hawthorne, Andy Adams, Charles Egbert Craddock, 
Rose E. Young, Frederick O. Bartlett, and Margaret 
D. Jackson. They will also publish new books by Rollo 
Ogden, George B. McClellan, Henry D. Sedgwick, 
Washington Gladden, N. S. Shaler, W. Starling Bur- 
gess, and Olive Thorne Miller. 

«< The United States in Our Own Time," by Chan- 
cellor E. Benjamin Andrews, is the title given to a new 
edition of " The History of the Last Quarter Century," 
to which, however, several new chapters have been added, 
making the record cover something like thirty-five years 
of our annals. " From Reconstruction to Expansion " 
is the sub-title, which serves fairly well as a delimitation 
of the ground covered. Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons 
are, as before, the publishers of the work. 

Among the important announcements of spring pub- 
lications from Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. are 
the following : " A Bachelor in Arcady," an idyllic 
romance by Mr. Halliwell Sutcliffe; " The Life of Dean 
Farrar," being the authorized biography of this noted 
theologian and writer, by his son Mr. Reginald Farrar; 
" Ruskin Relics," a series of important and interesting 
Ruskiniana by that author's friend and official bio- 
grapher, Mr. W. G. CoUingwood ; and " Minute Mar- 
vels of Nature," by Mr. John J. Ward, an illustrated 
work dealing for the first time in a popular way with 
the marvels of minute life which are revealed only by 
the microscope. 

The Macmillan Co. announce that they will publish 
this month the first number of a new periodical entitled 
" The Artist Engraver," a quarterly magazine of orig- 
inal work. The first number will contain an etching by 
Professor A. Legros, an engraving on copper by William 
Strang, a woodcut by Mr. C. H. Shannon, a lithograph 
by Mr. Joseph Pennell, and an etching by Mr. D. Y. 
Cameron. The Macmillan Co. have also become the 
American publishers of " The Burlington Magazine," 
which has become famous during its two and a half 
years of life for its beautiful reproductions of all sorts 
of rare objects of art, the real appreciation of which is 
confined chiefly to the connoisseur. 

An essay on " Optimism," by Miss Helen Keller, is 
made into a very pretty little book by Messrs. T. Y. 
Crowell & Co. This is Miss Keller's first piece of 
original writing (with the exception of the remarkable 
autobiography published last year), and its theme is 
not the least surprising of its characteristics. If Miss 
Keller can be an optimist, there is small excuse for the 
rest of us who profess to be anything else. 

" Tennyson's Suppressed Poems, Now for the First 
Time Collected," is the title of a volume published by 
Messrs. Harper & Brothers. Mr. J. C. Thomson is the 
editor, and he seems to have done his work thoroughly, 
but it may be doubted whether it was worth doing. 
Many of the pieces here brought together have long 
been included in the American editions of Tennyson, 
although the editor assures us that they are not found in 
his " Collected Works " as issued by his own publishers. 

There is to be a new issue of " Cassell's National 
Library," in enlarged form and attractive cloth cover 
with excellent type and paper. " Silas Marner " comes 
first, to be followed at weekly intervals by " A Senti- 
mental Journey," " Richard II.," Evelyn's Diary, selec- 
tions from Browning and Tennyson, Horace Walpole's 
Letters, Hazlitt's and Emerson's Essays, " Sartor Re- 
sartus," and Thackeray's " Four Georges." Professor 
Henry Morley's introductions were a valuable feature 
of the old issue, and many " eminent hands " will per- 
form a like duty for the new volumes. 

An undertaking of great interest to every student of 
Western history has just been announced by The Arthur 
H. Clark Co. of Cleveland. This is a series of " Early 
Western Travels," 1748-1846, comprising annotated 
reprints of some of the best and rarest contemporary 
volumes of travel, descriptive of the aborigines and 
social and economic conditions in the middle and far 
west, during the period of early American settlement. 
Exhaustive notes and introductions will be supplied by 
Dr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, editor of the " Jesuit Re- 
lations " and the foremost authority ^on Western history, 
who is also to supply an elaborate analytical index, 
under one alphabet, to the complete series. This latter 
is an especially valuable feature, as almost all of the 
rare originals are without indexes. There are to be 
thirty-one volumes in all, illustrated with maps, fac- 
similes, etc. The edition is limited to 750 complete 
sets, signed and numbered; but in addition thereto, a 
limited number of the volumes will be sold separately. 

In connection with the limited folio reprint of Florio's 
Montaigne, now in course of publication by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., it is interestipg to note that 
Mr. George B. Ives, its editor, has found of great as- 
sistance the Montaigne collection recently acquired by 
the Harvard library. This collection, by the way, was 
the property of the late Professor Ferdinand Bocher, 
and was purchased for the library through the gener- 
osity of Mr. James H. Hyde. It is not yet catalogued, 
but Mr. Ives was granted special permission to inspect 
it, and it proved to be of exceptional service in pre- 
paring the bibliography of the essays which is to ap- 
pear in the third and final volume of the set. The 
author states that he now has absolutely accurate de- 
scriptions of almost all of the important editions, and 
is confident that his list will include some mention of 
very nearly every French edition. So it is safe to 
assume that the bibliography will prove by no means 
the least valuable feature of this notable and imposing 



[Jan. 16, 

liisT OF New Books. 

[ITie following list, containing 75 titles, includes books 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue.] 


Napoleon the First: A Biography. By August Foamier ; 
trans, by Margaret Bacon Corwin and Arthur Dart Bis- 
sell ; edited by Edward Qaylord Bourne. 12mo, pp. 836. 
Henry Holt & Co. $2. net. 

Records and Reminiscences. Selected from " My Remin- 
iscences" and " Old Diaries." By Lord Ronald Suther- 
land Gower. Ulns. in photogravure, etc., large 8yo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 624. Charles Scribner's Sons. $4.50 net. 


The Plot of the Placards at Rennes, 1802 (Le Complot 
des Libelles). By Gilbert Augustin-Thierry ; trans, by 
Arthur G. Chater. 12mo, uncut, pp. 310. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. Si. 75 net. 

Arnold's Expedition to Quebec. By John Codman. 
Second special edition, with added matter and illustra- 
tions; edited by William Abbatt. lilus., 4to, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 371. Published for William Abbatt by The 
Macmillan Co. 

Hanover and Prussia, 1795-1803 : A Study in Neutrality. 
By Guy Stanton Ford, B.L. Large 8to, uncut, pp. 316. 
" Columbia University Studies." Macmillan Co. Paper, 
$2. net. 


Forerunners of Dante : An Account of Some of the More 
Important Visions of the Unseen World, from the Earliest 
Times. By Marcus Dods, M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 275. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 81.50 net. 

Percy Bysshe Shelley: An Appreciation. By Thomas 
R. Slicer. With an illustrated Bibliography. Large 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 82. New York : Privately Printed. $5. net. 


The Letters of Horace Walpole, Fourth Earl of Orford. 
Chronologically arranged and edited, with notes and in- 
dices, by Mrs. Paget Toynbee. Vols. I. to IV., illus. in 
photogravure, 12mo, gilt tops, uncut. Oxford University 

The Pilgrim's Progress. By John Banyan ; with drawings 
on wood by George Cruikshank. Large 8vo, ancut, pp. 308. 
Oxford University Press. $7. net. 

Critical and Historical Essays. By Lord Macaulay ; ed- 
ited by F. C. Montague, M.A. In 3 vols., 12mo, gilt tops, 
uncut. "Library of Standard Literature." Q.P.Put- 
nam's Sons. 

The Qentle Art of Making Enemies. By J. McNeill 
Whistler. 8vo, uncut, pp. 340. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$3.75 net. 

The Odes of Anacreon. Trans, by Thomas Moore ; with 
designs by Girodet de Roussy. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 166. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50 net. 

Mermaid Series. New vols.: William Wyeherley, edited by 
W. C. Ward ; 'Thomas Shadwell, edited by George Saints- 
bury. Each with photogravure portrait, 16mo, gilt top. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. Per vol., $1 net. 

Shelley's Adonais. Edited by William Michael Rossetti. 
New edition, revised with the assistance of A. O. Prickard, 
M.A. 12mo, pp. 162. Oxford University Press. $1.25 net. 

Poems by John Keats, " Oxford Miniature " edition. With 
portrait, 32mo, gilt top, pp. 574. Oxford University Press. 
$1. net. 

Faust: A Dramatic Mystery. By Wolfgang von Goethe; 
trans, by John Anster, LL.D. With photogravure frontis- 
piece, 18mo, gilt top, pp. 250. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
Limp leather, $1. net. 

The Temple Bible. New vols.; Tobit and the Babylonian 
Apocryphal Writings, edited by A. H. Sayce, D.D.; Wis- 
dom and the Jewish Apocryphal Writings, edited by W. B. 
Stevenson, M.A. Each with photogravure frontispiece, 
24mo, gilt top. J. B. Lippincott Co. Per vol., leather, 
60 cts. net. 

Singoalla : A Romance. Trans, from the Swedish of Viktor 
Rydberg by Alex. Josephsson. lUus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 210. 
New York : The Grafton Press. $1.25. 


The Hundred Love Songs of Kamal Ad-Din, of Isfahan. 
Now first trans, from the Persian by Louis H. Gray, and 
done in English verse by Erhel Watts Mumford. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 46. Charles Scribner's Sons. Paper, $2. net. 

Omar and Fitzgerald, and Other Poems. By John G. 
Jury. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 104. San 
Francisco : Whitaker & Ray Co. $1.25 net. 

In a Poppy Garden. By Charles Francis Saunders. lUns., 
12mo, uncut, pp. 45. R. G. Badger. $1.25. 

The Quest, and Other Poems. By Edward Salisbury Field. 
12mo, uncut, pp. 58. Boston : R. G. Badger. 

Pot»Pourri : Spice and Rose Leaves. By Miranda Powers 
Swenson. 12mo, uncut, pp. 43. Boston : The Gorham 
Press. $1.25. 

At the Rise of the Curtain: Dramatic Preludes. By 
Francis Howard Williams. 12mo, uncut, pp. 148. Boston : 
R. G. Badger. 

Relishes of Rhyme. By James Lincoln. 12mo, uncut, 
pp.52. Boston : R. G. Badger. $1.25. 

From the Eastern Sea. By Yone Nopuchi. With por- 
trait, 12mo, pp. 67. Tokyo : Fuzanbo & Co. Paper. 

A Spray of Cosmo. By Augusta Cooper Bristol. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 62. R. G. Badger. $1.25. 

Poems. By Ben Field. 12mo, uncut, pp. 87. R. G. Bad- 
ger. $1.50. 

Footprints on the Sands of Time. By Mary Shaw Baker. 
Illus., 12mo, uucnt, pp. 114. R. G. Badger. $1. 


Sons of Vengeance: A Tale of the Cumberland High- 
landers. By Joseph S. Malone. Illus., 12mo, pp. 299. 
Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.50. 

The Duke Decides. By Headon Hill. Illus., 12mo, uncut, 
pp. 331. A. Wessels Co. $1.50. 

Letters from a Son to his Self-Made Father. By Charles 
Eustace Merriman. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 289. Boston : 
New Hampshire Publishing Corporation. $1.50, 

Tamarack Farm: The Story of Rube Wolcott and his 
Gettysburg Girl. By George Scott. With frontispiece, 
12mo, uncut, pp. 236. New York : The Grafton Press. 

The Secret Name. By Jeannette M. Dougherty. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 240. Jennings & Pye. $1.25. 


Historical Evidence of the New Testament : An Induc- 
tive Study in Christian Evidences. By Rev. S. L. Bow- 
man, A.M. Large 8vo, pp. 732. Jennings & Pye. $4. 

The Genius of Methodism : A Sociological Interpretation. 
By William Pitt MacVey. 12mo, pp. 326. Jennings & 
Pye. $1. 

Sunshine and Love. Compiled by Katharine G. Spear. 
18mo, gilt top, pp. 374. Jennings & Pye. Limp leather, 
$1. net. 

A Young Man's Questions. By Robert E. Speer. 16mo, 
uncut, pp. 223. Fleming H. Revell Co. 80 cfas. net. 


How to Make a Flower Garden : A Manual of Practical 
Information and Suggestions. Illus., 4to, pp. 370. Double- 
day, Page «& Co. $1.60 net. 


Man's Place in the Universe: A Study of the Results of 
Scientific Research in Relation to the Unity or Plurality 
of Worlds. By Alfred R. Wallace, LL.D. Large 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 326. MeCIure, Phillips & Co. $3. net. 

Gems and Gem Minerals. By Oliver Cummings Farring- 
ton, Ph.D. Illus. in colors, etc., 4to, pp. 229. Chicago: 
A. W. Mumford. $3. 

Morals: A Treatise on the Psycho-Sociological Basis of 
Ethics. By Prof. G. L. Duprat ; trans, by W. J. Green- 
street, M.A. 12mo, pp. 382. *' Contemporary Science 
Series." Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 

The Russian Advance. By Albert J. Beveridge. With 
maps, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 486. Harper & Brothers. 
$2.50 net. 




Political Parties and Party Policies io Germany. By 
James Howard Gore. 12mo, pp. 36. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Paper, 25 cts. 


A History of Painting in Italy, Umbria, Florence, and 
Sienna, from the Second to the Sixteenth Century. By 
J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle ; edited by Langton 
Douglas, assisted by S. Arthur Strong. Vols. I. and II., 
each illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8yo, gilt tops, uncut. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. Sold only in sets of 6 vols., at 
$36. net. 

Mezzotints. By Cyril Davenport, F.S.A. Illus. in photo- 
gravure, 4to, uncut, pp.208. "Connoisseur's Library." 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $6.75 net. 

Rembrandt : His Life, his Work, and his Time. By Emile 
Michel ; trans, from the French by Florence Simmonds ; 
edited by Frederick Wedmore. New edition ; illus. in 

<¥ photogravure, etc., 4to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 484. Charles 
Scribner's Sons, $7.50 net. 

American Art Annual, 1903-4. Edited by Florence N. 
Levy. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 506. New York : American 
Art Annual. $5. 

Donatello. By Lord Balcarres. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 211. 
"Library of Art." Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. net. 


Child Life in Many Lands, Edited by H. Clay Trum- 
bull, D.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 215. Fleming H. Revell Co. 
81. net. 

The Rover Boys on Land and Sea ; or. The Crusoes of 
Seven Islands. By Arthur M. Winfield. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 266. Mershon Co. 60 cts. 

Homeric Stories, for Young Readers, By Frederick Aldin 
Hall, Litt.D. Illus., 12mo, pp, 200. American Book Co, 
40 cts. 


The Professional Training of Secondary Teachers in 
the United States. By G. W. A, Lnckey, Large 8vo, 
uncut, pp, 393. New York: Columbia University, Paper, 

Educational Psychology, By Edward L, Thomdike. 
Large 8vo, pp, 177. New York : Lemcke & Buechner, 

Woman's Unfitness for Higher Coeducation, By Ely 
van der Warker, 12mo, gilt top, pp, 225. New York : 
The Grafton Press. $1.25 net. 

Handbook of Commercial Geography. By Geo. G. Chis- 
holm, M.A, Fourth corrected edition, revised through- 
out and greatly extended. With maps, 8vo, pp, 639. 
Longmans, Green, & Co, $4.80 net, 

A First Course in Infinitesimal Calculus, By Daniel 
A. Murray, Ph,D. Svo, pp. 439. Longmans, G(reen. 
«feCo. $2, 

General Zoology: Practical, Systematic, and Comparative. 
By Charles Wright Dodge, M.S, Illus,, Svo, pp, 512, 
American Book Co, $1.80, 

A History of the United States for Secondary Schools, 
By J. N. Larned. With maps, 12mo, pp. 700, Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co, $1.40 net. 

Elementary Guide to Literary Criticism, By F. V. N. 
Painter, A.M. 12mo, pp. 195. American Book Co. 90 cts. 

Alarcon's El Nifio de la Bola, Edited by Rudolph Schwill, 
12mo, pp. 278. American Book Co. 90 cts. 

Physical Laboratory Manual for Secondary Schools. 
By S, E. Coleman, S.B. Illus,, 12mo, pp, 234, American 
Book Co, 60 cts. 

The Trinvmmvs of Plautus. Edited by H, C. Nut- 
ting, Ph.D, 12mo, pp,80, Benj. H. Sanborn & Co. 60ots, 

An Easy First French Reader, By L, C, Syms. 12mo, 
pp. 195, American Book Co. 50 cts. 

Fouqu^'s Undine. Edited by J. Henry Senger, Ph.D. 
12mo, pp. 174, American Book Co, 50 cts. 

Field and Laboratory Exercises in Physical Geog- 
raphy, By James F, Chamberlain, 4to, pp. 128. Amer- 
ican Book Co. Paper, 50 cts. 

German Composition. By B. Mack Dresden, A.M. 12mo, 
pp. 68, American Book Co. 40 cts. 

Bunte Geschichten f tir Unf Snger : An Elementary Reader. 
By Emma M. Stoltze. 12mo, pp. 98. American Book 
Co. 30 cts. 

Spenser's The Faerie Queene, Book I. Edited by George 
A. Wauchope, M.A. With portrait, 24mo, pp. 295. 
Macmillan Co. 25 cts. net. 

Macaulay's Life of Johnson. Edited by Charles Lane 
Hanson. With portrait, 16mo, pp, 94. Ginn <& Co. 25 cts. 


Foster's Bridge Tactics: A Complete System of Self- 
Instruction. By R, F, Foster. 16mo, gilt edges, pp. 215. 
Frederick Warne & Co. $1.25. 

Months and Moods: A Fifteen-year Calendar. Versified 
and diversified by Edward Curtis. 4to, uncut, pp. 75. 
New York : The Grafton Press. $1. net. 

A Canadian Bibliography for the Year 1901. By Law- 
rence J. Burpee. Large Svo, pp. 112. Ottawa : J. Hope 
& Sons. Paper, 75 cts. 


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New Number : A Guide to English Syntax contains a moat impor- 
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for classes. New edition: The Study of Ivanhoe, with map of 
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The Creative Art of Fiction 

An Essay. By H. A. Davidson. 

Subject, Narrative Art, Plot Structure, etc. An important aid in 
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. . H. A. DAVIDSON, Albany, N. Y. 



[Jan. 16, 

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[Jan. 16, 1904. 

Early WesternTravels: 1748-1846 

A SERIES of Annotated Reprints of some of the best and rarest contemporary volumes 
of travel, descriptive of the Aborigines, and Social and Economic Conditions in the 
Middle and Far West, during the Period of Early American Settlement. 

Edited, with Historical, Geographical, Ethnological, and Bibliographical 
Notes, Introductions, and Index, by 

Reuben Gold Thwaites 

Editor of "The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents," ** Wisconsin Historical Collections," 
** Chronicles of Border Warfare," ** Hennepin's New Discovery," etc. 

Illustrated with facsimiles of the original title-pages, maps, portraits, views, etc. 3 1 volumes, 

large 8vo, cloth, uncut, gilt tops. Price ^4.00 net per volume 

(except the Maximilien Atlas, which is ^15.00 net). 

The edition is limited to 750 complete sets, each numbered and signed, and in addition there- 
to a limited number of the volumes will be sold separately. 


Almost all the rare originals are without indexes. Here this immense amount of historical 
data is made accessible by reference to one complete index. 


Weiser's Journal of a Tour to the Ohio in 1748. 
Croghan's Tours into the Western Country, 1750-65. 
Post's Western Tours, 1758-59. 
Morris's Journal relarivc to his Thrilling Experiences on 

the Maumeein 1764. 
Long's Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and 

Trader, 1768-82. 
MichaUX (Andre) Travels into Kentucky in 1 795-1796. 
MichaUX ( F. A. ) Travels to the West of the Alleghenies, 

Harris's Tour into the Territory Northwest of the Alle- 
ghenies, 1803. 
Cum/ng''s Tour to the Western Country, etc., in 1807-9. 
Bradbury' S Travels in the Interior of America, 1809-1 1. 
Brackenridge's Voyage up the Missouri, 181 1. 
Franchere's Voyage to the N. W. Coast, 1 8 1 1-14. 
Ross's Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon, 1 8 1 o 

Buttrick's Voyages, Travels, and Discoveries, 1812-19. 
Evans's Tour of 4000 miles through Western States and 

Territories, 18 1 8. 
Flint's Letters from America, 1818-20. 
Hulme's Tour in the West (Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois) 

Flower's Letters from Lexington and Illinois, 1 8 19. 

Flower's Letters from Illinois, 1820-21. 

Woods's Residence in English Prairie, 111., 1820-1821. 

Faux's Tour to the United States, 1819-20. 

Welby's visit to North America and Illinois, 1819-20. 

Nuttall's Travels into Arkansas Territory, 1 8 19. 

James's Expedition from Pittsburgh to Rocky Mount- 
ains, 1819-20. 

Pattie's Personal Narrative of Expedition from St. Louis to 
Pacific, 1824-27. 

Ogden's Tour through the Western Country, 1821-1823. 

Buf/ocfc'sjourney through Western States, 1827. 

Gregg's Commerce of the Prairies, 1831-39. 

Wyeth's Journey from Atlantic to Pacific, 1832. 

Townsend's Journey across the Rockies to Columbia 
River, 1834. 

Maximilien y Prince of Wied-Neuwied's Voyage 

in the Interior of North America, with large Atlas, 1833. 
Flagg's Far West, 1836-37. 
Smet's Letters and Sketches, Reddence among Indian 

Tribes, 1840-41. 
Farnham's Travels in the Great Western Prairie, etc., 

Smet's Oregon Missions and Travels, 1845-46. 
Palmer's Travels over the Rocky Mts., 1845-1846. 

Full descriptive circulars may be had on application to 

The Arthur H. Clark Company, Publishers, Cleveland, O. 





'%xitxM^ Crituism, gisatssion, antr Jixfjormation. 


\NCIS F. BROWNE. ) No. 423. 

CHICAGO, FEB. 1, 1904. 

10 eta. a copy- \ FiNB ARTS Building, 
82. a year. ( 203 Michigan Blvd. 


By the Baroxess von Huttex. 


A Romance which concerns the Bohemian circles of London and carries the reader to the lonely life in a light- 
house on the English Channel. Violett, a passionate youth of artistic and musical temperament, is the hero of 
the story, which is told with much incident and dramatic fervor. 




The love story of one summer told in love letters 
written from a country place on the Hudson River. 


By Rose E. Youkg. 


A narrative of the best American type, recalling to 
the reader "The Gentleman from Indiana," full of 
virile strength and truth. 


By Frederick Orin Bartlett. 


This novel presents the romance of the streets and tells a dramatic story of the tenements. In telling the tale 
the author has used the dialect of the alleys with much artistic skill, giving a further air of reality to the graphic 
pictures of thronging crowds and busy streets. 

Eight full-page Illustrations by Eleanor Winslow. 

By George B. McClellan, 

Mayor of New York, 


A narrative account of the famous and picturesque 
city-republic from a political point of view, showing 
the character of the Oligarchy, the manner of its 
origin, and the causes of its development. 
$1.25 net. Postage extra. 

By Nathaniel S. Shaler, 

Dean of the Lawrence Scientific School. 


It is a scientific study of human relations, with espe- 
cial reference to race prejudices. The author endeav- 
ors to found some new considerations as to the ways 
in which this hatred may be overcome. 
$1.50 net. Postage extra. 

To Appear in March. 


An autobiographical record of the varied and romantic career of the war journalist who subsequently became a 
power in the financial world, and carried the Northern Pacific Railroad to completion. Full of incident and valu- 
able for its reminiscences of Lincoln and other prominent men of the time, as well as for its descriptions of 
important battles of the Civil War. With Portraits and Maps. 2 vols. 

$5.00 net. Postage extra. 


A Biography. By Henry G. Pearsox. 
The complete and authorized life of John A. Andrew, War Governor of Massachusetts, is here presented. 

15.00 net. Postage extra. 


Portraits. 2 vols. 


62 THE DIAL [Feb. 1, 


Hennepin's "A New Discovery" 

Exact Reprint of the Second Issue of i6g8. 
Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Analytical Index, by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 

<' None of the many recent reprints of Americana is of greater importance to collectors and students than the re- 
issue of Father Louis Hennepin's * A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America.' . . . Mechanically, the book 
is superbly produced. The text is set in twelve-point Caslon, closely following the original in spelling, capitaliza- 
tion, and punctuation. The press work is admirable, and the maps, engravings, and fac-similes of titles are excel- 
lently reproduced from the originals. In addition to the large-paper edition, limited to 150 numbered copies, on 
Brown's hand-made paper, there is a library edition, which seems to us to be the best made book, in every particu- 
lar, that has been offered the trade during the current season." — Chicago Enjening Post. 

" Mr. Thwaites' s introduction and notes to this hand- " We must not neglect to mention an important con- 

some reprint tell with dramatic force, although in out- tribution which is made to the present edition by Mr. 
line, the wonderful story of courage, hardships, and Victor Paltsits of the Lenox Library. The inexactness 
devotion, which is to be found in an extended form in of Hennepin himself is but too well reflected in the biblio- 

17 .1 Tj • 1 • 1 T-u u 1 r f iU graphical rt-marks of well-known experts like Harrisse, 

Father Hennepm s journals. The whole forms one or the °, ,K „, , ,,,. ^. -n ^ ■ , i , 1 , 

- , .... r< ■ 1* • babm. ahea, and Wmsor. Mr. raltsits has been through the 

finest chapters m the history of heroism on the American ,•■ c u j • • • ru-Li- u- i j . 

' . 1- 1 editions afresh, and gives in a series of bibliographical data 

contment. The editor and publishers are to be thanked ^^e most careful description of titles that has yet appeared, 
for making accessible to every booklover in excellent xhe outward guise of Mr. Thwaites' s two volumes is 
library form these vivid narratives." — The Outlook. extremely neat, not to say beautiful." — The Nation. 

In two volumes .f with facsimiles of original title-pages and of the seven original full-page illustrations^ 
and two large folding maps. Square Svo., Ixiv.+yil pages., gilt tops., uncut 
edges., in box., ^6.00 net ; delivered., $6.^^. 

The Expedition of Lewis and Clark 

Reprinted from the Edition of 18 14. 
With Introduction by JAMES K. HOSMER, LL.D., and New Analytical Index. 
*< We have nothing but praise for this clear and handsome reprint." — The Nation. 

"Of the several new editions of this valuable narrative, this is by far the best and most complete." — Minne- 
apolis Journal. 

In tnuo vols. , nvith photogra'vure portraits and maps, I'vi. +J00 and xiii. +8Sj pages, gilt tops, SS ^et; delfvered S5-34- 
Large descriptive circulars of these two reprints, showing sample pages, size, illustrations, and many other 
important details, will be sent upon request. 

In Preparation : Lahontan's New Voyages to North America. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 

How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest 

^nd Other Essays in Western History. 

By REUBEN GOLD THWAITES. With Maps and Illustrations. 
Some of the titles are as follows : «< How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest," " The Division of the 
Northwest into States," "The Blackhawk War," " The Story of Mackinac," "The Story of La Pointe," 
*' A Day on Braddock's Road," etc. 

"The book, besides affording interesting and instructive reading, should arouse a desire for more detailed 
knowledge of the romantic early days in the Northwest." — The Interior. 

l2mo., $1.20 net ; delivered., $r.j2. 


Down Historic Waterways On the Storied Ohio 

Six Hundred Miles of Canoeing upon Illinois An Historical Pilgrimage of a Thousand Miles 

AND Wisconsin Rivers. Second edition, revised, with in a Skiff, from Redstone to Cairo. A new and 
new Preface, and eight full-page illustrations fiom pho- revised edition of "Afloat on the Ohio," with new 
tographs. Preface and full-page illustrations from photographs. 

Each i2mo., $1.20 ne t ; delivered $T.J2. 


1904.] THE DIAL 63 


" The book for the hour when Russia looms and Korea shrivels.*^ — The Dial. 

A Handbook of Modern Japan 

Profusely illustrated^ 8vo, net, $i.^o; delivered, $^'53' 

"This is the book for the library and the business man — whether there be peace or war in 
Russia." — The Outlook. 

" This is easily one of the most important books of the year." — Salt Lake City Jrtbune. 

"It provides just the essential facts about Japanese life." — The Churchman. 

" We feel no hesitation in affirming that for one seeking within the pages of one book the most 
information about Japan and its people, and of a reliable character, there has been nothing hereto- 
fore produced that excels this Handbook." — Japan Evangelist (Tokyo^ 

Mr. J. L. Cowan, Treasurer of the Methodist Publishing House, Tokyo, says : " Prof. Clement 
has gathered within the covers of one small book more real information of a useful kind, and with 
more true illustrations and statistics and other matter of interest than any other writer on Japan." 

" With notable power of condensation, he has massed in excellent form what we must know 
to be well informed about Japan." — W. E. Griffis in Literary World. 

" Likely to be wanted constancy by intelligent people interested in the Far East." — The Nation. 

Mrs. Laiimefs Last Book 

Talks of Napoleon at St. Helena 

With General Baron Gourgaud. 

Together with the Journal kept by Gourgaud on their Journey from Waterloo to St. Helena. 

Translated, and with Notes, by Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer, author 

of "France in the Nineteenth Century," etc. 

With eight portraits, 8vo, 2g2 pages, $1.^0 net; delivered, $1.6^. 

In referring to this translation the Nenu York Commercial Ad'vertiser says : "It is a wonderful melange which 

Gourgaud has recorded in his Journal, and it represents the tireless activity, the keen curiosity, and the restless, 

ardent, all-embracing genius of the most extraordinary man the world has ever seen." 

** The work of translation has been done with skill and care, and the index is full and accurate." — N. T. Times. 

Famous Assassinations of History 

From 336 B. C to 1903 A. D. By Francis Johnson. Illustrated, ^ net. 
"Beginning with Philip of Macedon, he reads a long role ending with King Alexander and Queen Draga only 
a few months ago. In the brief space at his disposal, the author has not tried to give many details of attendant 
circumstances, but has given a vivid picture of the assassination itself. From these great events the reader can 
learn by the author's help a great deal that is interesting and important in history. They fix the attention on a 
period better than by a long description of events." — Philadelphia Enquirer. 


From Empire to Republic A Short History of Mexico 

The Struggle for Constitutional Government in New Revised Edition, with New Matter. i6mo, 

Mexico. With map and frontispiece. net, 75 cents ; delivered, 84 cents. 

8vo,net,$l.40; delivered, $1.54. ^^- toll's book was the first to thoroughly supply 

, ,. , . , . the need for a comprehensive history of Mexico, and 

"Well studied m the deeper authorities, curt and ^^^^ ^^^ y^^,^ j^ j^ ^jjn ^j^^^ ;^ ^^e field. 

summary in expression, liberal in spirit without being <<One is especially pleased to see this new edition, 

partial, it should be read with profit by everyone inter- Although it is not a large book, it covers a really great 
ested in its subject."- — The Scotsman. historical development." — St. Paul Dispatch. 




[Feb. 1, 

Croweirs Standard Sets are the Best 

For Library and General Reading Purposes 


D/\lw^/\V/ MAS, AND REPERTORY. The most 
complete text in English, with introductions by Prof. 
William P. Trent, of Columbia. Richly illustrated. 
18 vols. 

BRONTE, with Life of Charlotte Bronte, and perhaps 
the best collection of scenes and portraits ever obtained. 
6 vols. 

D U Lr TV CIV LORD LYTTON, including his novels, 
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k^AIVLflUL; CARLYLE, containing his essays, 
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rnnPPD leatherstockinq 


LIONEL LINCOLN. Special introduction by Prof. 
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drawings. 6 vols. 

UlV^IVCllO DICKENS, lavishly illustrated from 
the original drawings by " Phiz," Cruikshank, and 
others. 15 vols. 

CRISTO — the best of this author's works. New, copy- 
righted translations edited by J. Walker McSpadden, 
with introduction by Prof. Adolfhs Cohn of Columbia. 
Finely illustrated. 10 vols. 


including the Life and Letters. 
Illustrations by Merrill, Pierce, Harper, and Alice Barber 
Stephens. The best popular edition extant. 7 vols. 

CLrlU 1 ELIOT, including the Life and Lett< 


OF HENRY FIELDING, with intro- 
ductions by Prof. Q. H. Maynadier of Harvard. Illus- 
trated. 12 vols. 

U I L> l> W 1 ^ ROMAN EMPI RE, complete with anno- 
tions by M. H. Milman. Well illustrated. 5 vols. 

niII70T "'STORY OF FRANCE, completely 
"'-"^^ ' translated by Robert Black. Recog- 
nized as the best text. Fully illustrated, a vols. 


great books, in large type, and with special introductions 
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illustrated from photographs and drawings. 7 vols. 

■''^"^ translated, and illustrated by Bayard, 
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IIVYlilU TON IRVING, embracing the author's 
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r LFEt EDITION, giving several hundred pages of 
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rare portraits and illustrations. 11 vols. 

KC/ILIC i^EADE, well printed and containing 
excellent illustrations. In 12 vols. 


RUSKIN, including the author's original 

notes, drawings, sketches, and designs, some being in 

color. An authoritative text. 13 vols. 

^rOTT ^^^ ^"^ WAVERLEY NOVELS, printed 
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text. Illustrations numerous and artistic. 12 vols. 

HUMPHRY CLINKER. With introductions by Prof. 
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THATK'PPAV COMPLETE works, f ollow- 
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TO! ^TOf COMPLETE WORKS, embracing 
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in authorized translations. Edited by Nathan Haskell 
Dole. Illustrated from rare portraits and scenes. 12 vols. 


THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO., 426-8 West Broadway, New York 

1904] THE DIAL 66 




By RuFus Rockwell Wilson. 12mo, cloth, illustrated. $1.50. (In Preparation.) 

A series of pilgrimages to the noteworthy literary landmarks of New England, dealing with the work of each author 

in association with its background or environment. 


By Professor Charles Sprague Smith. 16mo, cloth, illustrated. Net 50 cents. (In Preparation.) 



By J. A. Hammertoe. 8vo, cloth, gilt top, illustrated. $4.50 net. 

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PARIS. (I^ew edition.) 


G vols., 16mo, cloth. £}ach $1.25 net. 

Invaluable supplements to the usual guide book information. Tlie evolution and history of a city is traced in its 

monuments, art, architecture, sculpture. Useful to clubs studying history, art, etc. 

BARBIZON DAYS, Corot, Millet, Rousseau, Barye. 

By Professor Charles Sprague Smith. 12mo, cloth, illustrated. $2.00 net. 

" Of value to artist and layman." — New York Times Saturday Beview. 
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Presents the great nature background that served for inspiration and home of these great men, making clear the 

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By G. A. Henty and other well-known writers. Edited by Charles Welsh. 

Vol. I. 1801-1817. ggj,,j jj QQ jjgj Vol. III. 1861-1871. 

12mo, cloth, fully illustrated. ' * Volumes sold separately. 

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A History Written for Boys. By William C. Spkague (Editor of " The American Boy "). 
12mo, cloth, with seven illustrations. $1.00 net. 
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prove instructive." — Milwaukee Sentinel. 

" The man of destiny is treated not as a bloodthirsty monster, but as an extraordinary human being. The book 
is just such a work as the rising generation requires." — Nashville American. 


A, WESSELS COMPANY, 43 & 45 E. 19th St, New York 



[Feb. 1, 


Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature 

A History, Critical and Biographical, of English and American Authors. 
Edited by David Patrick. 


The Restoration. 

Scottish Literature, from the Civil 
War on. 

Welsh, Irish, and Colonial Contri- 

Volume Two 

The Eighteenth Century. 

The Age of Queen Anne. 

The Scottish Vernacular Revival. 

The Reigns of the German-born 

The Reign of George III. and com- 
ing changes. 

" Little less than indispensable to all students of literature and without which no library could be said to 
approach completeness." — Baltimore Sun. 


Complete in three imperial octavo volumes of about 800 pages each, lavishly and accurately 
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The New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare 

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The following thirteen volumes already issued, bound in half morocco, gilt top, $65.00 net. Sold in 
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Volume One 

From the beginnings till after the 
Norman Conquest. 

Middle English Literature. 

Renaissance and Reformation. 

Scottish Literature. 

Elizabethan and Jacobean Litera- 

Scottish Literature — James VI. to 
the Civil War. 

The Ballads: Scottish and English. 

The Civil War and the Common- 
wealth — The Puritan Movement. 

Scottish Vernacular Writers under 
George III. 

Volume Three 

The Nineteenth Century. 

Complementary List of Recent and 
Contemporary British Authors in 
Various Departments of Litera- 

English Literature in the British 
Dominions Beyond the Seas. 

American Literature. 

Complementary List of American 


MACBETH. Edited by 
OTHELLO. [H H. Furness, Jr. 


HAMLET. 2 volumes. 


Teutonic Legends in the Nibelungen Lied and 
the Nibelungen Ring 

By W. C. Sawyer, Ph.D. With an Introductory Essay by Professor F. Schultze, Ph.D. 
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History of the Moorish Empire in Europe 

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The True History of the Civil War 

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The True Abraham Lincoln 

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24 Illustrations. 8vo. Decorated cloth, $2.00 net. Postpaid. $2.13. Half morocco, $5.00 net. 







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THE CITIZEN. A study of the Individual and the 
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NAPOLEON. A short biography. By R. M. Johnston. 
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RECOLLECTIONS. By Richard Henry Stoddard. 
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THE TRAIL-MAKERS. An American Exploration 
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sources of the Missouri, across the Rocky Mountains, 
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AND PACIFIC OCEANS in 1789 and 1793. By 
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CANADA which are dependent on the Province of 
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THE WILD N0RTHLA1>^. By Gen. Sir William 
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Williams Harmon. 

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Sears. 12mo. Price, $1.50. 

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Edited by Mrs. Margaret E. Sangsteb. Illustrated. 

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Mrs. Cynthia Westover Alden. President-General 

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[Feb. 1, 


Selected from LITTLE, BROWN, & CO/S 1903 List 


LAURA BRIDQMAN. Dr. Howe's Famous Pupil and What 

He Taught Her. By Maud Howe and Flobbkcb Howe Hall. 

Illustrated. Crown 8vo, $1.50 net. 

from the Diary and Correspondence of Mary Phinney, Baroness 

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first time translated into English by Ralph Nevill. Limited to 500 

sets. 3 vols., crown 8vo, $9.00 net. 

By GusTAV KoBBB. With 66 half-tone plates printed in tints. 8vo, 

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Gbobob Whabton James. With 66 plates. Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. 
RIVER IN ARIZONA. By George Wharton James. New 
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Hekry Johnson. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.20 net. 

THE ROYAL NAVY. A History. From the Earliest Times to the 
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THE LIFE RADIANT. By Lilian Whitino. 16mo, cloth, $1.00 net ; 
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NUTTALL'S BIRDS. A Popular Handbook of the Birds of the 
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AN ENGLISH VILLAGE. A new edition of "Wild Life in a 
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DAUDET. With 48 plates. 16 vols., 12mo, cloth, $16.00 ; half 
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THE ROMANCES OF VICTOR HUGO. With 28 plates. 14 vols., 
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THE COLONEL'S OPERA CLOAK. By Christine C. Brush. New 
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A DAUGHTER OF THE RICH. By M. E. Wallkr. Illustrated. 

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LOVE THRIVES IN WAR. A Romance of the Frontier in 1812. 
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THE WARS OF PEACE. By A. F. Wilson. 12mo, $1.50. 

A ROSE OF NORMANDY. By William R. A. Wilson. 12mo, 

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SARAH TULDON. A Woman Who Had Her Way. By Ormb Agnus. 

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Volume I. 

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[Feb. 1, 1904. 



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a &tmi'Moni\)lTa Journal of ^^itcrarg (Exititi&m, 'Bi&cuman, antJ information. 

THE DIAL {founded in 1880 ) is published on the 1st and 16th of 
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THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. 43S. 

FEBRUARY 1, 1904. Vol. XXXVl. 








Elizabeth Wormeley Latinjer. Sara Andrew 

Dr. Parkin and tlie Rhodes Scholarships. Laiv- 

rence J. Burpee. 


F. H. Hodder 


METHODS. Aksel G. S. Josephson .... 82 


Browne 84 


Mary Augusta Scott 80 


With Stevenson in the Adirondacks and elsewhere. 

— A trio of little dramas. — Reminiscences of an 
army nurse. — Sensible articles about book-binding. 

— Some famous mysteries and controversies. — A 
history of classical scholarship. — A dubious work 
on Japanese art. — A new field of Napoleonic study. 

— More letters of Bismarck. — A Southern soldier, 
educator, and theologian. ^ Short history of Greek 
sculpture. - The philosophy of roadmending. 






When the leading American publishers united, 
about two years ago, in the adoption of their 
plan for a rehabilitation of the book-selling 
business by establishing a uniform system of 
discounts, coupled with a refusal to sell to deal- 
ers who offered books for less than the prices 
fixed by the publishers, the effort was regarded 
favorably by the greater part of the thoughtful 
public, although it was not viewed altogether 
without misgivings. It was generally realized 
that the bookseller was in a bad way, and that 
the book-store of the old-fashioned type, well- 
stocked and intelligently conducted, was too 
civilizing an influence to be given up with a 
light heart, and it was felt that the combination 
attempted, although clearly " in restraint of 
trade " in the legal sense, was deserving of ap- 
proval in the larger interests of culture. As 
far as the misgivings with which the plan was 
received were legal, there was nothing to do 
but to put it into operation and to wait the 
action of the courts, concerning which point 
we may say, in passing, that the decisions 
thus far rendered leave the matter still doubt- 
ful, although with perhaps more of encour- 
agement to the publishers than they could 
fairly have anticipated. 

The other misgivings, to which we gave ex- 
pression when the subject first came up for 
debate, were based upon an apprehension that 
the publishing interests would not do their part 
in good faith. As we then pointed out, the 
publishers were bound to do two things if they 
would clear their skirts of the charge of seek- 
ing their own selfish ends under a hypocritical 
pretense of concern for the sufferings of the 
booksellers. One of these things was to publish 
all net books at prices which should be at least 
twenty per cent, below the scale previously in 
use ; the other was to raise voluntarily, and as 
a matter of course, the customary royalty to 
authors from ten to twelve and one-half per 
cent. If these things were not done, it would 
become fairly evident that self-seeking rather 
than altruism was the underlying motive in the 
cooperative plan, and the fine professions with 
which it was heralded would soon be discounted 
by the public as uniformly as the price-lists by 



[Feb. 1, 

the publishers, and to far more radical effect. 
Now we have been observing these matters 
rather closely for about two years, and we have 
not yet heard of that general increase of 
authors' royalties which simple justice demands, 
nor have we been convinced that prices under 
the net system are a full fifth lower than they 
would have been under the old conditions. 

This latter question is, we admit, confusing, 
and a good many publishers seem to have made 
an honest attempt to carry out their implied 
compact with the public. But the experience 
in this matter of the librarians, who have made 
a more systematic study of the subject than any 
other class of people, is not reassuring. They 
were promised in advance by figures (which 
proverbially cannot lie) that the net system of 
prices, taken in connection with the discount of 
ten per cent, to libraries, would mean for them 
an average increase of eight per cent, in their 
invoices of current publications. This they 
were willing to allow as their contribution to a 
philanthropic movement, and the plan received 
their endorsement subject to this understand- 
ing. But subsequent experience seems to have 
made of the promised eight per cent, a barren 
ideality, and we have from them reports show- 
ing advances of fifteen, twenty, and twenty-five 
per cent, instead of the lower amount they were 
ready to concede. 

The dispute came to something like a dead- 
lock at the Niagara Falls conference of the 
American Library Association last year, when 
the question was warmly debated by represen- 
tatives of both the publishing and the library 
interests, the latter demanding a larger dis- 
count, and the former declaring that it could 
not possibly be granted. Under these circum- 
stances, the only recourse left the librarians 
was to cast about for some means of reducing 
their book budgets under the ex'sting condi- 
tions, and to this end a Committee on Book 
Prices was constituted, and directed to advise 
librarians from time to time " in regard to any 
feasible measures for avoiding the hardships of 
the net price system." That committee has 
now issued the first of a series of bulletins on 
the subjf'Ct of economy in book- purchasing, and 
others will follow as new suggestions are made 
that seem worth considering. 

The leading point made in this bulletin is to 
the general effect that a good many books may 
be imported from England at a lower price 
than that at which they may be bought from 
American booksellers. It is notorious that our 
publishers who import English editions list 

them at a higher price than is justified. Tak- 
ing into account the large discount that the 
importing publisher receives, even the addition 
of the duty and the cost of transportation can- 
not excuse the listing of such books (as so fre- 
quently is done) at the rate of thirty-five cents 
to the shilling. This is at least twenty-five per 
cent too much, and every large library can 
make a substantial saving on such books by 
sending to the English publishers for them. 
Among the instances quoted by the committee 
are the new Chambers's " Cyclopasdia of En- 
glish Literature " and the Garnett and Gosse 
''Illustrated History of English Literature." 
Here the net prices to libraries are respectively, 
$13.50 as against $7.88 for the former work, 
and $22.60 as against $15.00 for the latter. 
A proportional saving may be made in many 
other cases, and this consideration clearly out- 
weighs the disadvantage of a month's delay in 
getting the books. 

As far as this remedy goes, it is one to which 
libraries will do well to resort ; unfortunately 
it is not applicable to the ordinary new Ameri- 
can book. Here the bulletin suggests not buy- 
ing the book at all, but getting instead more 
copies of standard old books, buying sets of 
periodicals, rebinding the old books, and look- 
ing out for copies of recent publications at 
auction sales and elsewhere. This is too heroic 
a treatment of the difficulty to find much 
favor with a public crazed by the desire to read 
the newest books right away, but it is in the 
main sensible advice and should be followed as 
far as public sentiment will allow. 

It seems to us that the publishers have acted 
unwisely in taking so determined a stand 
against the wishes of the libraries. They 
need all the friends they can get in their effort 
to restore the bookselling business to its earlier 
dignity and security, and the libraries are on 
the whole the best friends they can have. A 
deep-seated antagonism has now been created 
which it will not be easy to soften. We be- 
lieve that underlying the whole controversy 
there may be still found among our publishers 
the notion that libraries tend to diminish the 
sale of books. Against this narrow view we 
have always protested, and will continue to 
protest. In the long run, we believe that every 
public library creates more private purchasers 
that it destroys, and that the permanent inter- 
ests of the publishing business have much 
more to gain than to lose from the multiplica- 
tion of libraries of all sorts. To take but one 
consideration, too often lost sight of, how valu- 




able an asset to the whole business of serious 
publishing must be found in the mere existence 
of so large a number of libraries that the de- 
mand from them alone is sufficient to take up 
a respectable edition of any work of real val- 
ue, suffieiient to insure agjainst loss, in any 
event, and frequently sufficient to provide a 
substantial profit. It is publishing of the 
spectacular and sensational sort that has rea- 
son to fear the influence of the libraries, not 
the legitimate and conservative publishing 
which alone has claims upon our sympathy. 


The distinguishing feature of the library move- 
ment at present is its wonderful expansion. In ad- 
dition to the usual sources of income, the gifts to 
libraries in the United States during the last two 
years have amounted, in round numbers, to $30,- 
000,000. A vast deal of energy is expended in 
controlling and organizing this movement in order 
that its benefits may cover the widest possible area. 
So broad is the interest in libraries, and so much 
a matter of course is their existence in fa\ured 
communities, that it is time, perhaps co put a 
stronger emphasis upon their more f.urictly educa- 
tional work. 

It is beginning to be evident that many libraries 
whose history falls within the recent period of 
library development, having experienced their first 
enthusiams, are now coming properly to a sober rec- 
ognition of the fact that a great popular educational 
movement, in order to amount to anything, must 
grip close to scholarship ; to the extent at least of 
appreciating its aims, endeavoring to share its spirit, 
and striving to use its methods, as far as possible. 

The highest type of public library in a large city 
is probably one which comes in contact with readers 
of all stages of development, from the grade schools 
to the university, in addition to the ungraded public 
of all degrees of intelligence. 

It is the librarian's critical faculty, chiefly, which 
is called into requisition on the part of those who 
need it, for the promotion of this better use of books 
which is to resiUt in a larger body of readers of 
sound tastes less widely removed from the plane of 
scholarly habits. This function of criticism, broadly 
speaking, is exercised through the library by dis- 
crimination in the selection of books, by skilful cat- 
aloguing, and by the personal work of the library 
staff in encouraging a proper student habit. This 
being the animating spirit of all good librarians, it 
may not be out of place to examine a little in detail 
some of the means by which it is sought to carry out 
these ideas. 

The librarian's critical work begins where the 

critic in print leaves off. He must supplement the 
work of the critic by seeing to it that the " right 
book goes to the right man." This well-worn phrase 
means that, in default of any other guidance on be- 
half of the uncertain inquirer, it is the privilege of 
the librarian to suggest the book which will best 
apply to the need of the moment. As he is so ob- 
viously bulwarked by great stores of learning — at 
least in the eye of the applicant, — he is able to 
present what he has to offer, even though it may 
consist o"f but a single reference, gained at the cost 
of much research, without falling into the error of 
didacticism, the especial " tutorial " failing which 
made Stevenson's father willing to snub the entire 
race of schoolmasters. 

The critic who commits his judgment to writing, 
pronouncing upon the skill and capacity of the 
author, and in giving a final opinion concerning 
the especial distinction of the volume under review, 
comes to the conclusion of his task so far as the 
work in hand is concerned. The librarian is very 
grateful to him, reading everything he has to say 
with pleasure and profit, and subsequently confirm- 
ing, rejecting, or modifying somewhat the recorded 
opinion as it is tested by abundant application to 
varying needs, continued, perhaps, for years after 
the critic has placed the final period to his pages. 
But certain kinds of expert criticism he is occa- 
sionally obliged to do away with altogether. The 
scholar who presents the results of his own re- 
searches in a history, the best of the popular kind, 
intended to make its appeal to the foremost intelli- 
gence of a class of busy readers who can not pos- 
sibly command time for the more exhaustive works, 
may find the whole intent of the work overlooked, 
its drift and purpose ignored, and its general use- 
fulness set aside, for a discussion of certain technical 
defects which blind the critic to the general merit 
of the work. 

Take the case, also, of the historical novel. The 
librarian in his position as a public official need not 
fash himself over the conflicting views of the lit- 
erary merits of the historical novel as an art form. 
He well knows that the best of them delight thou- 
sands of readers, making their appeal equally to the 
confirmed reader of history and to the neophyte in 
historical knowledge. The former reads with the 
double satisfaction of interest in the story and of 
the exercise of his critical faculties upon the histor- 
ical representation; the latter finds in it a stimulus 
to an interest in history which hitherto he may 
have lacked. Our recent American literature con- 
tains many excellent productions of this kind which 
were enjoyed as stories and which were often fol- 
lowed by deeper reading. 

"The Crisis," for instance, created a new in- 
terest in the entire period of the Civil War. It was 
fortunate to have at hand such an admirable, com- 
pact history of American politics as Professor 
Macy's "Political Parties in the United States, 
1846-1861" and Mr. Morse's "Life of Lincoln," 



[Feb. 1, 

with which many eager readers supplemented the 
novel. In even so comparatively slight a work as 
Archdeacon Brady's " The Southerners " there is 
one chapter detailing a dinner table conversation 
which is of considerable value in setting forth the 
variety of opinion at the South upon the political 
situation just before the war. Of Mr. Page's 
" Red Rock " it is hardly too strong a statement 
to say that it absolutely opened the eyes of many 
readers at the North to conditions at the South 
during reconstiniction days. In " Richard "Carvel " 
we have in the colonial lawyer, Henry Swain, a 
character which finely illustrates the arrival of a 
distinctly new American type, one created by the 
freer opportunity to the individual which the chang- 
ing social conditions were already bringing about. 
Miss Johnston's "Audrey," pure romance though 
it is, is remarkable for the variety of its pictures, 
the lights and shadows, heights and depths, breadths 
and colorings of Virginia colonial society ; all of it 
quite as true to fact as the beguilement of the story 
would persuade us into imagining. These examples 
are taken at random from recent fiction, because it 
is in the current historical novel that the special 
opportunity of the librarian lies. The great mas- 
ters are beyond question. Scott, Hugo, Kingsley, 
Auerbach, Shorthouse, for instance, have their fixed 
place and value in the interpretation of liistory, 
awaiting, their discovery by each new generation of 

The primary grade of the personal work of the 
library consists in much downright suggested in- 
struction to the youthful reader upon the proper use 
of books ; the correct way of handling and of opening 
a book, an observation of the title-page, the advan- 
tages of referring to a table of contents instead of 
clumsily turning the leaves ; some comprehension of 
the index as a useful tool, and the desirability of 
noting an authority once consulted in order to avoid 
subsequent efforts to recover it by means of vague 
allusions to its color and size. It is surprising what 
can be found in the ordinary dictionary if one has 
never thought of it before. Observe the encyclopae- 
dias — there are so many of them and they are of 
such different kinds. Then there are the gazetteers, 
the maps with all sorts of information, the '* alma- 
nacs," the "year-books," the "chronologies," the 
"digests." An unaccustomed reader soon becomes 
self-reliant by an intelligent use of all these helps. 
A great advance has been made when it is possible 
to distinguish between the magazine article written 
with authority and that which is the work of the 
industrious compiler ; or, when a compilation merely 
is wanted, to know which ones are well done. 

The education of the reader makes further prog- 
ress in his knowledge of the use of catalogues and 
bibliogi'aphies. A catalogue may be regarded as an 
exposition of the contents of a collection of books; 
a bibliography, as a descriptive list of books bearing 
upon a special subject. Full cataloguing furnishes 
the foundation stones from which bibliographies are 
constriictedt A good annotated bibliography of a 

subject comes very near being a critical history of 
that subject. In our own country this feature of 
library work was not much attended to, previous to 
twenty-five years ago. At the present day much is 
done of a high order of merit and of an extreme 
degree of usefulness. A few libraries in widely 
scattered portions of the country have already made 
a beginning in the compilation of bibliogi'aphies of 
the local history of their respective sections. In all 
work of this nature the Library of Congress is tak- 
ing the lead through its Department of Bibliography, 
both by way of issuing useful publications on its 
own account, and by serving as a bureau of inform- 
ation in regard to the progress of bibliographical un- 
dertakings throughout the states. As examples of 
the kind of " reading lists " coming from the Library 
of Congress the following may be mentioned : Trusts, 
Reciprocity, Interoceanic Canals, Federal Control of 
Commercial Corporations, Negro Question, Indus- 
trial Arbitration. As to the outlook upon the field 
of bibliography, it is the intention of the Department 
to keep students informed from time to time through 
the columns of the "Library Journal." 

Perhaps it is too much to claim for the influence 
of the library that its work in bibliography has af- 
fected the publishers ; but, at all events, it is true 
that coincident with this accomplishment inside the 
library, almost all publications of worth have now 
attached to them the bibliographies of their re- 
spective subjects. It goes without saying that this is 
frequently the most valuable portion of an encyclo- 
paedia article. Indeed, it is now so much the fashion 
to furnish " lists of authorities " or " bibliographies " 
with each new publication, that unfortunately it 
involves the appearance of some with but slender 
claim to consideration. A book without an index, 
too, has its usefulness so hampered that few in these 
days of little leisure make their appearance without 
that indispensable aid to quick and sure reference. 
A little note in each issue of the " Library Journal " 
calls attention to current publications lacking this 

The library is now so well established as pur- 
veyor to the public that it ought to be able to gather 
up a pronounced concensus of the demand for va- 
rious branches of reading. It is not a point, to 
be sure, upon which statistics can be had, but the 
library must often, it would seem, be the means of 
interpreting this demand to the publisher. In spite 
of the appearance of many brilliant books of travel, 
especially of those relating to travel in the orient, 
good books of description are still needed, particu- 
larly those which deal with the beaten track of the 
tourist in Europe and the East. There has been an 
improvement within the last few years, but the com- 
ing in of cheap processes of illustration has made it 
easy to dispense with the instruction of the narra- 
tive. Many of the descriptive books of fifty or 
seventy-five years ago are fuller in treatment, more 
accurate, and altogether more satisf actoiy as sources 
of information than some of the more recent ones 
which miss the art of being direct and simple in 




statement. Good books covering the field in our 
own country are very scarce. 

Some excellent commercial geographies have 
come to us of late. More can be used. There is 
still room for popular histories of commerce, his- 
tories of various industries, milling, mining, manu- 
facturing; short definite treatises on the economic 
relations of botany, ornithology, and entomology; 
popular histories of transportation, especially of the 
railway systems of our own country. Librarians 
probably have no classified lists of these wants, but 
frequently in the course of their labors are they 
reminded of the number of useful books yet to be 

The library's most pronounced success in the way 
of serious reading is perhaps in its response to the 
demand for books of sociology in general, and in 
particular for those relating to the labor question, 
civics, and mmiicipal affairs. Books like Dr. Glad- 
den's "Social Facts and Forces," published a few 
years ago, and the more recent Brooks's "Social 
Unrest" and Bolen's "Getting a Living" have 
helped to clarify the opinions of countless readers. 
Countless more have awakened to an interest in 
American history. 

It would be interesting to find out, if it could be 
discovered, whether it is the imperfect discipline of 
a defective education, or the reaction from an un- 
fortunate religious training, or whatever the cause, 
that is leading so many people to read such "queer" 
things in religion and philosophy. An interesting 
experiment was recently tried at one of the library 
schools whereby it was sought to construct a ladder 
which should be the means for the lovers of crude 
fiction to climb into higher regions of enjoyment, 
beginning with such established favorites as Mary J. 
Holmes or Augusta Evans Wilson and reaching 
by degrees a permanent liking for the good things 
of Mrs. Oliphant, TroUope, Charles Reade, and 
sometimes, eventually, even for George Eliot. A 
similar progression from the amorphous writings of 
some unclassifiable ones — let them be nameless 
here — to Professors Hoffman, Mttnsterberg, or 
William James, for instance, ought not to be en- 
tirely impossible. Professor Hoffman, in his preface 
to " Psychology applied to Common Life," has the 
following interesting statement : " Not many gener- 
ations ago the all-absorbing theme was physics, and 
little attention was paid to other studies. Later 
biology became the dominant science and gave di- 
rection to the current of thought. Now psychology 
has come to the front and holds undisputed sway." 
This opinion is one in which the librarian, from his 
observation of the public, can heartily concur. 

In noting the progress of the intelligent reader 
there is no opportunity to dwell upon the finer re- 
lationship of the library to lovers of pure literature. 
After aU, that kind "cometh not so much with ob- 
servation." The intelligent reader does not always 
develop into the "gentle reader," but when he 
does the librarian has reached his ultimate reward. 

LiNA Brown Reed. 


(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

To the list of remarkable old men whose work made 
bright the century just behind us may now be added the 
name of a remarkable old woman, who has just closed 
a life unique in literature, noble in its endeavor and its 
fulfilment, and yet who was but a name to thousands of 
persons who were deeply her debtor for pleasure and 
for instruction. Of her interesting life I am sure the 
readers of The Dial will be glad to have this account. 

Mary £lizabeth Wormeley Latimer was born in 
London on the 26th of July, 1822. She was the six- 
teenth in line of direct descent from Sir John de 
Wormele, of the Manor of Hatfield, 1312, — and the 
sixth, from Ralph Wormeley of Rosegill, in Virginia, 
who was one of the founders of William and Mary Col- 
lege. Her father, a later Ralph Wormeley, was born in 
Virginia in 1786, but was taken to England in his boy- 
hood, bred as an Englishman, entered His Majesty's 
navy, and served so long and in so distinguished a 
manner, as to reach the rank of Rear Admiral before 
his retirement. After many daring deeds on many seas, 
and in many old sea-fights, he returned to America 
long enough to woo and win Miss Caroline Preble, the 
daughter of an old East Indian merchant of Boston, 
whose brother. Commodore Edward Preble, was one 
of the heroes of our early navy. 

A child so born could hardly help having an outlook 
on life out of the ordinary. It was London to-day, 
Boston or Newport to-morrow, then Virginia, then En- 
gland again, in the rather unsettled life of the parents 
who ere long had four merry little children to look 
after; and in the family migrations, and at her father's 
house, she saw a thousand sights, and heard a thousand 
stories, which formed the broad and solid foundation on 
which rested her quick appreciation of different points 
of view: the wide outlook upon public affairs, and the 
intense interest in everything which pertained to hu- 
manity, which stood her in such good stead in the years 
which were to come and made her one of the most 
delightful of companions. Nothing could be more full 
of drollery than were her tales of her life as parlor 
boarder in a little school kept in Ipswich — sacred to the 
memory of Mr. Pickwick! Mrs. Cockle, the mistress of 
the school, was the widow of the inventor of some fa- 
mous pills, and was herself greatly interested in antiq- 
uities and relics of the most unusual sort. She went out 
a great deal in the very Cranford-like society of Ips- 
wich, taking the little girl with her for safekeeping, 
little imagining how the bright eyes of the child who 
sat beside her in her sedan chair were noting the 
costumes and manners of the ladies discussing the per- 
missibility of having a lump of sugar in their tea, lest 
they thereby participate in the crime of human slavery ! 

Mrs. Latimer well remembered attending the funeral 
services of William IV. and the apprehension that filled 
all England lest the young girl who was to be his suc- 
cessor be found unequal to the great task before her. 
With her mother, she had a place at a window close to 
the great door of Westminster Abbey, through which 
the girlish Victoria went to her coronation. From the 
hour in which she saw that little royal figure, until the 
day when she replaced the pink bow in her point-lace 
cap by a black one in token of her sorrow for the death 
of the aged Queen, her love and loyalty never wavered, 



[Feb. 1, 

and she followed every step of that wonderful reign 
with a passion which made her one of its most appre- 
ciative interpreters. 

In the London of the days when Mr. Stevenson, Mr. 
Everett, and Mr. Bancroft represented our country at 
St. James, the Wormeleys were constantly seeing all 
that was best in English society. Admiral Wormeley's 
position and his personal charm made for his family a 
most enviable acquaintance, which the quiet elegance 
of his wife did much to enhance. One of the Virginia 
cousins, John Randolph of Roanoke, was a frequent vis- 
itor at this time. In 1839, after the charming fashion 
of the old days, the family made a leisurely journey 
through France. They were in Paris when the remains 
of Napoleon were brought thither from St. Helena, and 
Elizabeth witnessed the splendor of that second funeral. 
She made her debut at the balls of Louis Phillippe, of 
whose uncourtly court she had a score of interesting 
stories. In Paris, too, the Wormeleys were intimate 
in the family of a tall young man who had brought his 
two little girls thither to be reared by his mother, their 
own being hopelessly insane. He was just printing a 
novel the success of which seemed to be extremely 
doubtful — « Vanity Fair " ! 

In 1842 Elizabeth came over to America to visit the 
family of William H. Prescott, the historian, meeting 
all who were worth while knowing in the Boston of that 
splendid day. She, and the bevy of young girls of whom 
the brilliant Julia Ward (Howe) was the leader, danced 
and laughed as girls should do, but they read and 
studied also, and the atmosphere of the home in which 
Mr. Prescott was doing his historical work had a great 
influence on her after-life. She later went back to En- 
i;land, where she constantly met many delightful per- 
sonages, and here she printed the first novel she cared 
to acknowledge, " Amabel." In 1851 her only brother, 
James Preble Wormeley, a man of most brilliant prom- 
ise, died, and two years later her father set sail on far 
vaster seas than any he had hitherto sailed. The family 
had returned to New England by that time, and the 
Admiral, as well as the son who had preceded him, and 
the wife who followed twenty years later, sleep in the 
old Newport burying ground. 

In 1856 Miss Wormeley married Mr. Randolph Brandt 
Latimer, a civil engineer connected with the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad. Mrs. Latimer's life for twenty years 
after this event was bound up in that of her husband, 
her children, and her home, broken by an occasional 
visit to her mother, in Newport, or by the duties of 
caring for the sick, the wounded, and the imprisoned 
soldiers of the Civil War. In 1876, however, she 
entered literature as a serious profession. Her fre- 
quent contributions of stories, poems, and essays made 
her style so well known to the readers of the best maga- 
zines that it was not singular that some good guessers 
traced to her hand the authorship of three of the clever- 
est novels of the clever " No Name Series " which 
delighted the readers of twenty years ago. These were 
«« The Princess Am^lie," " My Wife and My Wife's 
Sister," and « Salvage." 

Her life-work was crowned by the brilliant series of 
historical works in which she reviewed the affairs of 
Europe during the Nineteenth Century. It was a vast 
work for any woman to have undertaken; it was mar- 
vellous that one past the three-score and ten of the 
Psalmist's limit should have even contemplated such a 
task. With sight always feeble, and becoming more 
impaired each year, she read ceaselessly, she worked 

ceaselessly. She translated, she collected, she arranged, 
she wrote with an industry which was prodigious. En- 
gland, France, Spain, Italy, Russia, Turkey, India, with 
a supplemental volume, «« The Last Years of the Nine- 
teenth Century," — it is a noble catalogue, that of those 
charming books; and yet, alas ! 

"The unfinished window in Aladdin's tower 
Unfinished must remain" — 
and the volume on Germany, on which she was at work 
when a sudden fall, and the death of the husband to 
whom she had been devoted for nearly fifty years, 
stayed forever the busy hand, will never be completed. 

Uniform with these books last named, Mrs. Latimer 
published " My Scrap-book of the French Revolution," 
a storehouse of material otherwise unobtainable, and a 
most readable history of Judea ; and she produced a 
mass of translations from the French, among them, " The 
Love Letters of Victor Hugo" and "The Unknown" 
by Camille Flammarion. Her last published work, 
which appeared last Fall, was finished after her eighty- 
first year had closed, and was a work which has made 
every student of the life of Napoleon Bonaparte her 
debtor — " Talks of Napoleon at St. Helena," a con- 
densation and translation of General Gourgaud's notes. 

Mrs. Latimer spoke rapidly, and with the mostcharm- 
ing English accent. She was an admirable story teller 
and an admirable listener as well. She had a hearty 
appreciation of good literature, liking new books, but 
going back faithfully to the old writers. Her extreme 
short-sightedness had shut her away from the world of 
pictures, and she used to say sadly that she had never 
been able to see the natural world about her. She 
died in Baltimore on the Ith of January. 

Sara Andrew Shafer. 

Baltimore, Md., January SO, 1904. 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

In your interesting and undoubtedly just article en- 
titled " A Perverted Trust," in the issue of The Dial 
for January 16, you make one slight misstatement. 
Dr. Parkin is in one place said to be " president of a 
Canadian college," and again, " himself a college presi- 
dent," and the implication clearly is that this fact 
influenced him in recommending the granting of the 
Rhodes scholarships to college graduates, rather than 
to graduates of preparatory schools. As a matter of 
fact Dr. Parkin is, or at any rate was until a short time 
ago (I think he resigned his position to take charge of 
the Rhodes scholarships), principal of Upper Canada 
College. Though the name is somewhat misleading, 
Upper Canada College is a preparatory school, pat- 
terned after the great public schools of England. It 
is to all intents and purposes the preparatory school for 
Toronto University, as the school at Port Hope is for 
Trinity University, Lennoxville school for Bishop's 
College, and the school at Windsor, N. S., for King's 
College. Consequently Dr. Parkin made his recom- 
mendation (whether it was just or unjust) as principal 
of a preparatory school, not as president of a college, 
and one is forced to the conclusion that, in deciding 
against the best interests of the class of educational 
institutions with which he was himself identified, he 
must at least have acted in good faith and without 
prejudice. Lawrence J. Burpee. 

Ottawa, Canada, January 19, 1904. 




Cfei S^fo g00ks. 

From Ensigx to Major-Genebal,.* 

Given the necessary facility as a writer and 
a glowing enthusiasm for one's profession or 
calling, what autobiography could fail to in- 
terest ? Surely not that of a born soldier and 
leader of men such as Lord Wolseley's " Story 
of a Soldier's Life " shows him to be. Even 
the most peace-loving of Quakers could hardly 
open the book without feeling a desire to read 
on. The narrative is brisk, varied, rich in 
Anecdote, and not untouched with humor — to 
say nothing of the inevitable horrors (or glo- 
ries) of war that furnish the main theme. 

Born in 1838, Garnet Wolseley was too 
joung to hold high command in the Crimean 
War ; but he showed himself a worthy son of 
•old Ireland (how many famous British generals 
Are Irish !) in the capacity of lieutenant. Then 
followed two years of service in the suppression 
•of the Indian mutiny of 1857; a few months 
in the China war of 1860 ; service in Canada, 
where he assisted in repelling the abortive 
Fenian invasion and headed the expedition sent 
to suppress the insurrection at Fort Garry in 
the Red River territory ; and finally, so far as 
this book is concerned, he planned and carried 
out the Ashantee campaign that humbled King 
Koffee and left the English masters of the 
•Gold Coast. Two months' leave of absence 
from his Canadian post in 1862 enabled him 
to visit Lee's headquarters and to get an inside 
view of the Confederate situation, as may be 
seen by reading his anonymous article entitled 
" A Month's Visit to the Confederate Head- 
quarters," in Blackwood's Magazine for Janu- 
ary, 1€63. In breaking off just as he reaches 
" the last of life, for which the first was made," 
Lord Wolseley has withheld the most valuable 
of his reminiscences ; but these, he leads us 
to hope, may follow in a later work. A brief 
outline of his life since 1874 will serve to hint 
at the riches he still holds in reserve for his 
readers. He was appointed inspector-general 
of auxiliary forces in 1874 ; governor of Cyprus, 
1878; governor of Natal, 1879; commander- 
in-chief of the British forces in Egypt, 1882 ; 
was raised to the peerage as reward for ser- 
vices in that country ; conducted the Gordon 
relief expedition, 1884-5 ; was made ad jutant- 

*The Story of a Soldier's Lifb. By Field-Marshal 
Viscount Wolseley. In two yolumes. Illustrated. New 
Yoik : 'ChaDles Scri4)Der'B Sons. 

general in 1885, commander-in-chief of the 
forces in Ireland, 1890, and commander-in- 
chief of the British army (succeeding the Duke 
of Cambridge) in 1895. Finally, as it will be 
remembered, he retired from this last office in 
1900, being succeeded by Lord Roberts. 

Like all men of true courage. Lord Wolseley 
is finely sensitive in temperament, even to such 
a degree that he declares the sight of raw meat 
has always nauseated him. The essence of 
genuine fortitude has not escaped him in his 
love for the clash of arms. Of certain effemi- 
nate officers of the famous Light Brigade he 
writes that they had "fought well and had 
nobly led their men straight ; but yet they 
lacked the manliness to bear for any length of 
time the hardships and discomforts their men 
experienced daily." Continuing, he indicates 
that the strenuous life is not necessarily that 
led by the soldier. 

" He must be a craven indeed, who, being well 
mounted, would not charge home at the head of his 
own men. It is not thus the noblest form of courage 
is made manifest, but in the daily endurance of cold 
and want." 

The following extract will throw light on 
this question of courage in battle, and will at 
the same time show that, like so many other 
military leaders, the author is somewhat of a 
fatalist, a " man of destiny." 

*' I have often been asked by foolish people if I never 
felt nervous when in danger. I don't think that many 
men when in action have time to be nervous, or at least 
to analyze what is the real condition of their feelings 
on the point. But I often thought to myself before the 
bullets began to whistle near one, whether I should be 
killed or not that day. I can honestly say the one dread 
I had — and it ate into my soul — was that if killed I 
should die without having made the name for myself 
which I always hoped a kind and merciful God might 
permit me to win. All through my life — sinner though 
I have been — I trusted implicitly in God's providence, 
I believed He watched over me and intended me for 
some important work. My numerous hair-breadth 
escapes in action confirmed me all the more in what 
perhaps others may deem my presumptuous belief." 

Before leaving this subject, it is worth while 
noting one situation which, though the author 
makes but modest mention of it, must have 
been a severe test of courage. The transport 
which took him and his company to the Orient 
in 1857 struck a reef in the Straits of Banca. 
Captain Wolseley's men were occupying a por- 
tion of the lower deck well forward, and there 
he was obliged to draw them up and wait for 
the word of command that should permit him 
to lead them up a narrow ladder and through 
a small hatchway, and embark them in the 
ship's boats. Darkness, only made visible by 



[Feb. 1, 

the glimmer from the hatchway, a rapidly in- 
creasing perpendicularity of the deck under 
foot, and a momentary prospect of the vessel's 
slipping off the rock that held her and plunging 
to the bottom, combined to make the situation 
a trying one. To be drowned like rats in a 
cage was the inglorious fate that threatened. 
Yet no one bolted, discipline was preserved, 
and at last an order from above ended the ago- 
nizing suspense. The young captain's control 
of his unseasoned company in this instance is 
significant of much, and prepares us for his 
subsequent rapid promotion. 

The story of the relief of Lucknow has 
often been told, but none the less will Lord 
Wolseley's account of it, especially of his own 
share therein, be found of the highest interest. 
One circumstance is likely to excite comment. 
Lord Roberts, who also participated in this 
hazardous expedition, has duly recorded in 
his recent book, *' Forty-One Years in India," 
Brevet-Major Wolseley's gallant assault and 
capture of the mess-house that formed so strat- 
egic a point on the outskirts of Lucknow. He 
has also related how, after the young officer 
had passed on to pierce an adjacent brick wall 
and open communications with the beleaguered 
forces, he himself, after two unsuccessful at- 
tempts and evidently with much personal dan- 
ger, raised the flag over the captured position. 
Now our author makes no mention whatever 
of this fellow-officer, although he does refer 
to the flag incident in the following rather re- 
markable manner : 

« Some one in after years asserted that I claimed the 
honour of having hoisted a Union Jack upon this Mess 
House when we took it. My answer was, that it was 
taken by my company, immediately supported by Cap- 
tain Irby's company, also of the 90th Light Infantry, 
but I did not know who the hero was that had hoisted 
a flag upon it: all I knew was that it was not I who 
had done so, and that no flag was hoisted upon the Mess 
House «rhilst I was in it, and as to what took place after 
my company had gone through it to take the Motee 
Mahul, I could say nothing." 

Is there here some lurking jealousy of his 
successor in office? The author declares in a 
prefatory note that naught has been set down 
in malice; but we do not even have to read 
between the lines to catch the personal note on 
many pages. The reader is left in no doubt 
of Lord Wolseley's profound contempt for all 
civilian war secretaries. Lord Cardwell ex- 
cepted, of the withering scorn he entertains 
for university-bred staff officers of no military 
experience, and of his poor opinion of a gov- 
ernment that refuses to see the necessity of 

preparing for war in time of peace. " When," 
he asks in despair, "will civilian Secretaries 
of State for War cease from troubling in war 
affairs?" The American civil war, as viewed 
by him, " contains many lessons for all non- 
military nations, ourselves for example, whose 
Army affairs are ruled in an absolute fashion by 
a political civilian War Minister." In the light 
of history not yet ancient, there is significance 
in his resentment against the cunning politician 
who, when anything goes wrong in the manage- 
ment of a campaign, " tries to turn the wrath 
of a deceived people upon the military author- 
ities, and those who are exclusively to blame 
are too often allowed to sneak off unhurt in the 
turmoil of execration they have raised against 
the soldiers who, though in office, are never in 
power." The last of these frequent reflections 
upon the havoc wrought by politicians in army 
matters finds its utterance, in a veiled form, in 
the closing words of the book. 

" Should my narrative interest the general reader^ 
it will be a pleasure to continue it to the date when I 
gladly bid good-bye to the War Office and ceased to 
be the nominal Commander-in-Chief of her Majesty's 
Land Forces." 

Another and more amiable personal feeling 
is repeatedly voiced in his allusions to this 
country. He declares our army to be, so far 
at any rate as its membership is concerned, the 
finest in the world, and West Point the best of 
military schools in any country. In another 
burst of eulogy he says, " Of this at least I am 
certain, that no outsider can have a deeper, a 
more sincere admiration than I have for their 
institutions, their people, their great soldiers 
and sailors, as well as for their writers and men 
of science." Again, in praise of patriotism, 
he indulges in the following panegyric of our 
country : " And may I not assert with equal 
confidence that it is because that sentiment 
so deeply influences the hearts of the United 
States people that they have become the fore- 
most nation in the world, far greater than 
Washington and his able colleagues could ever 
have hoped for or even dreamt of." Another 
appeal to our national pride is in his expecta- 
tion that we shall one day save the world from 
" the yellow peril "; for, as he thinks, China 
only wants her Napoleon or Peter the Great to 
enable her to do great things. " I have long 
selected them," he writes, referring to the 
Chinese, " as the combatants on one side at 
the great battle of Armageddon, the people of 
the United States of America being their op- 
ponents. The latter nation is fast becoming 




the greatest power of the world." Is all this 
from the heart, or has the author a thrifty 
eye on his American reading and book-buying 
public? How explain such ready relinquish- 
ment of all claims to old England's unapproach- 
able preeminence among the world-powers? 

The pen portraits of Lee and Jackson as 
seen by our author in camp and field are among 
the best passages in the book. Of Lee he writes 
in terms of the most ardent admiration. 

" He was the ablest general, and to me seemed the 
greatest man I ever conversed with; and yet I have had 
the privilege of meeting Von Moltke and Prince Bis- 
marck, and at least upon one occasion had a very long 
and intensely interesting conversation with the latter. 
General Lee was one of the few men who ever seriously 
impressed and awed me with their natural, their inhe- 
rent greatness. Forty years have come and gone since 
our meeting, yet the majesty of his manly bearing, the 
genial winning grace, the sweetness of his smile and 
the impressive dignity of his old-fashioned style of ad- 
dress, come back to me amongst the most cherished of 
my recollections. His greatness made me humble, and 
I never felt my own individual insignificance more keenly 
than I did in his presence. ... As he listened to you 
attentively, he seemed to look into your heart and to 
search your brain. He spoke of the future with con- 
fidence, though one could clearly see be was of no very 
sanguine temperament. He deplored the bitterness 
introduced into the struggle, and also the treatment of 
the Southern folk who fell into hostile hands. But 
there was no rancour in his tone when he referred to 
the Northern Government. Not even when he described 
how they had designedly destroyed his home at Arling- 
ton Heights, the property on the Potomac he had in- 
herited from General Washington. He had merely 
* gone with his State ' — Virginia — the pervading prin- 
ciple that had influenced most of the soldiers I spoke 
with during my visit to the South." 

In sharp contrast with this portrait of the born 
aristocrat is that of the sturdy man of the people, 
Stonewall Jackson. 

" There was nothing of these refined characteristics 
in Stonewall Jackson, a man with huge hands and feet. 
But he possessed an assured self-confidence, the outcome 
of an absolute trust in God, that inspired his soldiers 
with an unquestioning belief in him as their leader. 
They did not ask him where he was going: they were 
content to follow him," 

Both of the portraits thus outlined are filled in 
with some elaboration by Lord Wolseley, who 
well likens Lee to the high-born cavalier, 
while Jackson was more after the pattern of 
Cromwell's Ironsides. 

The final campaign recorded is that con- 
ducted by the author against the Ashantees of 
the Gold Coast, in 1873-74. Its immense 
difficulties, to say nothing of the deadly cli- 
mate, make the narrative a thrilling one. It 
deserves a more extended reference, and in fact 
the book as a whole is worthy of more detailed 
notice. It falls easily into the same class as 

Lord Koberts's popular account of his life in 
India, and touches at one point on what that 
has given in graphic detail. Whether like that 
it will pass through fifteen impressions, besides 
one for the blind, in little over a year, remains 
to be seen. It deserves to be widely read. 
Percy F. Bicknell. 

A Composite History of our Country.* 

Perhaps no more disappointing book was 
issued from the press last year than the volume 
in the "Cambridge Modern History" devoted 
to the United States. The great but some- 
what elusive reputation of Lord Acton, who 
planned the series, the prestige of the Univer- 
sity whose name it bears, and the favorable 
impression produced by the volume on the 
Renaissance, combined to create an expectation 
that the volume on the United States would 
prove a valuable contribution to American his- 
tory. There is no other nation whose history 
presents so great a variety of interests within 
so short a period of time, and whose progress 
from insignificant beginnings to great achieve- 
ment has been so rapid. There is great need 
that some single volume should present in 
strong color and with a broad stroke the un- 
derlying forces of this wonderful development. 
Someway it was expected that the Cambridge 
History would furnish this picture, but it 
might have been foreseen that the production 
of a dozen writers, chosen in large part at long 
range upon the basis of their general reputa- 
tion, and working independently of each other 
and without unity of plan, would not be satis- 
factory. This at least the event has proved. 

The work of the editors seems to have been 
confined to the division of the subject matter 
into chapters and their assignment to various 
writers. The whole period was divided into 
twenty-one chapters, to which were added two 
of general review, making a total of twenty- 
three. This is very nearly the division orig- 
inally made by Lord Acton. Criticism of the 
work begins with this division. Its most strik- 
ing characteristic is the extraordinary amount 
of space devoted to military history. Seven 
chapters are filled with the purely military 
events of the French War, the Revolution, the 
War of 1812, and the Rebellion, making 
nearly a third of the whole volume. These 

*Thb Cambridge Modern History. Planned by the 
late Lord Acton. Edited by A. W. Ward and others. Volume 
VII., The United States. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

wars were great turning points in American 
history. What is needed is an explanation 
of the conditions that caused them, a brief out- 
line of their grand strategy, and a full state- 
ment of their objective and subjective results. 
Instead we have a mass of military details, 
and no satisfactory statement of causes and 
results. The details of military events have 
no bearing upon the study of underlying causes, 
and could not be sufficiently minute to serve 
the purpose of the student of military history 
or of military science. They are therefore use- 
less, and give the book an undesirable " drum 
and trumpet " cast. 

The twenty-three chapters of the volume are 
divided among thirteen writers, of whom it is 
stated that but five were chosen by Lord Acton. 
Of the thirteen, four are English and nine are 
American. Of the American writers, all but 
one are connected with colleges or universities, 
one as president and the remainder as profes- 
sors. Of the English writers only one appears 
to be engaged in teaching. As there is no 
uniform mode of treatment, there is no escape 
from the tedious process of reviewing the work 
of each contributor seriatim. There are four 
principal contributors. The colonial period 
is for the most part covered by Mr. John A. 
Doyle, the Declaration of Independence and 
the formation of the Constitution by Professor 
Melville Bigelow, the period from 1783 to 
1850 by Professor McMaster, and the Civil 
War by the late John G. Nicolay. Ten other 
chapters, either supplementary or summary, 
are furnished by the nine other writers en- 
gaged upon the volume. 

Few men are better acquainted with the his- 
tory of the English colonies in America than Mr. 
Doyle, but he lacks the powers of distinguishing 
between the vital and the accidental and of gen- 
eralization requisite for condensed statement. 
His chapters are a mass of details with which 
he seems himself impatient, but which he fails to 
show were the small beginnings of great things. 
There is no attempt to portray the forces back 
of the settlement of the different colonies or 
the forces operating within and characterizing 
them. As a single illustration, instead of show- 
ing how Antinomianism, by tending to subvert 
the Puritan theocracy, provoked persecution 
and contributed to the New England disper- 
sion, he dismisses it with the statement that 
" it can only be understood after a careful 
study of Calvinistic theology." Of the Revo- 
lution he says " no one can speak of the col- 
onists as loyal subjects goaded into rebellion 

by persistent ill treatment," but does not suf- 
ficiently explain the causes that did bring 
about separation. There is no adequate ac- 
count of the sacrifice of colonial to British 
interests, of the operation of the colonial sys- 
stem, and of the gradual differentiation of col- 
onies and mother country. The chapters are 
not even accurate in details. Franklin's plan 
of union was not approved by the Albany Con- 
gress, but referred to the assemblies with the 
certainty that it would be rejected ; the re- 
lation of the North Carolina Regulators to 
the Revolution is misunderstood ; James War- 
ren is confused with Joseph Warren ; the pro- 
visions of the transportation act and the cir- 
cumstances of Andre's capture are misstated ; 
Jay, whose influence was so important, is not 
mentioned in connection with the negotiation 
of peace, and Laurens appears as Henry 

The assignment of an historical sketch of 
the theory of the Revolution and the forma- 
tion of the Constitution to Mr. Bigelow is not 
very different from the employment of an his- 
torian to try a case in court. In the treatment 
of the first topic Mr. Bigelow subjects a num- 
ber of contemporary pamphlets upon both 
sides to careful legal analysis, the result of 
which is an interesting essay, that especially 
develops the extent to which the idea of nat- 
ural right was embodied in the common law 
but fails to meet the requirement of a history 
of revolutionary opinion. The essay conveys 
the impression that the colonial argument was 
fixed and stable, whereas it shifted as the 
struggle advanced and passed through at least 
four distinct phases. Even less satisfactory is 
the chapter on the Constitution. Mr. Bigelow 
begins with a sketch of the formation of the 
state constitutions, apparently with the pur- 
pose of pointing out the connection between 
them and the Federal Constitution, and then 
omits to show the relation. His treatment 
of the latter consists in tracing each one of 
Randolph's resolutions through the debates in 
the convention to its final form in the completed 
Constitution. This labor is performed with 
painstaking care, and the result is a useful 
piece of work, but it is the last thing needed 
in this particular place. Instead of it there 
should be a careful account of the movement 
that brought about the convention and a re- 
statement of the compromises between the con- 
tending forces within the convention. The chap- 
ter closes with but a single paragraph by way 
of comment, and that an erroneous one. It is 




Mr. Bigelow's conclusion that Alexander Ham- 
ilton was the master spirit of the convention. 
This is a tradition, resulting from a confusion 
of the part that Hamilton played in bring- 
ing about the convention and in securing the 
ratification of the Constitution with his share 
in the convention itself. Hamilton's ideas were 
entirely out of harmony with those of the con- 
vention, very few of his suggestions met with 
approval, he was embarrassed by the majority 
against him in his own delegation, and felt that 
his influence was so slight that he did not at- 
tend a considerable part of the sessions. 

Professor McMaster covers the period from 
the devolution to the Compromise of 1850 in 
the well known style of his " History of the 
People of the United States." He tells the 
story chiefly for the purpose of giving " local 
color," but does not undertake the statement 
of causes and results. Genet appears in his 
pages as Genest, but more important is the 
omission of the real purpose of his mission. 
The statement of the European situation that 
produced the War of 1812 is not attempted. 
The story of nullification in South Carolina is 
told, but the momentous consequences of the 
virtual victory of the nullifiers are passed over 
in silence. The style glides smoothly from 
point to point without accentuation and conse- 
quently without perspective. Admirable as 
this may be for purposes of entertainment, it 
does not make much impression upon the mind 
or give much understanding of the subject. 
An entire volume written in this vein would 
meet a popular demand, but the method hardly 
seems suited to the purposes of this history. 

The standpoint of Mr. Nicolay's chapters on 
the Civil War is, of course, that of the Lin- 
coln History. Three of the four are devoted 
to military events, and about a third of them 
to the mistakes of McClellan. The single 
chapter on the political phases of the period is 
much too short to cover the subject. It is 
almost entirely devoted to the abolition of slav- 
ery. The financial history of the struggle is 
briefly reviewed; the period of uncertainty at 
the beginning, the shifting attitude of the 
North as the struggle advanced, the centrali- 
zation of government, which was the most im- 
portant subjective result of the war, and, what 
is especially surprising, all reference to for- 
eign relations, are omitted altogether. While 
the proportion of space given to military events 
and some of the views expressed may be open 
to criticism, the style of the whole is good. 

The shorter contributions must be passed in 

rapid review. In the chapter by Miss Mary 
Bateson, Lecturer in Newnham College, upon 
the French in America, the material is thor- 
oughly mastered, admirably organized, and 
well presented. It is a model of the mode of 
treatment which should have been applied to 
the whole book. The chapter on the French 
War by Mr. A. G. Bradley, an English author 
who lived for some time in the United States 
and is best known through his " Fight with 
France for North America," is an accurate but 
not very picturesque account of a very pic- 
turesque contest. Mr. H. W. Wilson, another 
English writer, covers the War of 1812 and the 
naval operations of the Rebellion. The partic- 
ular purpose of President Woodrow Wilson's 
chapter on the decade from 1850 to 1860 is to 
explain the point of view of the South, a pur- 
pose which is well accomplished, although he 
finds it necessary to devote half of his space to 
an earlier period. It is not correct to say that 
Utah and New Mexico were organized " with 
nothing said about slavery," and President 
Wilson seems to have missed the point that 
Kansas and Nebraska were organized under 
precisely the same conditions as were Utah and 
New Mexico. Douglas was the most promi- 
nent man in public life during the decade from 
1860 to 1860 and received in the latter year a 
larger vote for the presidency than any South- 
ern man. Here is a phenomenon which Presi- 
dent Wilson does not attempt to explain. 
Supplementary to the chapters on the Civil 
War, Professor Schwab furnishes one on the 
South during the War, which is an acceptable 
summary of his "Financial and Industrial His- 
tory of the Confederate States." The period 
since the war is divided between Professor T. C. 
Smith, now of Williams College, and Profes- 
sor John Bassett Moore of Columbia. Pro- 
fessor Smith covers the ground thoroughly and 
systematically to the election of President 
Cleveland, and is sound and outspoken in his 
judgments. The reconstruction part suffers 
from lack of space, but otherwise could scarcely 
be improved. Professor Moore reviews the re- 
cent diplomatic history of the United States, 
and closes with an account of the peace negotia- 
tions at Paris. He is absolutely noncommittal 
on all vital points, apparently considering that 
his former o£Bicial connection with the Depart- 
ment of State bars the expression of individual 
opinion. Two summaries, one of economic and 
the other of intellectual development, complete 
the volume. The former, written by Professor 
Emery of Yale, sets forth the extraordinary 



[Feb. 1, 

agricultural and industrial expansion of recent 
years, and the latter, written by Professor 
Barrett Wendell of Harvard, presents judic- 
ious paragraphs on the progress of law, philos- 
ophy, art, science, education, and a somewhat 
longer sketch of American literature. Professor 
Wendell supplements the doubtful theory set 
forth in his "Literary History of America," 
that the American of the time of the Revolu- 
tion was a survival of the Elizabethan English- 
man, with the contention "that the country 
to-day is essentially the same which, in the 
reign of King George III., declared its inde- 
pendence of England," a contention that will 
hardly bear examination. The bibliography 
for the various chapters covers eighty pages 
and is reasonably full. 

Taken as a whole it is difficult to see what 
useful purpose the volume can serve. It is 
neither a collection of special studies for the 
student nor a survey of the whole field of 
American history useful for purposes of in- 
struction or suited to the needs of the general 
reader. There are a few good chapters, but 
most of them are condensed from books that 
are better still. A volume on the United States 
might have been omitted altogether. The series 
is a history of modern Europe, and European 
colonies the world over could have been better 
treated in connection with the parent state. It 
was the chief result of the Revolution that the 
United States was left free to develop its own 
institutions independently of Europe, and its 
history is no essential part of that of Europe. 
As it is, the volume will be placed upon the 
shelves as one of a notable series, but will be 
little read. y. H. Hodder. 

Modern Libbaby Management and 

It is interesting to compare Mr. J. D. Brown's 
new " Manual of Library Economy " with such 
a book as Dr. Grasel's " Handbuch der Bib- 
liothekslehre," which appeared in a new and 
much enlarged edition more than a year ago. 
The German work, written by one of the 
librarians of the Royal Library in Berlin, is a 
scholarly treatise on the science of library 
administration, with particular reference to 
German scientific libraries. The author pre- 
sents the fundamental principles of library 
administration, and exemplifies them from the 

* Manual of Library Economy. By James Duff Brown. 
Illustrated. London : Scott, Qreenwood & Co. 

actual working of libraries in Germany and 
other countries. He shows little enthusiasm, 
and has little to say in criticism of present 
conditions, merely stating the facts in a calm, 
judicious manner. Mr. Brown, on the other 
hand, is nothing if not an enthusiast. He has 
his decided views as to how public libraries 
should be managed, and when he finds a ten- 
dency which he considers dangerous, he says 
so in no uncertain language. He is librarian 
in one of the most progressive municipal libra- 
ries in Britain, and presents the actual working 
of that particular class of libraries, with very 
few references to conditions elsewhere. But 
what references he does give are pointed 
enough, — as when in his preface he says of 
American libraries : 

" In the United States a much higher level of attain- 
ment has been reached [than in France], but here again 
the paralyzing hand of uniformity has arrested progress 
after a certain standard of efficiency has become gen- 
eral. American libraries are conducted on lines which 
closely resemble those of ordinary commercial practice, 
in which everything is subordinated to the furtherance 
of profits and economy. Their methods are standard- 
ised, and everything is more or less interchangeable." 

The fact which is most forcibly brought out 
in regard to British municipal libraries is the 
limitation caused by the working of the library 
acts in regulating the percentage of the rates 
which may go to the support of the libraries. 

" The principal amendment of the Libraries Acts, 
which authorities of all kinds now agree is essential and 
paramount to everything else, is the abolition or altera- 
tion of the rate limitation, which for fifty years has 
fettered the work of public libraries and in every way 
hindered their proper development. ... If no limita- 
tion is placed upon the rates which can be levied for 
baths and washhouses, tramways, public health, lighting 
and education, it is surely an anomaly to retain on the 
Statute Book a restriction such as the fixing of the 
library rate, mainly, one supposes, because it was imposed 
about forty-seven years ago." 

The author of this book has long been an 
earnest advocate of " safeguarded open access," 
that is, of giving the public access, under pro- 
per supervision, to all or most of the books in 
public libraries, and the last chapter is a full 
statement of the arguments in favor of this 
plan, chiefly quoted from a pamphlet published 
in iy99 under the title "Account of the Safe- 
guarded Open-Access System in Public Lend- 
ing Libraries. Prepared and circulated by the 
librarians in charge of English open-access 
public libraries," and of which Mr. Brown 
presumably is the chief author. He says here : 

" The main object held in view by the advocates of 
open access is the extension of the usefulness of public 
libraries and books by enhancing their educational value 



in a practical and satisfactory manner. ... To secure 
the end in view, methods of exact classification have 
been introduced into the safeguarded open-access libra- 
ries, by means of which it is possible to display to readers 
in one place the books possessed by the library on any 
specific subject." 

In this connection, as well as in the chapters 
especially devoted to that subject, the import- 
ance of classification of books on the shelves 
of public libraries is emphasized. 

" Roughly, the plan most in vogue in English public 
libraries is to establish from six to twenty main classes 
like A Theology, B Sciences, C Biography, D History, 
E Fiction, etc., and to number the books in each class 
consecutively as received, without regard to their sub- 
jects. ... A more chaotic and unbusinesslike arrange- 
ment probably does not exist anywhere, in any depart- 
ment of life, than in a numerically arranged English 
public library on the plan just described. It is a mere 
wilderness of books dumped down on the shelves, with- 
out regard to topic relationships, or even an elementary 
idea of order or consistency."* 

Besides an earnest plea for the general prin- 
ciple of classification, three systems are briefly 
examined, namely the "Decimal" by Mr. 
Melvil Dewey, the "Expansive" by the late 
Mr. C. A. Cutter, and the "Adjustable" by 
Mr. Brown. Somewhat more space is given 
to cataloguing ; various rules and methods are 
described, and the mechanical methods of dis- 
playing catalogues are fully treated. On this 
latter point the author comes nearer to making 
a comparative study of methods in various 
countries than in any other part of his book. 

The question of "live" and "dead" books, 
which has agitated American librarians for the 
last couple of years, is very forcibly treated 
from the standpoint of a " workshop " library 
which "provides for the systematic and con- 
tinuous revision of the stock." The subject 
is treated both in the chapter on buildings and 
in that on book selection. 

" The museum idea of a public library has been cul- 
tivated so long, that it is difficult to advance a plea for 
the more practical workshop idea without raising a storm 
of opposition from those conservators of literature who 
imagine that their little parochial libraries rival the 
British Museum or Biblioth^que Nationale on a reduced 
scale. Yet, it is this practical workshop side of the 
question which we desire to advance in opposition to the 
museum, or haphazard collecting, method, which has for 
years prevailed. ... No doubt the difficulty of selec- 
tion is the main reason why public libraries are allowed 
to grow up in a haphazard way, because it is a work 
which demands not only persevering industry, but an 
encyclopaedic knowledge of literature and the contents 
of books. Nevertheless, we regard this difficulty of 
selection, and the limitation of the field of selection, as 
powerful reasons why municipal libraries should com- 

* This kind of " classification " is not entirely unknown in 
■American libraries. 

pletely abandon the museum or storage ideal, and go 
boldly for making the workshop or practical utility 
ideal the one most worthy of realization. . . . Public 
library buildings should be erected, not on the principle 
of storing as many books as can possibly be collected 
in fifty years' time, but of restricting the book accom- 
modation to the reasonable limits which careful selection 
and cautious discarding will fix, and increasing the 
space available for readers, and giving them only the 
very best literature, imaginative or instructive, that 
the world has to offer." 

The chapter on book selection is one of the 
most interesting, and to American readers one 
of the most valuable, in the whole book. The 
author has here occasion to take issue with an 
American library primer which he thinks 
"may influence young librarians in a disas- 
trous fashion," as when its author recommends 
buying largely of the cheap books issued in 
"series" or "libraries," which, as Mr. Brown 
points out, " are too often commercial ventures 
got up to sell by people who have nothing par- 
ticular to say." 

The author sounds a note of warning in re- 
gard to the particular attention that has lately 
been given to children's libraries. 

" With all respect for the admirable work in con- 
nection with children's libraries and the cultivation of 
intimate relationships with the public schools, both in the 
United States and Britain, there is a very grave danger 
of this particular outlet for library enthusiasm becom- 
ing a damaging influence on the interests of the general 
work of public libraries. Already there are libraries in 
the United States and in England where everything is 
subordinated to the special cult of the child, and where 
the claims of adult readers are being brushed aside in 
the pursuit of what is largely a sentimental phantasy. 
. . . There are strong and reasonable doubts as to the 
wisdom of treating juveniles like a separate class of 
human beings, and making all kinds of arrangements 
for their convenience, very often to the inconvenience of 

In this connection it should, however, be re- 
membered that in many neighborhoods chil- 
dren are the only persons who can or care to 
avail themselves of the services of public libra- 
ries, and also that something must he done out- 
side the schools to interest children in reading 
for reading's sake and to instruct them in the 
use of books as tools. When the writer says, 
"to many observers, it must appear as if the 
school educational authorities in America and 
the United Kingdom had failed lamentably in 
their duty of providing elementary education, to 
warrant such interference on the part of libra- 
rians," he has perhaps touched the real root of 
the matter. 

The foregoing might be enough to give 
an idea of the general character of the book 
and the purpose of its author. Besides the 



[Feb. 1, 

chapters here briefly noticed, those on heat- 
ing, lighting, ventilation, cleaning ; on printed 
catalogues ; on reading room methods and sub- 
sidiary departments, deserve particular atten- 
tion. Altogether, it is an admirable work, and 
one that deserves to be carefully read by Amer- 
ican librarians and library trustees. Though 
especially dealing with English conditions, 
the book is full of suggestions of value to libra- 
rians in any country, particularly in the United 

Each chapter is followed by a short list of 
references, chiefly to articles in library period- 
icals. That these references are not as numer- 
ous as those in Dr. Grasel's "Bibliothekslehre " 
is an advantage to the student. There are 
some rather curious omissions, however, and 
some inaccuracies, — which latter might be for- 
given the author of "Practical Bibliography" 
(see " The Library," 1903, p. 144 ff.). Presi- 
dent Eliot's address before the American Li- 
brary Association in 1902 on " The Division 
of a Library into Books in Use, and Books out 
of Use," seems to be unknown to Mr. Brown, 
though the subject is one in which he is par- 
ticularly interested. The list under the chapter 
on " The Librarian " should contain reference 
to Gtasel's " Bibliothekslehre," which contains 
a special appendix of great interest on " The 
Library Profession," besides the chapter on 
" The Qualifications of a Librarian." Mr. 
J. L. Whitney's report on, or rather against, 
the advisability of printing a new catalogue 
of the books in the Boston Public Library 
(A. L. A. conference 1900) should be read 
by all who are interested in the question of 
printed catalogues, but it is not mentioned in 
the short list of three (3) references on this 
subject. Mr. Archibald L. Clarke's interesting 
"Essays on Indexing," now running through 
"The Library World," should also have been 
mentioned, as well as Mr. Henry B. Wheatley's 
article " The British Museum Revised Rules 
for Cataloguing" ("The Library," 1900). 
The list of cataloguing rules on p. 277 is rather 
inadequate. Even the revised British Museum 
rules are omitted. Granted that this book is 
principally for English librarians, the omission 
of such important codes as Dr. Dziatzko's and 
that for the Prussian libraries is very singular. 
If the book-titles given on p. 66-71 as " The 
Librarian's Library " had been arranged by 
subjects instead of alphabetically, it would 
have been more useful. Some of the books in 
this list are marked by a star to indicate their 
being " parti uularly desirable." Why Cush- 

ing's " Initials and Pseudonyms " should be so 
marked, but not his " Anonyms," is not easy 
to understand ; nor why the first edition of 
Cutter's " Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue " 
should be more desirable than the third. That 
Mrs. Dixson's " Subject- Index to Universal 
Prose Fiction " is starred can only mean that 
the author is not familiar with it. By Bolton's 
" Catalogue of Technical Publications 1665- 
1882. Washington, 1887 " is of course meant 
his " Catalogue of Scientific and Technical 
Periodicals" of which the first edition, cover- 
ing the years 1666-1882, was issued in 1886, 
and the second, carrying the list down to 1896,^ 
appeared in 1897. Why Mr. Fletcher's " Co- 
operative Index to Periodicals" for 1886 should 
be especially desirable and the previous annual 
volumes uot even included in the list is hard 
to understand, — particularly as they are all 
superseded by the first supplement to Poole'a 
Index. The omission of Mr. Fletcher's "A. L. A. 
Index to General Literature," of which th& 
first edition came out in 1893 and the second 
in 1901, and which is an indispensable tool for 
any library, is presumably unintentional. That 
Langlois's " Manuel de Bibliographic Histor- 
ique," Paris, 1901, is the second edition of th& 
first part (all that so far has been published), 
is not indicated. At last it seems somewhat 
curious to find, in such an " up to date " book 
as Mr. Brown's, Petzholdt's "Katechisums der 
Bibliothekenlehre," 1866, marked as " par- 
ticularly desirable." This book has now chiefly 
an historical interest, and is for all practical 
purposes superseded by Dr. Grasel's often 
mentioned " Handbuch der Bibliothekslehre," 
whose previous edition, " Grundziige der Bib- 
liothekslehre," was a recast (" Neubearbeit- 
ung") of Petzholdt's book, as still is told on 
the title-page of the 1902 edition. 

Aksel G. S. Josefhson. 

The Charm of Cookert Books.* 

Thoreau, referring to the addition of a pat- 
ent stove to the furniture of his Walden hut, 
said that henceforth cooking would be for him 
not a poetic but a chemic process. Most of us, 
if the truth were told, would admit that we had 
never thought of cookery in any other than the 
latter light. And as for cookery-books, knowing 
in our darkness only the oilcloth-covered vade 
mecum of the kitchen, we have naturally re- 

*My Cookbbt Books. By Elisabeth Robin a Pennell. 
Illustrated. Boston : Houghton, MifBin <& Co. 




garded their omission from Lamb's catalogue 
of biblia a-biblia merely in the nature of an 
oversight, or more likely an intentional exclu- 
sion of the obvious. 

To reveal the poetic charm that once at- 
tached to cookery, to prove that the cookery 
book may be the most delightful of literature, 
and no doubt also to gratify the proper pride 
of a collector in an unrivalled collection, has 
been the threefold aim of Mrs. Pennell in 
writing her account of "My Cookery Books." 
She scatters our careless illusions on the sub- 
ject at the outset. 

" The cookery book has every good quality that a 
book can have. In the first place, it makes a legiti- 
mate appeal to the collector, and M. Vicaire and Mr. 
Hazlitt show what the bibliographer can do with it. 
Man, the cooking animal, has had from the beginning 
a cooking literature. What are parts of the Old Tes- 
tament, of the Vedas, but cookery books ? You cannot 
dip into Athenseus without realizing what an inspiration 
food and drink always were to the Greek poet. As for 
the Romans, from Virgil to Horace, from Petronius to 
Lucian, praise of good eating and drinking was forever 
their theme, both in prose and in verse. Early French 
and English historical manuscripts and records are full 
of cookery; and almost as soon as there was a printing- 
press cookery books began to be printed, and they have 
kept on being printed ever since. It would be strange 
if, among them, there were not a few that provided the 
excitement of the hunt and the triumph of conquest." 

Mrs. Pennell is not of those who collect for the 
mere sake of collecting. She reads her cookery 
books, and, moreover, considers that they make 
the very best sort of reading, — an opinion 
which readers of her own book will be quite 
ready to share. Indeed, so persuasive is her 
charm, that at the end one finds himself bitten 
with a like enthusiasm, and feels tempted forth- 
with to begin haunting the book-shops in search 
of such delightful treasures as are here de- 

It is in her shelf of seventeenth-century 
English books, ranging from Gervase Mark- 
ham's " English Housewife " to Giles Rose's 
"Perfect School of Instructions for theOflficers 
of the Mouth," that Mrs. Pennell finds great- 
est pleasure. Here are such noted names in 
gastronomical annals as Robert May and Will 
Rabisha; here also we find the inimitable 
" Closet " of Sir Kenelm Digby, who cultivated 
this tenth muse of cookery no less assiduously 
than his politics or his theology. May and 
Rabisha were types of the professional cook, 
the expert in culinary science. But Sir Kenelm, 
the amateur, is more truly representative of his 
century. He is the connoisseur in epicurism, 
writing from the heart rather than the head, 
and clothing his instructions in language as 

quaint and refreshing as that of Pepys or 

"The cookery books are full of this brocaded lan- 
guage, full of extravagant conceits, full of artificial 
ornament; a lover writing to his mistress, you would say, 
rather than a cook or a housewife giving practical 
directions. After the modern recipe, blunt to the point 
of brutality; after the < Take so much of this, add so 
much of that, and boil, roast, fry,' as the dull case may 
be, each fresh extravagance, each fresh affectation, is 
as enchanting as the crook of Lely's ladies or the Silvio 
of Herrick's verse. I should not want to try the recipes, 
so appalling often is the combination of savories andi 
sweets, so colossal the proportions. But they were 
written by artists who had as pretty a talent for turning 
a phrase as for inventing a new dish. Rose leaves and 
saffron, musk and • amber-greece,' orange flower andi 
angelica, are scattered through them, until it seems as- 
if the feast had been spread only for Phillis or Anthea. 
And no water can be poured into their pots that is not. 
'fair,' few blossoms chosen as ingredients that are not 
•pleasing.' Cakes are ' pretty conceits,' and are gar- 
nished 'according to art.' If cider leaves its dregs,, 
these are ' naughty,' and a sweet is recommended be- 
cause it 'comforteth the Stomach and Heart.' The 
names of the dishes are a joy: the tanzies of violets or 
cowslips, and the orangado phraises; the syllabubs and 
the frumenties, — ' all- tempting Frumenty'; the wiggs 
and pasties; the eggs in moonshine; the conserves of 
red roses; the possets without end, almost as lyrical as. 
the poet's, made 

' With cream of lilies, not of kine, 
And maiden's blush for spiced wine.' 
And the drinks: metheglin, — do we not know to the 
day the date of Pepys' first ' brave cup ' of it? — meath, 
hydromel, hypocras, — a word that carries one to the- 
Guildhall buttery, a certain Lord Mayor's day, where 
Pepys is gayly tippling; hypocras ' being to the best of 
my present judgment only a mixed compound drink, and. 
not any wine,' which he had forsworn by solemn vow. 
<If I am mistaken, God forgive mel but I hope and 
do think I am not.' " 

Coming to the eighteenth century, we reach 
the choicest gem of the collection, and indeed 
the most noted volume in all culinary bibli- 
ography, — a first edition in "pot folio" of 
Hannah Glasse's "Art of Cookery." Mrs. 
Pennell has particular reason to rejoice in her 
copy, for it reposed at one time in the library 
of George Augustus Sala. It is not a littla 
distressing to find that the phrase by which 
good old Hannah Glasse is now chiefly remem- 
bered, the famous " First catch your hare," is 
here set down as apocryphal. But in the ac- 
tual identity and mundane existence of the 
lady herself, whom some critics (presumably 
dyspeptic) have chosen to regard in the light 
of a culinary Mrs. Harris, firm belief is ex- 
pressed by our author. The cookery-book of 
Hannah Glasse, as she herself modestly dis- 
claims, is "not wrote in the high polite stile " 
so typical of her day, but the taste of its deli- 
cious quality afforded in these pages makes u» 



[Feb. 1, 

wish that some publisher would honor it (and 
himself) with a fitting reprint. 

With May and Eabisha came, as we have 
said, the professional element in English cook- 
ery affairs. Soon thereafter began the inva- 
sion of the French chefs, whose " kickshaws " 
and " messes " at first excited the contempt of 
patriotic Britishers, but before long found per- 
manent places on the national bill of fare. 
Between the increasing strength of these two 
influences, the amateur is effectually silenced 
by the middle of the eighteenth century, or 
soon after Hannah Glasse's day. Henceforth 
there are no more little confidences between 
cook and consumer, no more flattering compro- 
mises to the individual taste, no more little 
allegories and dainty mysteries. Now it is 
the master-cook, or chef, bolstered up with a 
pedigree of service in various kitchens of the 
nobility, who from the fulness of his expert 
knowledge loftily directs us to do thus and 
so, exactly that and no more. Though the 
charm of manner, the refreshing naivete, is 
not always lacking in these latter eighteenth- 
century books, as a rule the tone is too pon- 
tifical to be edifying. Often, too, disdain of 
the amateur's flowery periods leads to a de- 
pressing bluntness. 

" ' Stick your pig just above the breast-bone,' says 
Mrs. Elizabeth Raffald, without any preamble; 'run 
your knife to the heart; when it is dead, put it in cold 
water.' Whoever, after that, would eat of her pig has 
more courage than I." 

With the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Mrs. Pennell stops short in her account. 
For here the book on cookery seems to change 
its character completely, becoming for the most 
part the dull practical affair that all of us are 
familiar with, the prosaic " kitchen Baedeker," 
lacking always in grace and not seldom in 

Though she devotes an interesting chapter 
to the foreign books in her collection, it is evi- 
dent that here Mrs. Pennell loves rather by 
allowance than with personal love, — to use 
Walt Whitman's distinction. Following this 
chapter is the Bibliography, occupying more 
than a third of the entire volume. The author 
has not attempted to rival M.Vicaire, with his 
2500 entries. She has done no more than 
prepare a descriptive list of the books that she 
herself owns, — and even this within certain 
stated limits. The work is done extremely 
well, and this part of the book, aside from its 
value for reference purposes, is not less inter- 
esting than the rest. 

We should like, were it possible, to devote 
as much space to the form of Mrs. Pennell's 
volume as we have to its matter, so excellent 
an example is it of distinguished bookmaking. 
Produced by the Riverside Press in an edition 
limited to 330 copies, it well sustains the repu- 
tation of that concern for results in artistic 
printing hardly equalled by any other Amer- 
ican press. It is quarto in size, printed on 
unbleached Arnold handmade paper, from a 
plain modern face of type, the page being 
altogether devoid of ornamentation. The bind- 
ing is a combination of marbled paper sides 
and linen back, with paper title-label. A num- 
ber of illustrations, consisting of old portraits, 
title-pages, colophons, etc., in facsimile, add a 
pleasing antiquarian air. These are printed 
on paper of antique appearance, and mounted 
on blank pages throughout the book. So suc- 
cessful is the process of reproduction and 
printing, that these illustrations have every 
appearance of the originals, and even an expert 
might, at first glance, think that the volume 
had been extra-illustrated directly from Mrs. 
Pennell's collection. ^aldo R. Browne. 

An Italian LiAdy op the Renaissance.* 

Without doubt Isabella d'Este was the most 
distinguished woman of the Renaissance. She 
was well born and well educated, she filled a 
conspicuous position with conspicuous ability, 
she was beautiful, and she had good health. 
She was twenty years old at the time of the 
French invasion, in 1494; she died in 1539, 
her long life thus stretching through the mo- 
mentous years of the decline and fall of Italy. 
Into the dramatic struggle between pope, em- 
peror, France, and the Italian states, Isabella 
d'Este was born, the eldest daughter of Ercole, 
second Duke of Ferrara, and head of the oldest 
family in Italy, save that of Savoy. At the 
age of sixteen, Isabella was married to Fran- 
cesco Gonzaga, fourth Marquis of Mantua. 
Through her father, her mother, and her hus- 
band, she was related to most of the actors in 
the great national tragedy. Her mother was 
Eleonora of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand, 
King of Naples, and the young King Ferdi- 
nand, who lost Naples to Charles VIII. of 

* Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474-1539. 
A Study of the Renaissance. By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. 
Ady). Illustrated. London : John Murray. New York: 
E. P. Button & Co. 




France, was her cousin. Her younger sister, 
Beatrice d'Este, married Lodovico Sforza, 
called II Moro, that Duke of Milan who in- 
vited the French into Italy, and thereby lost 
his duchy and died miserably in the dungeons 
of Loches. Elizabetta Gonzaga, her sister-in- 
law and most intimate friend, was the wife of 
Guidobaldo Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, 
whose state was twice treacherously seized, once 
by Caesar Borgia, and again by Lorenzo dei 
Medici. Elizabetta Gonzaga was celebrated 
alike for her virtues and her misfortunes, and 
is the Duchess of Urbino whose praises are so 
devotedly sounded by Count Baldessare Cas- 
tiglione, in II Cortegiano. Another kinsman 
was the Connetable de Bourbon, son of 
Isabella's sister-in-law, Chiara Gonzaga and 
Gilbert de Montpensier. The marriage of 
Lucrezia Borgia to Isabella's brother, Duke 
Alfonso d'Este, made a connection with the 
papal court of Alexander VI., and led later to 
a second French alliance, when Lucrezia's son, 
Duke Ercole II., married Renee, daughter of 
Louis XII. and sister to Queen Claude. By 
these various marriages the little court of 
Mantua became personally related to the courts 
of Ferrara, Naples, Milan, Urbino, Eome, 
and France. The marriages reveal the state- 
craft of the time. Isabella d'Este was no 
match-maker, but she was the clever woman 
of her family, much cleverer than her hus- 
band, who was a blunt soldier, a better gen- 
eral than diplomatist, and often absent in the 
field. On these occasions he left his wife to 
govern the marquisate, and her success in 
maintaining the integrity of a small and com- 
paratively poor state through more than forty 
years of incessant war and intrigue, in which 
almost everybody else went down, sometimes 
more than once, explains Cardinal Bembo's 
eulogy of her, "the wisest and most for- 
tunate of women." An extant letter from 
Isabella d'Este to her son, the first Duke of 
Mantua, shows that in general she considered 
the papal alliance safest for Mantua. But at 
this time, 1521, she had already permitted 
the young Federico to make a long visit at 
the French court, and later she entertained 
the Emperor, Charles V., magnificently in 

The most dramatic bit of politics in which 
Isabella d'Este was engaged, characteristic at 
once of her and of her time, is the story of the 
red hat. She determined that her third son, 
Ercole, should be a cardinal, and had in vain 
asked for his elevation from Pope after Pope. 

When Clement VII. was elected to the Holy 
See, in 1525, Isabella, who had been a widow 
for six years, went to Rome to be on the spot. 
There she took the Colonna palace and there 
she remained for two years, never so completely 
absorbed in collecting works of art as to lose 
sight of the cardinalate. Pope Clement hesi- 
tated, intrigued, and put her o£f, and Isabella^ 
went on buying medals and antiques. Guic-^ 
ciardini quotes the French ambassador, Du 
Bellay, to the effect that when the imperial 
allies were actually under the walls of Rome the 
terrified Pope summoned Renzo da Ceri and 
ordered him to collect at once one thousand men 
to defend the city. But it was impossible to 
raise as many ducats. In his extremity Pope 
Clement thought of the lady in the Colonnai 
palace. He appointed five new cardinals, each 
of whom paid forty thousand ducats, about half 
a million dollars, into the papal treasury. On. 
Sunday, May 5, 1527, Cardinal Pizzino carried 
a red hat to the Marchesa of Mantua in the 
Palazzo Colonna. The sack of Rome began at 
dawn on Monday, May 6. The one obstacle 
that Isabella d'Este could not overcome until 
the stress of the eleventh hour was the fact that 
her nephew, the Connetable de Bourbon, was 
leading the imperial army, and her second son, 
Ferrante, was captain of a Spanish troop in it. 
This string to her bow now saved her. The 
palace of the Marchesa of Mantua and the 
Cancellaria, occupied by Cardinal Colonna,. 
were the only two houses in Rome that escaped 
spoliation. For a week Isabella was practically 
a prisoner, but at the end of that time her son 
Ferrante, with a strong Spanish guard, escorted' 
her out of Rome. She carried with her many 
art treasures collected during the two years, 
and the red hat, which she had the pleasure 
herself of placing on her son's head. Ercole 
Gonzaga was in his twenty-second year when 
his mother made him a cardinal ; he was forty 
when he presided over the Council of Trent. 

It is, however, in her relations to the art and 
literature of the Renaissance that Isabella 
d'Este is most interesting. She was an intel- 
ligent and, for her means, munificent patron of 
art, and employed agents in all the large cities 
of Italy to keep her informed as to what was 
going on in the world of art and archaeology. 
The sculptor, Christoforo Romano, was her 
confidential adviser for many years. Christo- 
foro's friend, the Knight Templar Fra Sabba 
da Castiglione, exiled to the island of Rhodes, 
wrote to her that in the garden of the Grand 
Master there were " many excellent sculptures 



[Feb. 1, 

lying despised and uncared for, exposed to 
•wind and rain, which made him feel as if the 
bones of his father lay unburied." The Mar- 
•<5he8a of Mantua collected her art treasures in 
'her Studio of the Grotta in the castello, a suite 
of rooms whose walls were hung with pictures 
by Mantegna, Costa, Perugino, Bellini, and 
Correggio. A series of these pictures, now in 
the Galerie des Sept Metres of the Louvre, 
were called " triumphs " and were produced by 
successive orders of Isabella d'Este in carrying 
•out a general scheme. Having a definite idea 
of the " triumph " she wished depicted, Isabella 
communicated it to the humanist poet, Paride 
da Ceresara, who returned to her an elaborate 
fantasia of the subject. This fantasia she sent 
to the painter, together with threads showing 
the exact dimensions of the proposed picture, 
and information as to the place it was to oc- 
cupy, the light, neighboring pictures or objects 
in the Studio, and the like. Braghirolli counted 
'fifty-three letters written by Isabella d'Este to 
the artist and her agents before Perugino's 
•*' Triumph of Chastity " was finally hung on 
her walls. The only great painter out of whom 
'Isabella got no work was Leonardo da Vinci. 
The fantasia in this case was simple enough, 
" a youthful Christ of about twelve years," but 
Leonardo could not be brought to tie his genius 
to a lady's ribbons, and the picture was never 
painted. This fact may not be without signifi- 
cance as to the red chalk drawing in the 
Louvre, reputed to be of Isabella d'Este by 
^Leonardo. Mrs. Ady accepts the repute and 
furnishes a copy of the drawing for the front- 
ispiece of the first volume of her work. Signor 
(Luzio, director of the Eoyal Archives of Man- 
tua, in an article in the Emporium on Isabella's 
portraits, declines to accept the drawing as her 
likeness, and indeed a comparison of the front- 
ispiece with the medal portrait of Christoforo 
iKomano, figured at page 170, would seem to 
sustain Signor Luzio's judgment. Apart from 
the doubtful drawing in the Louvre, it is a 
-question whether any woman of the Renais- 
sance sat more often to artists than Isabella 
■d'Este. At different ages, her portrait was 
painted by Raphael's father, Giovanni Santi, 
by Andrea Mantegua, the Mantuan court 
painter, by Gianfrancesco Maineri, by Lorenzo 
Costa, by Francia, and by Titian twice, an 
original and a copy of Francia. In the seven- 
teenth century Rubens copied both of Titian's 
portraits. It is a pity that Titian's original 
portrait, described in the inventory of the 
pictures of Charles I. as a " Duchess of Man- 

tua, in a red gowne," came to light in England 
only last year, too late to be printed in Mrs. 
Ady's book. 

There was something Greek in Isabella 
d'Este's type of mind, art-loving and full of 
intellectual curiosity, ever desirous to learn 
some new thing, desiderosa di cosa nova, as 
she said of herself. She carried on a large 
correspondence and had a curious faculty for 
getting early news of things. Messer Pandolfo 
Pico della Mirandola wrote to her Easter Eve, 
1520, of the death of Raphael on Good Friday 
night : 

" Here we talk of nothing but the death of this great 
man, who has ended his first life at the age of thirty- 
three. His second life, that immortal fame which knows 
neither time nor death, will endure eternally, both by 
reason of his works and by the labors of scholars who 
will write his praises, and who will find in him a never 
failing theme." 

"Within five weeks after the JVina dropped 
anchor in the little harbor of Palos, the news 
reached Mantua that " a man named Colum- 
bus has lately discovered an island for the 
King of Spain, on which are men of our height 
but of copper-colored skin, with noses like 

One of the most interesting of Isabella 
d'Este's correspondents was the papal nuncio, 
Francesco Chiericati, who gave her a great deal 
of information about the lands and peoples he 
visited in the course of various diplomatic mis- 
sions. Chiericati introduced to her his servant, 
the chevalier Antonio Pigafetta, of Vicenza, 
who, " for to see the marvels of the ocean," 
accompanied Magellan in the first circumnavi- 
gation of the globe. Pigafetta went to see 
Isabella at her request and took with him his 
journal kept during those three years 

" Of moving accidents by flood and field," 

which Chiericati had described to her as "a 
divine thing." 

A letter from Chiericati to Isabella dated 
Middelburg, Zealand, 28th August, 1517, con- 
tains an entertaining account of his trip to 
Ireland, during the summer of that year, to 
see the celebrated Purgatory of St. Patrick in 
Lough Derg. The papal legate prudently de- 
clined to enter the purgatorial cave of the 
saint, but waited outside for his companions 
for ten weary days, during which time, he says, 
he ate up the greater part of the food of the 
pilgrims, who were fasting within on bread 
and water. The comfortable nuncio did not, 
however, escape purgatory after all, for on the 
return journey, he records of Down : " In this 




place I could not walk about the streets with- 
out being pursued by people, who came running 
out of their houses to kiss my clothes, when 
they heard I was the Pope's nuncio, so I was 
forced to stay in. Such is the annoyance which 
arises from over-much religion ! But the good 
bishop [an Italian] treated me very kindly, 
and gave me some excellent fishing." 

Isabella d'Este's library of the Grotta was 
quite as unique as her paintings, sculptures, 
and objets d'art. For fifty years she collected 
books, not only rare manuscripts and illumi- 
nated books, but French and Spanish romances, 
the Aldine classics, Latin translations from the 
Greek, and contemporary Italian literature. 
Poets, novelists, and humanists alike sent their 
works to the great lady who read everything. 
Trissino described her in his JRitratti^ and sent 
her a canzone, to " My Lady Isabella playing 
on the Lute," which celebrates her charms at 
the age of forty-seven. Bernardo Tasso pre- 
sented her his book of poems, II Lihro degli 
Amori, with a pretty letter. Once during an 
illness, her brother. Cardinal d'Este, dispatched 
Ariosto to her, who beguiled the weariness of 
convalescence by reading to her the Orlando 
Furioso. Later the poet sent her a copy of 
the third edition of his poem, containing the 
famous lines in her praise, beginning 

" D^opere illustre e di bei studi arnica " 
By way of thanks Isabella invited Ariosto to 
Mantua to meet the Emperor Charles V. 

The novelist, Bandello, lived for two or 
three years in the Dominican monastery in 
Mantua, and many of the ladies and gentlemen 
of Isabella d'Este's court figure in his pages. 
There is the Marquis Francesco, fond of rough 
jests ; his brother Giovanni, " as honest and 
sensible a man as ever lived"; Paride da Cer- 
esara, " a man after the heart of Terence, qui 
nihil humani a se alienum putat" ; Aldo Man- 
uzio, the printer ; Pomponazzi, the skeptical 
Bolognese professor ; Alessaudro Baesso, Isa- 
bella's seneschal, " old in years, but singularly 
merry in disposition"; and Madama herself, 
coming into the company announced by the 
barking of her pet dogs, and perhaps starting 
a discussion on the distinction between wit and 
humor. Oddly enough, Bandello dedicates to 
the serene and correct Marchesa of Mantua his 
tragical story of the loves and crimes of the 
Countess of Celant, " The Insatiate Countess " 
of John Marston. The dedication is of a piece 
with the letter Isabella d'Este wrote for Ban- 
dello, vouching for his " religious and modest 

life," and begging the vicar-general of the 
Dominicans " to hold him dear, and to honor 
him as his infinite virtues deserved." 

Isabella d'Este was a woman of the Kenais- 
sance. Unlike Vittoria Colonna and Mar- 
guerite of Valois, she was not affected by the 
new doctrines of the Reformation. In Ariosto's 
phrase, her religion was " that of other people." 
Her fate as a wife was not different from that 
of women of her time generally, but her own 
family relations were simple and domestic. 
Although she led an active life, full of many 
interests, she was the mother of eight children 
of whom she reared six. An anecdote related 
in the Ferrarese Archives illustrates Isabella 
d'Este's personal attitude towards contempo- 
rary manners. At the marriage of her brother, 
Alfonso d'Este, to Lucrezia Borgia, she refused 
to allow any of her ladies to be present at the 
representation of Plautus's comedy, Casina^ 
which she described as " immoral beyond 

This play, by the way, Mrs. Ady calls Cas- 
saria, confusing Plautus with Ariosto. It is 
unfortunate that with her undoubted gift for 
popularization Mrs. Ady has not known better 
her limitations. More discreetly she might 
have written an entertaining account of Isa- 
bella d'Este in one volume. Instead, she prints 
an imposing array of authorities which have 
the flimsiest relation to her text, or none at 
all, and her publisher has had to pay an in- 
demnity to the two Italian scholars most griev- 
ously exploited. Mrs. Ady has agreed not to 
sanction an Italian translation of her book. If 
it comes out again in English, it is to be hoped 
that it will be carefully revised. The readable 
English style leaves something to be desired in 
taste as well as grammar. Raphael as " the 
Urbinate," St. Peter as " the Prince of the 
Apostles," and Lucrezia Borgia " washing her 
head " run on all fours as English, and it is 
not English to the manner born. 

Proper names throughout Mrs. Ady's work 
are most uncertain. " Girolamo da Casio " 
(I. 320) appears as " Girolamo di Casio " 
(IL 311) and "Girolamo Casio" (L 388). 
"Brogna" (I. 72) is "Brognina" (II. 81), 
but she is indexed as two persons (II. 396). 
It only adds to the mystery shrouding the fate 
of Michael Angelo's Sleeping Cupid to refer 
to it (I. 272) as "Michel Angelo's sleeping 
Cupids." And why should Mrs. Ady quote 
Shakespeare from the "Quarterly Review"? 
Mary Augusta Scott. 



[Feb. 1, 

Briefs on New Books. 

wuhsievensonin ^^ August, 1887, with his mother, 
the Adirondack! wife, and stepson, Robert Louis 
and elsewhere. StevensoD Started for America and 
the Adirondacks in quest of health. After a rig- 
orous but bracing winter at Saranac, the party pro- 
ceeded to California and set sail in the yacht Casco 
for the Marquesas Islands. Having cruised about, 
with longer and shorter pauses at different points 
in the South Seas, they recrossed the line and found 
themselves in Honolulu at the end of January, 1889. 
Mrs. Margaret Isabella (Balfour) Stevenson, the 
proud and devoted mother of her famous son, left 
a pleasant record of these wanderings in letters 
home, now collected and published under the title, 
" From Saranac to the Marquesas and Beyond " 
(imported by the Scribners). The experiences 
chronicled are as varied as the degrees of tempera- 
ture experienced in passing from a winter in the 
Adirondacks to a summer in the tropics. To be- 
guile the tedium of the cruise, the party used to 
" decline and fall," after the manner of Silas Wegg 
and Mr. Boffin. With the dusky denizens of the 
southern seas they struck up friendly relations ; 
and it is this disposition to enter into the spirit of 
all that was new and interesting and wholesome 
that made their outing so enjoyable to themselves, 
and Mrs. Stevenson's account of it so entertaining 
to the reader. The editor, Miss Marie Clothilde 
Balfour, has supplied footnotes, an index, and fifty 
fine-print pages of illustrative matter drawn from 
a considerable range of sources, notably from 
Herman Melville, whose vivid pictures of south-sea 
life are regarded by Miss Balfour as more trust- 
worthy than they are commonly considered. For 
some reason she repeatedly refers to bis '' Omoo " 
as " Omua." Two unfamiliar portraits of the boy 
Stevenson and three of his mother are among the 
illustrations. An Introduction by Mrs. Stevenson's 
brother, Dr. George W. Balfour, contains some 
items of interest concerning the Balfour family 
and the old manse where they lived. 

Possibly no other of our American 
futud/amai. poet-dramatists has Mr. Francis 

Howard Williams's acquaintance 
with the technique of the stage. As a result, the 
three little dramas in his new volume, '■'■ At the Rise 
of the Curtain " (Badger), seem ready-made for the 
use of the theatre. The speeches in them are short, 
there is a continual movement, and theatrical effects 
abound. The pieces are tragic in theme, though the 
last one ends happily. The longest, " Holyrood," 
is a new study of Mary Stuart, a projection of the 
scenes incident to the murder of Biccio. We are 
inclined to think that nothing the Queen of Scots 
did in her lifetime was so deplorable as the apolo- 
getic histories and plays she has been the occasion 
of since her death. Scott's picture of her was 
frankly romantic, and, slurring over the darker 
passages of her history, is full of charm. Schiller's 

play is cast in large dramatic form, but as far as 
reality is concerned, is hardly more than a myth. 
Mr. Swinburne's vast and elaborate apology for 
and explanation of her character seems to us poor 
drama and poor art. A thoroughly bad woman, 
who is admitted to be bad, may be a great dramatic 
figure, vide Cleopatra and Becky Sharp ; but a bad 
woman who poses, or is posed, as rather better than 
an angel, is simply detestable. Mr. Williams does 
not apologize for Mary, and he has at least given 
the essentials of her character and situation in terse, 
bright form. The other two pieces we think are 
much better. '< Nemesis " is a story of Milan, of the 
fifteenth century. It relates the revenge planned by 
Alfeo, a court jester, against Sforza, the great mer- 
cenary captain of the day, for the seduction of his 
wife. It is told in terse lines full of wit and fire, 
and is worked up to a thoroughly dramatic crisis. 
In fact, the acting capabilities of the piece seem to 
us remarkably good. We are not sure that psy- 
chologically Mr. Williams has quite made out his 
case ; for the emotion of gratitude, which at the last 
moment overpowers Alfeo's hatred and makes him 
take upon himself the death he had planned for his 
enemy, seems to us a trifle overstrained. " Marie del 
Carmen " is the most human and beautiful of Mr. 
Williams's trio of curtain-raisers. It tells the story 
of a Spanish woman who hides and saves her hus- 
band from the search of a detachment of French 
soldiers. The situation is this : Her husband is 
hidden in the house, and she is given half an hour 
to disclose his hiding-place on the penalty of the loss 
of her baby. Meanwhile a sentry is placed over 
her, and her business is to use her time in moving 
the soldier to permit her husband's escape. There 
is a vague resemblance in the situation to that 
scene in Dumas where Lady Winter seduces the 
Puritan officer Fenton from his duty. But Mr. 
Williams's heroine works only with the noblest and 
most exalted means of persuasion, and it is a tribute 
to her purity and devotedness that we feel the 
sentinel hero is justified, in the end, in yielding to 
human emotion, and, by the most direct dereliction 
of duty, aiding the escape. 

A Massachusetts woman of mature 
aZZZZ'^ years. Jeft a widow just prior to the 

outbreak of the Civil War, found re- 
lief for her sorrow in the vocation of nurse in the 
hospitals of the Union Army on the Atlantic coast. 
The advent of the Franco- Prussian war, in 1870, 
spurred her again to the same occupation ; and, 
going to Germany, she succeeded, after some diffi- 
culty, in securing employment in the Prussian 
field and post hospitals in France. Out of this 
duplicated experience came numerous letters to 
friends in Massachusetts, from this nurse, Mrs. 
Mary Phinney von Olnhausen, and a fragmentary 
" Diary " or "Autobiography," written by her at the 
time. These have been preserved by her friends, 
and since her death have been edited by loving 
hands, and made the basis of a newly-published 




volume entitled " Adventures of an Army Nurse 
in Two Wars " (Little, Brown, & Co.) The hos- 
pital services of this lady during the Civil War 
were so efficient as to win her hearty conamendation 
while that war was still going on, and their illus- 
tration in these reminiscences will revive the war- 
time recollections of many readers. These papers 
have not been so over-edited as to rob them of the 
flavor and feeling of the strenuous time in which 
they were written, and their genuineness and 
contemporaneousness are unmistakable. Mrs. von 
Olnhausen was a keen observer and an interesting 
narrator. Her description of the deficiencies and 
hardships of a " convalescent camp " of the Civil 
War is faithful and vivid, as the writer of this 
notice can testify from his own recollection of a 
similar institution of the same period. The harsh 
treatment which military necessity often imposed 
upon wounded and sick soldiers, the unnecessarily 
rough conduct of some army surgeons, the genial 
manners of many others, and the embarrassments 
surrounding a woman nurse in camp and hospital, 
are all sharply portrayed. Contrast is inevitably 
suggested between the best work of the medical 
profession in those days and surgical achievements 
in more recent years. But it is notable that this 
experienced and capable nurse testified, at the time 
of the Franco-Prussian war, to the inferior work of 
the surgeons in that conflict, as contrasted with 
the accomplishments of American surgery nearly a 
decade earlier. What she relates of the malingering 
of some of the rank and file, the quest of inefficient 
officers for "soft places," and the eagerness of 
both active and inactive holders of position, in both 
staff and line, to divert to their own use supplies and 
dainties intended for the sick, seems a prophetic 
suggestion of the greed and "graft" with which 
the American public is recently becoming too pain- 
fully familiar. The eminently unselfish character 
of the work of this brave lady won for her the rare 
honor of the Iron Cross of Prussia. 

If ever a literary censorship is estab- 

Senrible articles t u j • iU- i j j; i^u r 

about book-bindinff. "^hed m this land of the free, it may 
well be on account of the exaspera- 
tion of the free with misleading and inexact book- 
titles. The careless christening of a book is often- 
times the reason for its only fault, but it is a most 
trying blemish. Miss S. T. Prideaux has made a vol- 
ume of eight magazine articles — pleasant articles and 
well-written, but nothing can be slighter than eight 
magazine articles unless it be nine, — to which she 
has given the name " Bookbinders and their Craft " 
(Scribner). It is an admirable title in itself, broad- 
minded, comprehensive, and would do so well on 
the back of an encyclopaedia that one is afraid, if 
Miss Prideaux ever publishes a really exhaustive 
volume, she will regret this early prodigality. They 
who are all the Bookbinders and half the title, are 
Roger Payne, treated individually; some modern 
French and some early Italians, treated collectively ; 
and some minor craftsmen and almost legendary 

schools of a somewhat crepuscular character, found 
in the byways aside from the great historic high- 
way along which the craft has developed and de- 
clined. There is also a review of " Les Relieurs 
Fran^ais " by M. Thoinan, and some notes on pat- 
tern-making. All in all the information contained 
is neither massive nor overwhelming, but the bouk 
has a distinct and grateful quality, being written 
with that interest which comes when long years of 
acquaintance with a subject has developed a recog- 
nition of essentials. The papers on " Some En- 
glish and Scotch Bindings," " Roger Payne," and 
" Early Stamped Bindings " have the most interest, 
partly from a sort of quiet aloofness of the matter 
and partly because Miss Prideaux's style of descrip- 
tion, which is somewhat quiet and aloof also, seems 
to fit the subject. It is very pleasant to find a 
specialist who can write about her subject with a 
modified rapture that maintains true values. Miss 
Prideaux does this, and if the historic light she 
turns on has not the full power of noon, it is how- 
ever a very pleasant dawn or twilight which, after 
all, is much better for some localities. Some of the 
things of which Miss Prideaux writes are interest- 
ing to happen on, to understand, and to know about, 
and none the less so because achieved through the 
medium of a cool, sane style that dominates adjec- 
tives and uses emphasis with all the discretion of a 
musical direction. "Ma non troppo" says the score, 
and Miss Prideaux somehow manages the "non 
troppo" — always excepting in the title. Her notes 
on pattern-making and design leave one calm in the 
same manner as the historical essays. They are 
not epoch-making nor revelations, but then there is 
no particular reason why one should expect them 
to be. As the unimpassioned utterance of Miss 
Prideaux's experience one can excuse them quietly 
and disagree with all if one will, without the 
acceleration of a single heart-beat, but always with 
the conviction that the lady has some knowledge 
of, and sympathy for, her subject. The book is of a 
convenient size, is nicely bound, and well illustrated. 

Some famous ^he essays contained in Mr. Andrew 

mysteries and Lang's latest volume, " The Valet's 
controversies. Tragedy" (Longmans), are described 

by their author as " studies in secret history." There 
are twelve of these studies, but only half of them 
really belong to the field of history. The initial 
essay is an effort to penetrate a little further into 
the mystery of the Man with the Iron Mask. Mr. 
Lang agrees with those who hold that this famous 
individual was merely an inoffensive valet who, it 
was feared, might be in possession of secrets which 
in reality he knew nothing about. While the author's 
theory and conclusion in the case seem plausible 
and are probably correct, they cannot be said to be 
fully established. The second essay is devoted to 
the valet's master, in the hope of throwing some 
light on the secret of the servant but confessedly 
without success. Of considerable interest is the 
study of the Amy Robsart mystery, which, how- 



[Feb. 1, 

ever, ia left unsolved. Still, the author does show 
that there is no basis for the charge that Queen 
Elizabeth had knowledge of Amy's impending death. 
The essays on the false Joan of Are, the murder of 
Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, and the fate of James 
de la Cloche (a natural son of Charles II.) are of 
minor importance. Students of literature will be 
interested in the ballad studies, " The Queen's 
Marie" and "The Mystery of Lord Bateman," in 
which the author displays extended knowledge of 
his subject and great familiarity with his field. In 
the closing essay the Shakespeare-Bacon contro- 
versy is taken up, and the claims of the Baconians 
subjected to a most searching analysis which clearly 
shows their position to be untenable. As a piece of 
literary polemics this is a brilliant effort. The 
remaining studies, dealing with such themes as the 
" voices " of Joan of Arc and certain historic ghosts, 
will doubtless interest students of psychology, but 
they can hardly be termed studies in secret history. 
The volume is of the popular type, and is written 
in Mr. Lang's vigorous though good-natured En- 
glish. While the essays do not contribute much 
toward the solution of the mysteries discussed, the 
author has accomplished something in the way of 
eliminating certain current errors, and the volume 
has its value. 

A history I^*"' J* ^- Saudys, Public Orator in 

of classical the University of Cambridge, has 

scholarship. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ f^^ ^^^^ y^^^g p^^^ 

upon the task of tracing the history of classical 
scholarship down through the centuries, from its 
beginnings in the Athenian age to the Revival of 
Learning. The volume now issued as a result of 
his researches comes only to the year 1350, as the 
mass of material has outgrown the limits originally 
set. A second volume is to follow, and is well on 
its way to completion. We had looked forward to 
this work with a lively hope that the subject would 
be treated in a readable manner, and the part of 
classical scholarship in the development of European 
civilization clearly and philosophically pointed out. 
We have read this initial volume through with a 
growing sense of disappointment. It is distinctly 
not readable, and it makes practically no attempt 
to fix the place of classical scholarship as a force in 
the development of the race. It is simply an enor- 
mous mass of facts about hundreds of men and a few 
women who gave more or less attention to the study 
of the language, literature, and art of Greece and 
Rome during the period in question. Large num- 
bers of these facts seem completely isolated and 
unimportant, and if Dr. Sandys was aware of any 
vital relation which they sustain to his subject he 
has denied his readers the benefit of his knowledge. 
The volume is divided into six " books," treating 
respectively of the Athenian Age, the Alexandrian 
Age, the Roman Age of Latin Scholarship, the 
Roman Age of Greek Scholarship, the Byzantine 
Age, and the Middle Ages in the West. The 
typical chapter in any one of these divisions is as 

indicated above, simply a collection of facts, with 
the veriest minimum of illuminating discussion, 
concerning individual "scholars." Perhaps very 
few classical scholars are satisfied with Professor 
Saintsbury's campaigns in their territory, but for 
any really vital knowledge of the subject of the 
book before us we should prefer to send the ordi- 
nary intelligent reader rather to the first volume of 
Saintsbury's " History of Criticism." We are sorry 
to make these strictures, for Dr. Sandys has here- 
tofore done great and lasting service to the cause 
of classical learning, both Greek and Roman. (Mac- 

It was hardly necessary for Mr. Sad- 
onJapar^eseart. ^kichi Hartmann to explam in the 

preface to his "Japanese Art " (L. C. 
Page & Co.) that the book is not intended for ex- 
perts and connoisseurs, so glaringly obvious is the 
author's lack of knowledge of his subject. Mis- 
takes that the merest tyro should have no difiiculty 
in avoiding abound on almost every page. In many 
instances the Japanese proper names are so spelled 
as to be almost unrecognizable; nor is there uni- 
formity in the orthographic errors. For Tokugawa 
we read " Takugawa," " Takigawa," and even 
" Fukugawa." Instead of Sakya-muni W3 have 
"Sakia"; the great Sessha is made to masquerade 
as "Sesshin''; Shokwado is metamorphosed into 
"Shioukada"; while as to " Husuyuma Moro," it 
would be a clever expert that could discover his 
identity. This list could be extended almost in- 
definitely. More serious is the distorted perspect- 
ive that exalts the artists of the popular school of 
the eighteenth century above the giants of the past. 
Kuniyoshi may have been " a wild unrestrained 
talent, with an imagination that was neither to bend 
nor to break," but the world will scarcely agree 
with the author in regarding Utamaro as " the most 
ethereal of painters." And the explanation of that 
artist's reason for using geishas and courtesans as 
models is, to say the least, amusing. There is an 
excellent chapter on modern Japanese art, and an 
intelligent description of the technical methods of 
the Japanese painters. But the good in the book is 
so buried in the mass of misstatements, slipshod 
phrases, and "fine writing," that like Gratiano's 
reasons it may be compared to " two grains of wheat 
in a bushel of chaff." A few of the illustrations are 
well-chosen; one is placed upside down; and the 
plate entitled "lacquer-work " is a reproduction of 
a piece of cloisonn^ enamel. Mr. Hartmann as- 
serts that " in looking at a statue the optical con- 
ciousness can not readily be divided." Possibly 
this may apply also to looking at enamels ! 

It is a remarkable fact that while 
A new field of j^jg^e \\q,\q been many contributors 
Napoleonic study. , T i • i • 

to the military and diplomatic his- 
tory of the Napoleonic period, very little has been 
attempted on the civics of that period. This defi- 
ciency has furnished a field for original study on a 




wide topic to Mr. Herbert A. L. Fisher, whose first 
results are now presented in a volume entitled 
"Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship in Ger- 
many " (Oxford University Press). The author 
tells us that "no complete history of the civil side 
of the Napoleonic Empire has yet appeared, and 
indeed, while so much material still remains unpub- 
lished and unexplored, it is unlikely that the great 
work will be accomplished in this generation." His 
present purpose is therefore to furnish a provisional 
account which, while not in any way claiming 
finality of treatment, shall at least be of value in 
indicating new lines of research. This purpose has 
been admirably fulfilled, for his treatment of condi- 
tions in Germany, both before and during the time 
of French control, is first of all notable in the evi- 
dence furnished of the vast unworked sources of 
information reposing in the archives of various 
German states. These Mr. Fisher has investigated 
sufficiently to affjrd him some striking and original 
results. Hanover, for example, is shown to have 
been burdened with such an antiquated and incom- 
petent form of government as to explain in part 
the readiness with which its citizens submitted to 
Napoleonic control. The facts here brought out are 
largely those of constitutional form and govern- 
mental machinery ; but the dryness of such descrip- 
tion is relieved by carefully drawn portraits of the 
men responsible for the working of that machinery. 
In other ways, also, Mr. Fisher has succeeded in 
relieving the tedium of minute investigation, for he 
has great discrimination in the choice of words, and 
much power in convincing summation. It is his 
purpose, if the work be well received, to follow it 
with volumes on France, Italy, Holland, and Bel- 
gium. Of that favorable reception there can be no 
doubt ; for even if, as is inevitable in studies of this 
nature, criticisms are made on the accuracy of this 
or that historical incident, there can be but one 
opinion of the service rendered by Mr. Fisher in 
opening a new field for historical investigation. 

Another volume of Bismarck's cor- 

More letters j i i i i 

of Bismarck. respondence uas recently been pub- 

lished by Messrs. D. Appleton & 
Co., — "Bismarck's Letters to his Wife from the 
Sesxt of War, 1870-1871." In the letters published 
some three years ago those of this period were not 
included, and it was supposed that they were with- 
held because they might arouse animosity in official 
circles. But this, it seems, was not the case. These 
letters had been preserved by the Chancellor's 
wife in a locked casket, which was not opened at 
the time of her death. A year ago they were 
found, and last May were given to the public. The 
collection is thoroughly enjoyable, the quantity 
(a little over a hundred pages in all) being just 
enough to give the flavor of the larger collection 
without the sense of weariness produced by con- 
templating the stout volumes of the, former series. 
The tone is naturally very intimate, often humorous 

or ironical. The breaking oflf of negotiations with 
Favre in September of 1870 because the French 
" still get the gripes so severely about Alsace," or 
the remark in a postscript, " Birthday of the King 
of Bavaria and I without my decorations," are ex- 
amples in point. The Chancellor's attitude on the 
siege of Paris and the bombardment of the forts 
is very sharply stated. A very interesting, almost 
pathetic, letter is the one describing the interview 
with Napoleon after Sedan. From another point 
of view the postscript on January 9, 1871, is inter- 
esting : " Read Psalm 27 yesterday in bed and fell 
asleep comforted with verse 14." The thought of 
trust in God is a dominant note throughout the let- 
ters, though his confidence that the " Lord will not 
intervene " in behalf of France is apt to provoke a 
smile. The translation here presented was made 
by Arnim Harder and is generally idiomatic and 
satisfactory, though an occasional phrase as " re- 
mained on the field" hardly gives the thought of 
the original. The volume has also an interesting 
introduction by Mr. Walter Littlefield. The ab- 
sence of any index is to be regretted. 

A Southern I" Pfof essor Thomas Cary Johnson's 
soldier, educator, " Life and Letters of Robert Lewis 
andtheoivgian. Dabney " (Presbyterian Committee 
of Publication, Richmond, Va.), we have a full ac- 
count of the long and useful career of an eminent 
Southern educator and theologian. The name 
Dabney (d'Aubignd) indicates good Huguenot an- 
cestry, and the Virginia family appears to have 
upheld the honored traditions of its origin. Edu- 
cated at the University of Virginia, Dr. Dabney 
was called to the chair of church history and polity 
at Union Theological Seminary, Hampden-Sidney, 
Va., and in later life to that of moral and mental 
philosophy at the University of Texas. He served 
in the Confederate army, four months as chaplain, 
and then, after two days devoted to Halleck's 
" Articles of War," four months as chief of staff to 
Stonewall Jackson, whose biography he afterward 
wrote. He was a zealous preacher as well as teacher. 
Uncompromising in his adherence to the old school 
of Southern Presbyterianism, he opposed all move- 
ments for uniting with the Northern section of that 
church, and was equally hostile toward the proposed 
Pan-Presbyterian Alliance. Professor Johnson's 
book is, from cover to cover, a glowing eulogy, and 
cannot fail to please the relatives and friends of the 
deceased. Frequent extracts from Dr. Dabney's 
writings, both prose and verse, are given, as well as 
two portraits of him and several views of college 
buildings. Of his surviving children the best-known 
is President Charles W. Dabney of the University 
of Tennessee. 

The old Greeks delighted in delin- 

Stiort history of . • . . , 

Greek sculpture. eating nature m her most perfect 

development; and their consummate 

knowledge of the human form, combined with their 

exquisite craftsmanship, have given to the world the 



[Feb. 1, 

greatest sculptures in the whole range of art-history. 
The surviving works of their artists, abundant though 
fragmentary, are preserved in the museums of all 
the principal capitals of Europe, and are familiar to 
us through plaster and bronze casts to be found in 
most of our galleries and art schools. A study of 
these sculptures trains the faculty for observation, 
and cultivates a taste for pleasing forms and a power 
of seeing the ideal in the actual. It is to assist in 
such a study, chiefly among the young, that Miss 
Helen Edith Legge has provided " A Short History 
of the Ancient Greek Sculptors" (James Pott & 
Co.), wherein is traced the development of the 
sculptor's art from the time of the wooden images 
of the gods attributed by tradition to Daedalus, 
Dipoeaus, and Scyllis, down to the time of Pheidias 
in the fifth century, B. C, when Greek art reached 
its zenith. The author's account of the sculptors 
is not only illustrated with admirable pictures of 
some of the more notable of their surviving works, 
but also by comments upon their art, stimulating a 
study of their scope and meaning. Although evi- 
dently intended for youthful readers, and avoid- 
ing all technical language, the book is valuable for 
more advanced art students, and might be found 
useful as a book of ready reference by all stu- 
dents of Greek art. Professor Percy Gardner, 
of Oxford, furnishes a few pages of introduction, 
which are like most introductions to books of this 
character — unnecessary. 

The phUosophy 
of road mending. 

The eleventh impression of Michael 
Fairless's "The Roadmender" comes 
from Messrs. E. P. Button & Co., in 
an ornate but inartistic binding, and with several 
quaint illustrations that emphasize in rather crude 
fashion the symbolism of the text. The sketches 
set forth the claim of roadmending, literal and 
figurative, to be the ideal means of earning a liveli- 
hood, at least for the " vagrant child of nature." 
Their philosophy is contentment with the simple 
life, joy in service and in the free gifts of the great 
outdoor world, and sympathetic relations with one's 
fellows, brute and human. There is nothing icono- 
clastic or recondite about the author's view of life, 
but his breadth of sympathy that enables him to 
turn quickly and eagerly from one interest to 
another, his steadfast courage and sweetness of 
spirit, and his simple, unaffected style of writing, 
account easily for the popularity of the book. Its 
title is taken from that of the first sketch. The 
other two, "Out of the Shadow" and "At the 
White Gate," tell how the Roadmender clung to 
his philosophy in the face of illness and death ; 
and how, forced to leave the "lonely companion- 
ship " of the road and its denizens, he found new 
interests in a London hospital, and great joy, a 
little later, in coming back, even as a helpless on- 
looker, to the road with its sunny, flower-girt 
meadows and its White Gate, symbol to him of the 
entrance into another world. 


" Vanity Fair," in three volumes, inaugurates the 
new " Kensington " Thackeray, published by subscrip- 
tion by the Messrs. Scribner. There are to be thirty- 
two volumes, printed from new plates made by Mr. 
De Vinne, and abundantly illustrated, both with the 
original drawings and with additional portraits and 
views. The volumes will appear at the rate of three 
every month. This is evidently to be an edition of 
Thackeray pure and simple, without impertinent edi- 
torial matter, and the execution of the work is such as 
to deserve the highest praise. In their general form 
the volumes approach closely to the model set by the 
publishers in their recent edition of TourgudniefE. 

More than forty years ago, the late George Cruik- 
shank made a series of drawings on wood for the illus- 
tration of " The Pilgrim's Progress." These drawings, 
left in the possession of Mr. Edwin Truman, a friend 
of the artist, have remained unpublished up to the 
present time, when they have afforded the Oxford 
University Press an excellent pretext for a new edition 
of Bunyan's allegory. This edition is a sumptuous affair, 
beautifully printed in old-fashioned typography on 
handmade paper, and limited to a thousand copies. Of 
the illustrations themselves little can be said that is 
good. With a few exceptions, they are trivial and 
carelessly drawn, and by no means represent the genius 
of the artist. We are not surprised that they should 
have lain in a portfolio all these years. 

A pretty pocket edition of Holbein's " Dance of 
Death," with a prefatory note by Mr. Austin Dobson, is 
published by the Scott-Thaw Co. The designs are 
printed direct from the blocks originally engraved by 
Messrs. Bonner and John Byfield for Douce's edition of 
1833, — the best imitations on wood, according to Mr. 
Linton. Thus being reproduced in the same medium as 
the originals (though the latter were cut and not en- 
graved), they have an interest not found in the usual 
photographic reproductions. The book is printed 
on Japanese paper, and issued in a limited edition. 

Shakespeare, in three volumes, and Keats, in one, are 
now added to the select company of Mr. Henry Frowde's 
" Oxford Miniature Poets." We are glad to have them 
both in this exquisite setting, and the Shakespeare espe- 
cially is a real boon. The tragedies are in one volume, 
the comedies in another, the histories, poems, and son- 
nets in the third. Mr. W. J. Craig is responsible for 
the text and for a glossary in each volume. There are 
many " pocket " editions of Shakespeare to be had, but 
for real compactness, convenience, and perfection in 
printing none can compare with this. 

Mr. Lionel Strachey has added another to his trans- 
lations from the French, choosing this time the memoirs 
of Madame Le Brun. His rendering, which is fluent 
and readable, is less literal than the anonymous version 
of 1879 ; but it hardly appears that anything has been 
gained by this freedom of treatment. The thirty-five 
letters, or chapters, as he calls them, have been 
regrouped into eighteen, with excisions to bring the 
work into uniformity with the translator's versions of 
the Countess Potocka's memoirs and the " Memoirs of 
a Contemporary." Three distinguishing features which 
go far toward justifying this new translation are the 
thirty-two reproductions from Mme. Le Brun's por- 
traits of eminent persons, the chronological list of her 
paintings, and the index. (Doubleday, Page & Co.) 





Messrs. Frederick Warne & Co. send us a treatise 
on "Bridge Tactics," by Mr. R. F. Foster, the well- 
known whist specialist. 

The Messrs. Putnam publish a charmingly-printed 
edition of " The Odes of Anacreon," in Moore's para- 
phrase, with a series of illustrations designed by M. 
Girodet de Roussy. 

" A Little Tragedy at Tien-Tsin, and Other Stories 
from Elsewhere," by Miss Frances Aymar Mathews, 
author of " My Lady Peggy Goes to Town," will appear 
shortly from the press of Mr. Robert Grier Cooke. 

It is understood that Professor N. S. Shaler, of Har- 
vard University, is completing a new book, upon which 
he has been engaged for some time, entitled " The 
Citizen," being a study of the Individual and the 

Mr. Daniel Munro Wilson's interesting volume enti- 
tled " Where American Independence Began " is issued 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. in a second edition, 
containing considerable new matter and a number of 
additional illustrations. 

Two new volumes in the " Temple Bible " comprise 
" Tobit and the Babylonian Apocryphal Writings," ed- 
ited by Professor A. H. Sayce, and " Wisdom and the 
Jewish Apocryphal Writings," edited by Mr. W. B. 
Stevenson. The Messrs. Lippincott are the American 
publishers of this series. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., publish in a single 
volume "The Poetical Works of John Townsend 
Trowbridge," thus doing belated justice to one who has 
been for half a century past one of the most popular 
American writers of verse. A fine portrait of the 
venerable author serves as a frontispiece. 

"Months and Moods" is the title of a fifteen-year 
(1901-1915) calendar, "versified and diversified" by 
Mr. Edward Curtis, and published by the Grafton 
Press. The verses are original poems on the seasons, 
the work of Mr. Curtis, and the whole calendar is a 
substantially-bound book, which it had to be to promise 
fifteen years of use. 

A standard edition of the complete works of Ben 
Jonson, comprising probably nine octavo volumes, is to 
be published by the Oxford University Press. The 
Delegates of the Press have secured the cooperation of 
Prof. C. H. Herford and of Mr. Percy Simpson, who 
have been engaged for ten years or more on a critical 
examination of Jonson's text. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. will publish this 
spring a comprehensive and timely book by Prof, 
liicholas Paine Gilman on " Methods of Industrial 
Peace." The subjects dealt with are Trade-Unionism, 
Employers' Associations, Collective Bargaining, Labor 
Disputes, and the various forms of Conciliation and 
Arbitration practiced in the United States, England, 
Australia, and New Zealand. 

Some of the earliest announcements in the field of 
spring fiction come from Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co., 
who have in press for March publication two novels of 
more than usual interest. One of these, the work of 
Mr. Randall Parrish, centres about the dramatic events 
at Fort Dearborn in 1812 ; the other deals with the 
picturesque figure of Robert Cavelier de la Salle, and 
is written by Mr. William Dana Orcutt. Both volumes 
will be elaborately illustrated in color. 

"The Book Monthly," aptly described as "a pic- 
tured and picturesque who's who and what's what of 
bookland," is the latest venture in English literary 
journalism. It has no concern with criticism, but is 
not the less useful and interesting on that account to 
all who have to do with books. American readers will 
do well to make its acquaintance. 

Mr. Thomas Hardy's historical drama, " The 
Dynasts," will be published at once by the Macmillan 
Co. Though complete in itself, it is designed ulti- 
mately to form one of a trilogy, of which the second 
play or part will cover the zenith of Napoleon's power, 
and the third his decline and fall, with the restoration 
to equilibrium of the old dynasties. 

M. Auguste Fournier's biography of " Napoleon the 
First," translated by Mrs. Margaret Bacon Corwin and 
Mr. Arthur Dart Bissell, and edited by Professor 
Edward Gaylord Bourne, is a recent publication of 
Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. It is one of the best of the 
single-volume biographies, and its value is greatly 
enhanced by the exhaustive bibliography which is ap- 

Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. have completed ar- 
rangements for the publication in England of Mr. 
Clement's " Handbook of Modern Japan," which has 
proved so timely a book in view of events in the Orient. 
This work is planned to give in the most convenient 
form the information most likely to be sought for by 
those who wish to know and understand the status and 
development of Modern Japan. 

M. Emile Michel's great work on "Rembrandt: His 
Life, his Work, and his Time " is reissued in a third 
edition, imported by the Messrs. Scribner coincidently 
with the author's visit to this country. It is, as before, 
translated by Miss Florence Simmonds and edited by 
Mr. Frederick Wedmore. There are no less than three 
hundred and twenty-six illustrations satisfactorily re- 
produced. This work has been standard for its subject 
smce its original publication six years ago. 

Mr. Lawrence J. Burpee has compiled " A Canadian 
Bibliography for the Year 1901," which is now reprinted 
from the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 
and published in pamphlet form by Messrs. James 
Hope & Son, Ottawa. The work includes contributions 
to periodicals as well as larger works, and is carefully 
indexed. We note no less than thirty- five entries under 
the name of Goldwin Smith, which may serve as an in- 
dication of the thoroughness of Mr. Burpee's work. 

An attempt at an exhaustive bibliography of books 
and periodical articles on United States history pub- 
lished during the year 1902, together with some con- 
tributions towards bibliography of writings on other 
parts of the Americas for the same year, prepared by 
Messrs. Ernest Cushing Richardson and Anson Ely 
Morse, is announced for early publication by Mr. C. 
Martins, Library Bookstore, Princeton, N. J. The 
work will contain more than one thousand titles of 
books and pamphlets and over five thousand titles of 
periodical articles. It is planned to issue similar 
annual volumes regularly in the future. 

Messrs. Methuen & Co. have in preparation, under 
the direction of Mr. Sidney Lee, a new collection of 
classical literature on a plan which does not seem to 
have been already attempted in a systematic way either 
in England or in this country. They propose to issue 
under the title of " Methuen's Universal Library " at a 
very low price and at very short regular intervals a 



carefully printed series of books of classical repute, 
comprising not only accessible works, but also some 
rarer volumes of which no cheap editions exist. It is 
hoped that the Library may bring in due time all the 
best literature of England and other nations within the 
reach of every class of readers. Special efforts will be 
made to render textual accuracy as notable a charac- 
teristic of the new venture as cheapness, completeness, 
and typographical clearness. The text of each work, 
which will be unabridged, will be prepared from the 
best sources by competent scholars, and the works of 
many of the great masters of poetry, drama, fiction, 
belles lettres, history, and biography are now in the 
press. In the case of the more eminent authors their 
complete works will be supplied in two or more vol- 
umes, but any single masterpiece will be produced sep- 
arately. General editorial comment will be excluded, 
but each volume will open with a brief biographical and 
bibliographical note by Mr. Sidney Lee, who will be the 
general editor of this Library. 


News has just been received of the death of Dr. 
Otto Hartwig, formerly Director of the University 
Library of Halle, A. S., and until recently editor of 
" Centralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen." Born in 1830, 
Dr. Hartwig studied theology and philology and was 
pastor of the German congregation in Messina, Sicily, 
from 1860 to 1865. After a short career as teacher 
he entered the service of the university library of Mar- 
burg in 1867, remaining there until 1874 when he ac- 
cepted a position in the university library of Halle. 
In 1876 he was promoted to chief librarian at Halle. 
Here he met with conditions that taxed to the ut- 
most his administrative talent. The library was defi- 
cient in many important branches of learning, the 
reclassification and recataloguing of the library was an 
important desideratum, and a new building urgently 
needed. All these problems he attacked with vigor and 
care. The new building was completed and the books 
removed to it in 1880, and eight years later the recata- 
loguing and reclassification were finished. In 1898 an 
'affection of the eyes caused him to ask for six months' 
leave of absence, and in December of the same year 
his resignation was offered and accepted. Shortly be- 
fore he had been appointed a member of the " Kura- 
torium'* of the university library of Berlin. Since 
retiring from active work he has resided in Marburg, 
and here he died on December 22, 1903. In 1884 the 
first number of " Centralblatt fiir Bibliothekswesen " 
appeared, with Dr. Hartwig and Dr. K. Schulz, libra- 
rian of the Imperial supreme court in Leipzig, as edit- 
ors. Since 1886 Dr. Hartwig has been the sole 
responsible editor, only relinquishing the work with the 
December number of last year. As editor of the 
« Centralblatt " Dr. Hartwig exercised a very distinct 
influence on library progress in Germany. His con- 
tributions on library matters to his own journal and 
others were not numerous, but always of importance. 
A question in which he took particular interest was that 
of inter-library loan of manuscripts, and he contributed 
a paper on this subject to the World's Congress of 
Librarians in Chicago in 1893. A list of his inde- 
pendent publications in other fields shows a wide range 
of studies and literary interests. In 1900 his auto- 
biography, "Aus dem Leben eines altes deutschen 
Bibliothekars. I., Lehr- und Wanderjahre," was issued 
for distribution among friends. A. a. S. J. 

Topics ix IjEAding Periodicals. 

February, 1904. 

Alfieri at Asti, Centenary of. T. R. Sullivan. Scribner. 
Alps, In the, on a Motor- Bicycle. Joseph Pennell. Century. 
Arbitration, International. Wayne MacVeAgrh. N. American. 
Architecture of St. Louis Expoaition. World Today. 
Athena, Univeraity of. Charles F. Thwing. Harper. 
Bere, Stephen Bagahot de la, Drawinga of. Studio. 
Bird Songa in Winter. Henry Oldys. Atlantic. 
Borrow, George. H. W. Boynton. Atlantic. 
Bric^-Brac Auctions in New York. A. B. Paine. Century. 
British Army, Men Who are Remaking. Rev. of Reviews. 
Canada and Reciprocity. John Charlton. North American. 
Caricature and Public Opinion. I. A. Pyle. World Today. 
Carnegie Institution, The. Simon Newcomb. No. American. 
Ch^ret'a Drawinga in Sanguine. H. Frantz. Studio. 
China, Railwaya of. Arthur J. Brown. Rev. of Reviews. 
Cicero in Maine. Martha Baker Dunn. Atlantic. 
Commercinliam, la it in Disgrace? J. G. Brooka. Atlantic. 
Compass, The Mariner'a. Simon Newcomb. Harper. 
Confederatea, Two Great. John S. Wiae. Rev. of Reviews. 
Congo Free State Conditions. P. S. Reinach. No. American. 
Cotton, High Price of. D. J. Sully. North American. 
Cyniciam. Arthur Stanwood Pier. Atlantic. 
Deaert, American, Conqueat of. D. A. Willey. World Today. 
Education. Trick of. Alice Meynell. Harper. 
Elephant Drive in Siam, An. A. H. Bnrgoyne. Harper. 
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Steps in the Expansion of our Territory. By Oscar P. 
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The Louisiana Purchase, and the Exploration, Early His- 
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The Administration of the American Revolutionary 
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Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society. 
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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. Edited by Emma Helen 
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The Cumberland Road. By Archer Butler Hulbert. Illus.. 
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The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the West. By 
Robert E. Anderson. Illus., 24mo, pp. 195. " Library 
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Elijah Kellogg, the Man and his Work : Chapters from 

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Wilmot Brookings Mitchell. Illus., 12mo, pp. 424. Lee 

& Shepard. $1.20 net. 
iFrancis of Assisi. By Anna M. Stoddart. Illus., 16mo, gilt 

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Studies in Dante, Third Series : Miscellaneous Essays. By 
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Plays, Acting, and Music. By Arthur Symons. With por- 
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The Birthe of Hercules. With an Introduction on the In- 
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Modem German Literature: A Chronology and Practical 
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Canada in the Twentieth Century. By A. G. Bradley. 

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[Feb. 1,. 

Sophisms of Free- Jrade and Popular Political Economy 
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NOTES 127 



When Shelley, deserting wife and child, 
and running away with Mary Godwin, wrote 
back to Harriet inviting her to come and join 
them, he showed a lack of humor. So amaz- 
ing is the effrontery of the letter that, with no 
further knowledge of its writer, one would be 
tempted to believe him indulging in a hideous 
joke, and so not destitute of a certain sugges- 
tion of humor, after all. His defect is so 
pronounced that it approaches the point where 
extremes meet and the serious passes over into 
the facetious. How difficult not to imagine 
him laughing in his sleeve when he says : " I 
write to show that I do not forget you ; I write 
to urge you to come to Switzerland, where you 
will find one firm and constant friend to whom 
your interests will be always dear — by whom 
your feelings will never wilfully be injured." 
Could malice itself have devised anything to 
surpass this? When the artist-poet Blake 
proposed to his young wife the taking to his 
bosom of an additional partner — perhaps 
thinking thus to provide her with a pleasant 
companion, and possibly, with his patriarchal 
notions, expecting her to emulate the biblical 
example of Sarah — he disclosed to her indig- 
nant and astonished gaze a gaping void where 
the sense of humor should have been. 

The big and muscular glutton who devours 
a weak and defenseless brother, and then, 
with a sanctimonious folding of the hands 
over his distended stomach, attributes the 
satisfying of his appetite to the inscrutable 
workings of manifest destiny, has by over-feed- 
ing dulled his sense of humor. The tyrant 
fights shy of the satirist. Napoleon was un- 
friendly to men of wit and humor. To quote 
Thackeray's familiar definition, humor is a 
mixture of love and wit. Being of the nature 
of love, it does not behave itself unseemly. It 
is kindly affectioned. It is of the nature of 
sweet reasonableness. Its generous inclusive- 
ness admits the recognition of contrary claims. 
In fact, the very breath of its life is this per- 
ception of conflicting truths, of incongruities, 
of paradoxes. Seeing both sides of a question 
at once, it is a foe to all narrowness, unfair- 



[Feb. 16, 

ness, selfishness, arrogance, cruelty. Can one 
conceive of a genuine humorist as unkind ? 
" The perception of the comic," as Emerson 
has well said, " is a tie of sympathy with other 
men, a pledge of sanity, and a protection from 
those perverse tendencies and gloomy insan- 
ities in which fine intellects sometimes lose 
themselves. A rogue alive to the ludicrous 
is still convertible. If that sense is lost, his 
fellow-men can do little for him." 

A sense of humor, then, saves a man from 
the enemy in his own bosom. It warns him 
not to take himself too seriously. A large 
part of Wordsworth's output of verse would 
have remained unpublished, unwritten, not so 
much as conceived, had humor been one of the 
poet's gifts. Milton's controversial pamphlets 
show attempts at humor that make the judi- 
cious grieve. A true sense of the humorous 
would have spared his admirers this pain. 
His fun reminds one of Plutarch's description 
of a piece of fooling laboriously evolved from 
the brain of Hegesias of Magnesia, — "a 
ponderous joke, dull enough to have put out 
the fire." Excessive enthusiasm and mis- 
applied zeal are wholesomely curbed by a 
quick perception of the ludicrous. To draw 
upon Emerson once more, we encounter in one 
of his essays a physician who, in reply to 
an anxious inquiry concerning a patient, ex- 
claimed with professional joy sparkling in his 
eyes : " Oh, I saw him this morning ; it is the 
most correct apoplexy I have ever seen : face 
and hands livid, breathing stertorious, all the 
symptoms perfect ! " A case so bea\itifully 
in harmony with the books was too much for 
the medical man's humanity. The venerable 
Dr. Samuel Hopkins of Newport once elicited 
a charmingly simple reply from a parishioner, 
whose matter-of-fact habit of mind must have 
betrayed him into countless similar blunders. 
The thoughtful pastor had offered to bring 
some of his recent sermons and read them to 
this member of his flock, who had for several 
Sundays been kept from church by illness. 
" Do so," was the cordial rejoinder, " for I 
have had no sleep since this attack began." 

Many a failure, the result of attempting the 
absurdly impossible, would have been prevented 
had zeal been tempered with humor. Unfor- 
tunate enterprises of this nature, unaccom- 
panied with any sense of humor in the actors, 
often excite this feeling most irresistibly in the 
spectators. For, to quote a pregnant utterance 
from " The Gentle Reader," " the atmospheric 
currents of merriment move irresistibly toward 

a vacuum. Create a character altogether des- 
titute of humor and the most sluggish intelli- 
gence is stirred in the effort to fill the void." 
Thus there is something at once pathetic and 
humorous in the fond attempt of Charlemagne 
to make his mushroom state emulate, in the 
arts as well as in polity, the mature empire 
that had been the growth of a thousand years. 
No wonder his ill-cemented structure fell to 
pieces of its own weight before it reached the 
hands of his grandchildren. His second Rome 
(Aix-la-Chapelle), with its extemporized forum 
and its senate of half-civilized Franks, and 
with its pretentious but uncouth buildings that 
rudely aped the architecture of Ravenna, may 
well excite a smile of pity. The very words 
of his biographer and inseparable companion 
seem to invite disaster. " The second Rome 
lifts herself," he proudly declares, " in new, 
unwonted bloom, with massive buildings whose 
lofty domes touch the stars. The godly Charles 
stands far from his palace, selecting the vari- 
ous sites, and fixes in their order the high 
walls of the future Rome." A further touch 
of that humor that is so closely akin to pathos 
is felt by the observer as he watches the monk- 
ish Eginhard apply himself to the study of 
Vitruvius. The buildings that came of this 
study would have struck the architect of Au- 
gustus with amaze. 

It has been usual to class women among the 
unfortunates born without sense of humor. 
Exceptions will readily come to mind. The 
creator of Mrs. Poyser and Tommy Trounsom 
and Wiry Ben was certainly not blind to the 
humorous aspects of human nature. But the 
peculiarly feminine, das ewig Weibliche,, we do 
not associate with a keen appreciation of the 
incongruous. The ardent suitor who is as- 
sured by the object of his passion that, though 
she can never be his wife, she will always be 
a sister to him, distinctly feels in the offered 
substitute the presence of a certain something 
quite different from that admirable blend of 
love and wit whereof humor is composed. The 
fascinating coquette, to whom man's attentions 
are more than meat and drink, and whose sig- 
nals of distress when he withholds his devotion 
hardly ever fail to bring him to his knees, 
shows a defective grasp of the situation in its 
logical implications. Hence the pained sur- 
prise and the injured innocence affected by 
her the moment she is honored with the treat- 
ment accorded to a reasonable being and is 
expected to harmonize inward purpose with 
outward seeming. This not un amiable weak- 




ness, the sure index of a conspicuous lack of 
humor, the older novelists were fond of exhib- 
iting in its coarser manifestations, and it will 
ever remain a useful property to the construc- 
tor of love stories. Woman is proverbially 
cruel to woman. Nor is her heartlessness 
always confined to this traditional severity 
toward the foibles of her own sex. In " The 
People of the Abyss " we have recently been 
told that the sufferings of the London poor, as 
the destitute wretches exhibit themselves in the 
public parks, excite amusement oftener than 
pity in the passing women, especially the young 
women, of the well-to-do classes. Walter Pater, 
in his essay on Lamb, regards humor as an 
amalgam of pity with mirth. Thus viewing 
its composition, we may safely conclude that 
where pitilessness displays itself there will be 
found no keen perception of the humorous 
factors of our existence. Let it be added, how- 
ever, for the consolation of the many excellent 
women who are deficient in this sense — though 
they never will admit the deficiency — that 
they are not without good company. The 
singleness of purpose characteristic of heroes 
and martyrs is, from its very nature, incom- 
patible with a lively appreciation of incongrui- 
ties. With the sense of humor too insistently 
acute, the river of life seems somehow to be 
split into channels so minute that it loses itself 
in the sand ; there is no steady current of seri- 
ous thought and purpose. The typical reformer 
is terribly in earnest. Horace Mann planted 
himself one day, tall and tragic, before Haw- 
thorne, and, fired with anti-tobacco zeal, deliv- 
ered himself of his opinion of a brother-in-law 
who could so far deviate from the path of 
rectitude as to smoke. " Do I understand you 
to say, Mr. Hawthorne, that you actually use 
tobacco? " he inquired severely. "Yes, I smoke 
a cigar once in a while," was the good-natured 
reply. " Then, Mr. Hawthorne, it is my duty 
to tell you that I no longer have the same re- 
spect for you that I have had." Therewith the 
self-appointed censor turned and strode from 
the room. It is easy enough to say, with Haw- 
thorne's son, that Horace Mann was wholly 
destitute of humor. But it is more than prob- 
able that the excellent man himself would have 
stoutly denied the charge; and perhaps in 
matters less deeply moving his feelings he was 
not without a perception of the ludicrous. Who 
of us is never blind to the comic in things that 
affect our dearest interests ? Angry denial will 
stamp one immediately as sadly defective in 
humor, just as hot resentment at the charge of 

insanity is pretty good evidence of an unbal- 
anced mind. Perhaps there is no better mark 
of a plentiful endowment of humor than the 
ability to wear a smiling face when in deepest 
earnest. The child, with his sense of humor 
still in embryo, cannot do this. 

Not without reason did Cicero liken a jest- 
book to a salt-pit. Humor is the salt that keeps 
the temper sweet, the saving element that pre- 
vents sentiment and religion from degenerating 
into maudlin emotionalism, and an ever-neces- 
sary accompaniment to all unconstrained social 
intercourse. As man is the only being at once 
conscious of the miseries of life and able to 
laugh at them, so this peculiarly human quality 
is found in anything like perfection only among 
the most highly civilized. Savages have it not, 
or only in a form that savors more of cruelty 
than of kindness. Both the too sentimental and 
the too practical want it. It would seem to be 
the arch enemy of excess in any direction. Nil 
in extremis is its motto. Its presence indicates 
a normal and healthy state of tension between 
the upbuilding and the down-pulling forces 
whose interaction is life. It is a potent aid in 
the discharge of physical as well as mental 
functions, ^sculapius is said to have written 
comic songs to quicken the circulation in his 
patients. A London physician prescribed 
" Peregrine Pickle " for certain complaints. 
Sustained by his unconquerable merriness of 
humor, Charles Lamb bravely bore a life-long 

A sane enjoyment of the countless paradoxes 
and ironies of life is of the essence of the high- 
est wisdom. Without such enjoyment these 
numberless incongruities will annoy and de- 
press. The ardor of hero-worship will be chilled 
when the worshipper discovers how few human 
lives fail to reveal a seamy side upon closer 
scrutiny. The world's progress owes much to 
great men whose characters do not square with 
their deeds. Many a good cause has prevailed 
by questionable means. There is no system of 
philosophy but encounters stubborn facts that 
sadly mar its symmetry. Vice fares sumptu- 
ously and goes arrayed in purple and fine linen, 
while virtue starves and clothes herself in rags. 
Rewards and punishments appear to be as- 
signed by chance. Next to the sublimity 
of a blind faith, there is nothing equal to an 
abiding sense of the humor of it all to save one 
from pessimism. Without this neither life nor 
that literature which aims to be the faithful 
transcript of life can be rightly enjoyed. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 



[Feb. 16, 

t ll^faj §00ks. 

Some Impressions of Whistler.* 

Mr. Arthur Jerome Eddy's " Recollections 
and Impressions of Whistler " is the sort of 
book for which Whistler's unique personality 
and sparkling wit provided such tempting and 
abundant material. Its method is haphazard, 
its preparation too evidently hasty ; in critical 
acumen it is unfortunately lacking. But a 
large body of readers will no doubt prefer it 
to a more formal and studied biography, for 
the reason that it is not burdened with the 
details of the artist's career nor with fine-spun 
distinctions about his genius, but merely pre- 
sents his very attractive individuality in the 
form of countless witty anecdotes and amusing 
odds and ends of comment and reminiscence, 
while its information about his pictures is of a 
useful sort. The book is well printed, suit- 
ably bound in boards of a shade of Whistler's 
favorite brown, and illustrated with excellent 
reproductions in photogravure of eleven of the 
artist's works. The familiar portrait by Rajon 
forms the frontispiece. Thus mechanical beauty 
and the very great charm of the subject atone 
in large measure for the faults of authorship; 
and many admirers of Whistler will wish to 
add the book to their libraries. 

These should not expect, however, to find 
much that is new to them in Mr. Eddy's 
memoir. He does, to be sure, explain in the 
preface that his " reminiscences are mostly 
personal," that many of the anecdotes were had 
from the artist's own lips, and that the views 
concerning his art were formed from watching 
him at work day by day, and after many inter- 
views, in which, occasionally at least, he broke 
his habitual reticence to talk of the one thing 
in which he took a serious interest. These 
statements are unquestionably true (although 
no details of the personal relationship are 
given), but we could never have guessed it 
from what follows. A large number of the 
stories are easily recognizable and duly acknowl- 
edged as from current periodicals and news- 
papers. The others might have been picked 
up in the ateliers of Paris and London, but 
most of them might also have been obtained 
with less expenditure of effort from a clipping 
bureau. None of them imply intimacy or even 

* Recollections and Impressions of James A. McNeill 
Whistler. By Arthur Jerome Eddy. Illustrated. Phila- 
delphia : J. 6. Lippincott Co. 

acquaintance with Whistler. This is no fault 
of Mr. Eddy's. The truth is, the penny-a- 
liners have long appreciated Whistler's literary 
value, recognizing his claim to be master-artist 
in words if not in nocturnes; and they have 
circulated his bon-mots and his eccentricities 
industriously through their columns. The 
exceeding sharpness of Whistler's wit, and his 
habit of letting his best shafts fly more than 
once, contributed to making his witticisms 
common property. And so, after last sum- 
mer's flood of post-mortem paragraphs, even 
an intimate of Whistler's — if he had any — 
must expect to find himself anticipated along 
anecdotal lines. But if Mr. Eddy's stories are 
not for the most part new, they are both well 
selected and well told, and it is much to have 
so large a body of them preserved in so 
attractive a volume. 

Among the letters which Mr. Eddy quotes, 
and which we do not remember seeing else- 
where, is one written in Whistler's crispest 
epistolary style, and illustrating, besides, his 
well-known disinclination to promptness. An 
ojSicial connected with an international exhibit 
sent notes to various artists in Paris, announc- 
ing his intended visit to the city and making 
appointments with them at his hotel. Whist- 
ler's hour was fixed at " 4.30 precisely." The 
artist answered thus : 

" Dear Sir: — I have received your letter announcing 
that you will arrive in Paris on the -th. I congratulate 
you. I never have been able, and never shalL be able, 
to be anywhere at «4.30 precisely.' 

" Yours most faithfully, 

J. McN. Whistler." 

The same aptness in making what one of 
the Enemies of " The Gentle Art " has styled 
" very unbecoming and improper " answers, is 
shown in the artist's retort to an excited Cock- 
ney gentleman who rushed into a shop where 
Whistler was trying on a hat, and mistaking 
him for a salesman cried : " I say, this 'at 
doesn't fit." Eyeing him critically a moment 
Whistler said : " Neither does your coat." 

His own immaculate attire was proverbial. 
So were the dapper silk hat, the yellow gloves, 
the slender walking-stick, the monocle, the 
curled mustache, the be-ribboned white fore- 
lock, "famous as the plume of Navarre." 
Somebody once gave Whistler an American 
umbrella of the sort that furls very tightly. 
He used it as a cane, and his delight in it 
knew no bounds. On one occasion, according 
to Mr. Eddy, Whistler was coming out of his 
studio with a friend, and as they made their 




way to a nearby cab-stand, it began to drizzle. 
His friend, who had no umbrella, said : " Hurry 
and put up your umbrella or we '11 get our hats 
wet." Whistler fumbled for a second at the 
umbrella, then hurried on. " But I would get 
my umbrella wet," he said. 

So much for the " Reminiscences " — for it 
is unfair to steal more of Mr. Eddy's stories; 
and the biographical data, being from casual 
sources and intended only as a connecting 
thread on which to hang the anecdotes and the 
estimates of the man and his work, need not 
delay us here. 

As an art critic Mr. Eddy's attitude is 
surely too much marked by undiscriminating 
enthusiasm to merit complete confidence ; but 
as an expositor of such matters as Whistler's 
title to be called a colorist, his attitude toward 
portraiture, or his theory of the suitable hang- 
ing of pictures, his work is clear and inter- 
esting — likely to be decidedly illuminating 
to the " plain man " of Whistler's own satire. 
Toward his subject's personality Mr. Eddy 
appears somewhat in the character of an apol- 
ogist. His sense of humor is not strong. Dis- 
liking flippancy however polished, he naturally 
wishes that the Master had been less ardent an 
*' Apostle of Persiflage " in his idle moments, 
less artistic a maker of enemies in his bitter 
ones. And it is possible that the nocturnes 
and symphonies would have been taken more 
seriously, or at least have received quicker rec- 
ognition, if the critics had not had the memory 
of the Butterfly's insinuating " reflections " 
to wipe out. It is also no doubt true that 
Whistler's egotism and affectation have been 
vastly exaggerated. From a painful sense of 
duty, then, the biographer should strive to 
put us into the more receptive attitude of 
the French, whose prompter appreciation of 
Whistler's genius Mr. Eddy refers in part 
to their inability to resent his untranslatable 
irony. Still, we find it hard to forgive Mr. 
Eddy's elaborate attempt to explain away the 
paradoxes of " The Ten O'clock Lecture," or 
his doubt about the advisability of reprinting 
the delicious impertinences of " The Gentle 
Art of Making Enemies." We prefer " the 
real Mr. Whistler," — who, instead of laying 
his habit of controversy to either his West 
Point training or his long and bitter struggle 
for recognition, frankly confessed to being " a 
bundle of nerves and dyspepsia." The fact 
that his personal motives often appear as vague 
and inscrutable as the outline of Battersea 
Bridge in the blue and silver nocturne, cannot 

reasonably affect our pleasure in the picture. 
But it does add to the charm of the man, and 
to our enjoyment of a book like Mr. Eddy's, 
much of whose point and vivacity depends on 
the fact that Whistler was to the last an insol- 
uble enigma. Edith Kellogg Ddnton. 

Russia as a Model..* 

Coming at just this time, when war clouds 
are thundering over the eastern shores of the 
Pacific, — a name seemingly destined to be- 
come a complete misnomer, — the book result- 
ing from the recent journey of Mr. Albert J. 
Beveridge, junior senator of the United States 
from Indiana, has unusual pertinence and will 
be read with assiduity by all who desire infor- 
mation regarding certain phases of an in- 
evitable struggle. It appears that the author 
has recently returned from a journey through 
Russia, Manchuria, and Corea ; but his volume 
is limited to a consideration of Asiatic Russia, 
with a portion of a single chapter referring to 
Japan. Nothing at all is said about Corea. The 
attitude throughout the book is so markedly 
pro-Russian that it deserves the stronger term 
of Slavophile. 

Senator Beveridge is an ardent worshipper 
at the shrine of the ancient ideals of pagan 
Rome revived in modern times under the title 
of imperialism. He is a devotee of might, and 
right is seldom considered in his work. Being 
enamored of " world power," he necessarily fell 
under the spell of a theocratic autocracy as 
the best engine for putting into practice these 
wholly un-American conceptions. In his treat- 
ment of the Russian administration he seems de- 
terminately to have put behind all conceptions 
of popular or free government ; and his faith 
in these conceptions is too small, apparently, to 
permit him to undertake any defense of de- 
mocracy against the frequent adverse criticisms 
quoted by him as passed upon its shortcomings 
by Russian officials. Especially does he lay 
stress on the possibility of rising into imperial 
power from the humbler walks of life, as in the 
case of the Russian minister of finance, Sergius 
Witte, ignoring the vastly greater difficulties 
attending such a feat in Russia as compared 
with this country. 

As a senator of the United States Mr. 
Beveridge was accorded every privilege by the 
Russian authorities in his journey across Asia. 

* The Russian Advance. By Albert J. Beveridge. With 
maps. New York : Harper & Brothers. 



[Feb. 16, 

He evidently expected that obstacles would be 
thrown in his way, especially in Manchuria. 
But the Russians were wise enough to secure 
his good will at the outset, and thereafter 
they must have felt that they could not lose it. 
They would certainly have been right in the 
supposition, for nothing could have alienated 
an affection given so whole-heartedly. A strik- 
ing instance of Mr. Beveridge's tenderness for 
Russia is shown in his account of the hideous 
massacre at Blagovestchensk in 1900. What 
he admits " may have been only a rumor " led 
the Russians in this town on recently-stolen 
territory to assume that a Chinese army was 
descending upon them, that the Chinese on 
their own territory across the river were arm- 
ing against them, that the Chinese in their own 
settlement were to join with their countrymen 
across the river, and that by a junction of these 
three forces Blagovestchensk would be im- 
perilled. Thereupon " the Chinese in the city 
itself were driven by the few Cossacks down 
to the river's edge below the town and forced 
into the river. Three or four thousand of them 
perished." It seems to have been after this 
wholesale massacre that the Chinese across 
the river began a futile bombardment of Blag- 
ovestchensk with muskets, — " you may now see 
the bullet-marks made in the home of the local 
governor. Many houses of Blagovestchensk 
still show these signs of actual peril." Then 
came the chief horror. Even Mr. Beveridge 
does not state the total slaughter, estimated at 
not less than fifteen thousand men, women, and 
children. But his humane conclusions are par- 
ticularly noteworthy. 

« Finally reinforcements arrived, the Russians crossed 
the river, and literally wiped the Chinese town off the 
face of the earth. You may visit its site now, but you 
will see nothing but waving grass and here and there 
the demolished remains of the crumbling wall of a 
house. Such, stripped of its many variations, is the story 
of the great < massacre ' of the Chinese by the Russians 
of Blagovestchensk in 1900 which made the world 
•shudder.' . . . 

« So much space has been given to this incident be- 
cause of the tremendous publicity given to it and the 
distortion of all of its features, and because, too, it is a 
very fair illustration of the manner in which any inci- 
dent of Russian advance is painted to the American and 
European world. When we hear of Russian outrages we 
must always bear in mind that while it may well be that 
all of their details are entirely true, yet the chances are 
that the forbidding aspects of each affair are magnified." 

Solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant. 

This acceptance of the Russian point of view 
leads Mr. Beveridge to seeming endorsement 
of ideals not in the least American. He says, 
for example : 

" More than a score of different peoples are now 
under the colors of the Czar; and, say what we will 
from our western point of view, they appear to be as 
highly contented as the people of the more advanced 
countries, such as Germany or Italy [has the writer 
forgotten the German socialist, and the emigrating^ 
Italian peasant ?], and far more satisfied with their 
conditions than are the English." 

This places contentment among the desirable 
national qualities, and presents another phase 
of the constant confusion made throughout the 
book between " good " government and free 
government, generally to the disparagement 
of the latter. There is a stress laid on the 
virtues of efficient civil service sadly at vari- 
ance with the practices of our last two na- 
tional administrations. And there are some 
convincing arguments against the high tariffs 
of the same period, from the statement '■'■ the 
Russians are still buying in the best and cheap- 
est market, and the best and cheapest market 
is our own," through the account of the acerbi- 
ties arising between the Russian and American 
governments over the sugar duties, to the strong 
probability of the total loss to the United 
States of its Russian markets. 

Commercialism and imperialism go hand in 
hand, and the comments of several persona 
whom Mr. Beveridge interviewed, to the effect 
that " we don't know, and we don't care, wha 
governs the country," explain this in part. 
Still, there must be some Americans who will 
object to the implication behind the statement 
of the Indiana senator that "When American 
trade held the first place in the Orient, the 
American flag was seen in every port. It 
was a great advertisement then." And there 
is another fine suggestion for the future in 

« Another thing which the government might do, and 
which would have a beneficial effect upon American 
trade in China, is to keep in Chinese waters all but on& 
or two ships of our Pacific squadron. Moreover, the 
heaviest part of our navy should be kept in Asiatic 
waters. It is there that the conflicts of the future will 
occur, and it is there where our visible power should 
be manifest to all beholders." 

It is a pleasant thought that we are to make 
men and money unproductive by heavy taxa- 
tion for a navy, trying to make up the loss of 
a profitable home market consequent upon thia 
by seeking a doubtfully profitable foreign 
market, and then, for our pains, 

" Let the guU'd fool the toils of war pursue, 
Where bleed the many to enrich the few." 

But objections of this sort are what Mr. Bev- 
eridge refers to when he says that " England 
and America have been wasting time on 




academic argumentations about unsubstantial 

There are some inaccuracies in the book, 
due no doubt to haste in preparation. Of Mr. 
Beveridge's style something may be learned 
from the extracts here given. It abounds 
in repetitions, and is inflated throughout, 
apparently suffering from the vices which 
Herbert Spencer noted as inherent in dicta- 
tion. Among numerous similar lapses, Mr. 
Beveridge speaks of " witnessing cathedrals," 
of " vocalinity," and of one who " does not 
look like we are." And the book is without 
an index, an unpardonable omission in such a 

Having thus summed up, in good part, the 
faults of the book, both in regard to man- 
ner and matter, substance and form, it is 
to be said, on the other hand, that the very 
sympathy shown for Eussia has enabled Mr. 
Beveridge to present a picture of the empire 
and of its people unsurpassed in serious lit- 
erature for accuracy and comprehension. From 
the virtual chancellor of the empire to the most 
ignorant peasant, the Kussian is sketched with 
lines now broad, now narrow, until every phase 
of his none too complex nature has been sub- 
mitted to a sort of psychological dissection and 
laid bare to the enquiring mind. Not only is the 
government of the Czar analyzed and explained, 
but its methods in respect of Church and 
State as well, its educational aspirations, its 
interference between employer and employed 
to prevent the industrial horrors of western 
Europe and America, its firm conviction of its 
mission as a civilizing and christianizing power 
through the world, its aspirations toward a 
dominion over other peoples to be acquired by 
a combination of velvet glove and iron fist, 
its permanency of policy made possible by its 
autocracy, and, coming down to detail, the 
manner in which these circumstances are put 
into play in the occupation of Manchuria, and 
the ceaseless, resistless force with which the 
machinery moves on, slowly and surely enough 
to suggest the mills of the gods, all character- 
ized in a word by a youthful and enthusiastic 
officer when he said " Kussia the Inevitable." 

As regards the immediate future, and the 
issue of the war between the armies of the Mi- 
kado and the Czar, Senator Beveridge imparts 
a clear impression of the facts. It was unques- 
tionably to the interest of Russia to secure 
delay. Her single line of railway track will 
not suffice for the victualling of great military 
forces in eastern Asia, and her settlement of 

Manchuria is far too incomplete to permit any 
reliance upon the present resources of the 
country, fertile as it is. There appeared, from 
his statement, to be inherent weakness in the 
Kussian squadrons in the Pacific, making her 
control of water transportation from St. Peters- 
burg and Odessa to Vladivostok and Port 
Arthur more than doubtful, while the Black 
Sea squadron is tied up in those waters by the 
concert of Europe, and possible British hos- 
tility makes it inexpedient to use the naval ves- 
sels now in the Persian Gulf. Nor can it be 
said that the fortifications at Port Arthur and 
Dalni are in a condition entirely satisfactory 
for defence, while Vladivostok is ice-bound 
during no small portion of the year, and the 
transportation from that port to its southern 
sisters is also dependent upon a single line of 

But if St. Petersburg desired delay, the 
reverse was true of Tokyo. Japan, maintaining 
her ancient birth-rate while introducing the 
practice of modern hygiene, is seriously over- 
populated now, and the strain upon her re- 
sources is a permanently growing one. Her 
statesmen are seeking an outlet for her throng- 
ing thousands as a necessity of national exist- 
ence. The treaty of Shimonoseki would have 
secured southern Manchuria for this purpose, 
had not Eussia, aided and abetted by Germany 
and France, forced from Japan the fruits of her 
victory in 1895. Baffled here, they have turned 
to Corea, under-populated and more fertile than 
Japan's own soil. But Eussia's interference 
in 1895 secured for the Czar the ports of Dalni 
and Port Arthur, and the railway connecting 
them with Vladivostok through the Manchurian 
road is an essential to their maintenance in the 
face of Japan's efficient naval force. Should 
Corea fall into Japanese hands, placing Japan 
within less than two hundred miles of this 
essential line of communication between Eus- 
sia's Pacific naval stations, a line representing 
her ambitions in Peking itself, the whole policy 
of the Eassian administration in eastern Asia 
is made of no avail. And it was clearly to 
Japan's interest to strike now, or submit for 

In a word, this is the beginnmg of a 
struggle for life and death on the part of the 
Mikado's people, a struggle having for its 
grand prize the hegemony of the yellow race. 
On Eussia's part success seems to prophecy 
the eventual control of all Asia, Great Britain's 
Indian Empire with the rest, by the flat-capped 
administrators of autocracy. The entire civil- 



[Feb. 16, 

ized world is profoundly implicated in the re- 
sult, and the recent embarkation of the United 
States in the doubtful role of a " world power " 
of physical rather than moral force has en- 
tangled the American people among others, 
exactly as Washington foresaw when he spoke 
the warning in his Farewell Address. And it 
may be added, though this is not within the 
purview of Senator Beveridge's book, that final 
success in this battle of giants is likely to rest, 
not with the largest battalions or the heaviest 
artillery, but with the financiers of Europe 
and America. If the Jew, having in mind the 
atrocities which excited the wrath of Tolstoy 
and of the world at large, should withhold 
his assistance from Kussia in the immediate 
future or place his coffers at the disposal of the 
Mikado, or should the newly-made millions of 
America step into the gap in the interests of 
commercial treaties which past experience has 
shown are likely to be granted more liberally by 
Japan than by Eussia, the island empire may 
place an effective stumbling-block in the path 
of " Adam-zad, the bear that looks like a man." 

Wallace Rice. 

The Latest Portrait of Voltaire.* 

Words for words, the century and a quarter 
that has elapsed since Voltaire's death has had 
its full and free say about the patriarch of 
Ferney ; and the " hundred volumes of Vol- 
taire " are matched by the bibliography in his 
latest biography, which, curiously enough, con- 
tains just one hundred names, without claiming 
to be exhaustive. In spite of all the wealth of 
material collected by such writers as Desnoires- 
terres, and the biographies by Condorcet, Mr. 
John Morley, and James Parton, Mr. George 
Saintsbury could say, twenty years ago, that 
no really good life of Voltaire, with complete 
examination of his works, existed in any lan- 
guage. If no biographer's equipment is com- 
plete without the ability to make a critical 
estimate of his hero's works, whether written 
or acted, Mr. Saintsbury's remark is probably 
true ; and its truth will not be affected by this 
two-volume book of Mr. Tallentyre's. 

For this is simply the story of Voltaire's life, 
told chronologically from his birth in 1694 to 
his apotheosis and death in 1778. The un- 
broken succession of writings that came from 
his tireless pen are properly reckoned with as 

*Thb Life OF VOLTAiBB. By S. G. Tallentyre. In two 
volumes. Illustrated. New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

causes of Voltaire's various flights, conceal- 
ments, imprisonments, or sudden bursts of fame, 
and hence as necessary factors in his life ; but 
there are almost no references or quotations, 
and the reader must go to Voltaire himself for 
first-hand knowledge of his writings, and to the 
pages of Faguet, Van Laun, or Brunetiere for 
criticism. Of the critical spirit, indeed, there 
is not much in these two handsome volumes. 
Mr. Tallentyre's flow of enthusiasm for Vol- 
taire's unquestioned good qualities is not ma- 
terially checked by his honest recognition of 
the baser ones. For these latter, indeed, he 
is an apologist wherever possible ; and English 
readers will probably go back to their Morley, 
Carlyle, or even Macaulay, for a more un- 
biassed view of this wisest, brightest, — trick- 
iest of mankind. 

With these reservations, the narrative is 
delightful reading. Mr. Tallentyre has evi- 
dently digested his authorities thoroughly, from 
the valets Collini and Wagniere down to Victor 
Hugo and Mr. Churton Collins ; and he gives 
us in a picturesque style his results and his own 
opinions in about seven hundred pages, undis- 
figured by footnotes. This latter feature is 
adopted on a principle thus defended by the 
author : 

" If the public cannot trust the ability or the honesty 
of the biographer, the sources of his information are 
not inaccessible, and the public with a little extra 
trouble can verify his facts, even though he does not 
assist it by cumbering his text with that annihilation of 
all interest, the perpetual footnote. If the subject is 
not considered worth the extra trouble, the reader may 
well take the biographer — on faith. . . . The best 
biographer of Voltaire is Voltaire himself. If any 
writer can lead his reader to throw away the biographies, 
even his own, and study Voltaire at first-hand — his 
letters, the wittiest in the world, and his works, which 
in matchless adroitness can be compared to no other 
production of the human mind — he will have done 
much and should be well satisfied." 

To many good people the name Voltaire has 
been little more than a theological expression, 
or at most the designation of a claimant for 
the bad eminence of the eighteenth-century 
antichrist. Of the man Francois Marie Arouet 
as an eager, striving, loving, hating member 
of society they have known little and cared to 
know less. This attitude has now been re- 
placed by the literary and historical interest 
which the most devout may safely feel in the 
most brilliant writer of his age and the prophet 
whose teachings, though not his life, helped to 
prepare the way for a mighty revolution. The 
twentieth-century reader may not approve of 
Voltaire any more after reading these volumes 




than before ; but he will have a clear and even 
radiant picture of one of the most interesting 
men that ever lived. 

The glimpses of his precocious childhood 
are of course detached ; but we see the little 
"Zo-Zo" learning to "lisp scoffings as other 
children lisp prayers," taught by the recreant 
abbe CLateauneuf to recite deistical poems, 
entering at ten the Jesuit school of St. Louis 
le Grand, where he posed his masters with 
hard questions in history and politics and 
wrote fluent bad verses, taken by his god- 
father at eleven to see Ninon de I'Enclos, who 
was "as charming at eighty as she had been 
at eighteen," and who was so taken by the 
child that she left him in her will 2000 francs 
to buy books. Leaving school at seventeen, 
young Arouet announced that he desired no 
profession but literature, — to the disgust of 
his father, who, as Mr. Saintsbury says, " re- 
fused to consider literature a profession at all." 
For a while he dabbled in law, and even in 
diplomacy; but was more of a scapegrace than 
a student, and the Regent Philippe d'Orleans 
found it desirable to put the brilliant young 
fellow in the Bastille, where, without pen or 
ink, he composed whole cantos of the " Hen- 
riade," and, among other things, changed his 
name. The question whether the name "Vol- 
taire" is an anagram of "Arouet 1. j. (le 
jeuneV or an abbrevation of " le petit volon- 
taire," one of his baby names, or a real name 
existing in his mother's ancestry, is a vexed 
though not a vital one. The anagram has 
usually proved too tempting to be rejected ; but 
Mr. Tallentyre assures us that the last answer 
is now generally accepted. 

Out of Voltaire's eighty-four years, three 
periods are salient as involving special activ- 
ities in different environments: his fifteen 
years of association with Mme. du Chatelet, 
chiefly spent at Cirey (1733-1748), the fam- 
ous sojourn with Frederick the Great at Ber- 
lin and Potsdam (1750-1753), and the last 
twenty years at Ferney (1758-1778). Of that 
queer household at Cirey — the poet spending 
his money to complete his mistress's chateau, 
the lady herself ("poor little lean brown 
woman," in Carlyle's phrase) filled with pas- 
sions for fine clothes, high play, and the New- 
tonian philosophy; and a dim-shadowy com- 
plaisant husband who knew how to "range 
himself," — of all this Mr. Tallentyre writes 
with much vivacity of manner and many illum- 
inating details. "The respectable Emilie" 
caressed, scolded, and was jealous of her lover 

— until she deserted him for a younger man. 
In this unedifying French domestic drama of 
real life, the woman comes off with the least 
credit ; and one reverts with a sort of satisfac- 
tion to Carlyle's description of Voltaire as 

The visit to Frederick the Great is the best- 
known epoch in Voltaire's life. It lasted only 
three years, but was crowded with enough 
adventure, intrigue, spite, adoration, and hard 
work to fit out a lifetime. To English readers, 
long ago, Carlyle's essay on Voltaire, with his 
Life of Frederick, and Macaulay's great essay, 
made the facts familiar, as they knew them. 
Neither of them did justice to Voltaire; and 
Carlyle was too fond of his hero not to give him 
the benefit of every doubt in all this dubious 
business. Mr. Tallentyre seems to see with 
clearer vision, and to hold the balance equit- 
ably between the French man of letters, 
"thievish as a daw and mischievous as a 
monkey," and the Prussian king who was by 
fits and starts his pupil, his adorer, and his 
jailer. The story of how Voltaire made an 
enemy of old Maupertuis, the president of 
Frederick's " Berlin Academy," how Mau- 
pertuis, by the publication of his ridiculous 
" Scientific Letters," exposed himself as fair 
game, and how Voltaire fairly smothered him 
with the delicious satire of "Dr. Akakia," is 
told anew, and with great fulness. 

" Akakia means guilelessness; and Akakia is a phy- 
sician who takes the remarkable effusions of Maupertuis 
with a serious innocence, very deadly; who asks the 
most simple questions in the world; and turns upon the 
President's theories the remorseless logic of the gayest 
and easiest common-sense. There could have been no 
stylfe better than Voltaire's for making Pomposity mad. 
One can still see the * sublime Perpetual President * 
writhing under that pitiless mockery and that infectious 
laugh of malicious delight. The wickedest, cleverest, lit- 
tle picador in all the world goaded this great, lumbering, 
heavy-footed old bull to impotent frenzy. The lithe 
tiger, agile as a cat, sprang on his foe, showing all his 
teeth in his grin, and, grinning still, tore him limb from 

Many of Voltaire's most famous inots are 
duly recorded ; and some of his most startling 
utterances are explained and defended. The 
popular belief that in his celebrated motto 
" Ecrasez Vinfame" he voiced his hatred of 
Christ is probably too deep-seated to be re- 
moved by the careful explanations of many 
wise men, assuredly right as they are. Mr. 
Tallentyre is not the first who has sought to 
vindicate the great Deist from this reproach ; 
but his words are worth reproducing. 

" To Voltaire it (Vinfame), if it meant Christianity 
at all, meant that which was taught in Rome in the 



[Feb. 16, 

eighteenth century, and not by the Sea of Galilee in the 
first. . . . Uinfame was the religion which enforced its 
doctrines by the sword, the fire, and the prison; which 
massacred on the night of St. Bartholomew; and which, 
glossing lightly over royal sins, refused its last consola- 
tions to dying Jansenists who would not accept the Bull 
Unigenitus. ... And above all, Vinfdme was that 
spirit which was the natural enemy of all learning and 
advancement; which loved darkness and hated light be- 
cause its deeds were evil ; which found the better knowl- 
edge of His works, treason to God ; and an exercise of 
the reason and the judgment He had given, an insult to 
the Giver. . . . Uinfame cannot be translated by any 
single word. But if it must be, the best rendering of it 
is, intolerance." 

Voltaire's last days were unquestionably his 
happiest. As the Lord Bountiful of Ferney 
and Tournoy, with grateful friends around 
him, receiving visits from such dissociated 
pilgrims as James Boswell of Auchinleck, the 
young Charles James Fox, and " a solemn 
youth from Lausanne named Edward Gibbon," 
and pouring out, as always, letters, epigrams, 
dramas, he was encouraged to develop the 
better side of his nature ; and his really heroic 
efforts in behalf of such victims of injustice 
and oppression as the Galas family, Sirven, 
La Barre, and the ill-fated Lally are the 
brightest episodes in his career. 

Something of Voltaire's manner seems to 
have descended to his biographer, whose long 
narrative is never tiresome ; though the style 
is at times colloquial to a degree. The vol- 
umes are handsomely printed, contain almost 
no typographical errors, are equipped with a 
full index, and are illustrated with several 
portraits of Voltaire and some of his contem- 
poraries. JosiAH Renick Smith. 

Two French Books on the United 

The French books on America written dur- 
ing the last hundred years would easily fill a 
library. The authors of these books have been 
no mean persons, either, — from Chateau- 
briand, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt,f and de 
Tocqueville, down to Paul Bourget, Henri 
de Varigny, Levasseur, and Th. Bentzon. But 
the plethora seems to have discouraged neither 
authors nor publishers, — to say nothing of 

* La Religion dans la societe aux Etats-Unis. By 
Henry Bargy. Paris : Armand Colin. 

Lb peuplb du XXb sii:cLK. Cinq mois aux Etats- 
Unis By Urbain Qohier, Paris: Bibliothftque Charpentier. 
t A remarkable biography of La Rochefoueauld-Liancourt, 
aristocrat, philanthropist, statesman, traveller, and a most 
interesting figure of the ancient Regime, has just been pub- 
lished by Ferdinand- Dreyfus ( Paris : Plon et Cie. ) . 

readers. Hardly a year passes without the 
publication of a new volume on some topic or 
other dealing with the United States, — " La vie 
aux Etats-Unis," " La femme aux Etats-Unis," 
" Les trusts aux Etats-Unis," and what not. 
Nobody seems to tire of these " Etats-Unis." 
There are two classes of publications on 
America. Some are studies of a special sub- 
ject by a specialist, like Levasseur's book on 
"I'Ouvrier Americain," or de Rousier's work 
on the Trusts. Most of them, however, are the 
general impressions of a traveller after a more 
or less hasty journey made under varying con- 
ditions. The interest of these impressions de- 
pends, of course, on the traveller's intelligence, 
faculty of observation, and general aptitude as 
a writer. 

The two recent books which are treated here 
belong, one to the class of special studies, the 
other to the class of general impressions. Both 
are interesting, because written by men who 
have seen what they talk about and are inter- 
ested in their subject. M. Bargy, who has been 
in this country for five years, is a university 
professor who became interested in the reli- 
gious side of American life. M. Gohier, who 
travelled for five months all over the country, 
is a newspaper man, with a keen eye and a 
skilled pen, although not always with a very 
calm judgment. 

M. Bargy, having lived in a country which 
is mostly Catholic, with a rather limited relig- 
ious life, was surprised to find how great a part 
religious activity plays in American society, as 
well as pleased by the general spirit of true 
liberalism that seems to prevail. He had 
not been much in touch with Protestant ideas 
and Protestant life before finding them here. 
Therefore he ascribes to the American spirit 
many traits that may be due to Protestant in- 
fluence even in non- Protestant churches. All 
things that struck him as new and good in the 
religious conception and the religious method 
of the United States are to him American. He 
discovered what he calls the American religion, 
and characterizes it by two traits : it is a social 
religion, — i. e., more interested in society than 
in the individual ; and it is a positive religion, 
— i. e., it cares more for what is human in re- 
ligion than for what is supernatural. One of 
the main characteristics of American religion 
from the Puritans down, if we were to believe 
him, is indifference to dogma. 

M. Bargy lays down these two principles, 
and from them deduces his conception and 
description of the various forms of religious 




activity, Presbyterian or Episcopalian, Con- 
gregational or Methodist, Hebrew or Roman 
Oatholic. In all, he finds the same spirit, 
which he traces back to colonial times, and 
which he considers the common heritage of all 
Americans. To him, religion in America ap- 
pears as " a mutual aid society "; a church is 
^' a cooperative organization and a club "; a 
pastor is " a business man and sociologist," 
working for the material welfare of his flock 
AS well as for their moral betterment. 

A French critic, Edmond Scherer, once said 
that general ideas are always, to a certain extent, 
false. M. Bargy's book supports this statement. 
His bold and over-hasty generalizations are in- 
teresting, to be sure, but far from convincing. 
Not all the traits of American character that 
he praises are specifically American ; and not 
all the praises he bestows are equally deserved. 
It is needless to say that there is no such close 
resemblance between denominations as he de- 
scribes so minutely. As to the indifference to 
dogma, it seems to be a fancy of his imagina- 
tion, as far as most sects are concerned. Never- 
theless, despite the somewhat artificial logic 
that pervades the book, M. Bargy has covered 
the ground in a very instructive and entertain- 
ing way. He has some excellent chapters, full 
of information. Most of his statements are 
accurate, even when the conclusions he draws 
from them are not. Information is always safer 
than theories. The chapter on Channing is 
very good ; and so are the chapters in which 
he describes some modern churches, like St. 
Bartholomew's, and some modern pastors, like 
Babcock and Kainsford. The American reader 
will relish this book, full of enthusiasm, in 
which the author is bent on seeing only what 
is flattering to American pride, and in accord- 
ance with his own theories. Perhaps it might 
be better if all the churches here really had all 
the qualities M. Bargy discovers in them. But 
in that case they would be somewhat different 
from what they are. 

M. Urbain Gohier has also some theories 
which he airs here and there in his book. But 
in the main his purpose is to describe America 
as he saw it a year ago last summer in a quick 
journey of five months, with stops in various 
large cities and university centres. He writes 
in an epigrammatic style, and his Parisian 
readers who are accustomed to his ways will 
take cum grano sails some of his statements 
which may puzzle the American reader. 

On the whole, M. Gohier was pleased with 
America. But he would not be the aggressive 

pamphleteer that he is if he had written a book 
of mere praise and flattery. He was pleased 
with the cleanliness, comfort, and general air 
of happiness of the American home. The 
American woman seemed to him one of the 
most interesting of his discoveries when he 
reached these shores. He found her as pretty 
as the Parisienne, though somewhat spoiled ; 
and he admired her freedom, her initiative, her 
taste and elegance. He praises the univer- 
sities, and all the institutions of learning and 
education generally, such as the social settle- 
ments and the Y. M. C. A. Even the Salva- 
tion Army finds a sympathetic judge in this 
man, who in France has been, although a Cath- 
olic by birth, a rabid anti-clerical. 

The early freedom and self-reliance of the 
American boy struck our author as something 
quite novel. He could not imagine the sons 
of a French university president selling news- 
papers in the streets ! He speaks enthusias- 
tically of the freedom of the individual in the 
family and in society. He enjoyed the luxury 
of the Pullman cars, admired the beautiful site 
of Yellowstone Park, Yosemite Valley, the Bay 
of San Francisco, and the Grand Canon of the 
Colorado River. Everywhere he received the 
impression of something big, tremendously big. 
He regards the American people as an energetic, 
intelligent, quick-witted nation, and be lieves 
that they are the people of the twentieth century. 

But — there is a but. M. Gohier, who is 
known in France as one of the most destruc- 
tive and violent critics of the existing order of 
things, did not merely find things to admire. 
He observed the power and tyranny of the trusts 
and the labor-unions, between which, he pro- 
phesies, the consumer will be crushed. He 
discovered what he calls the " military peril," 
the peril that will come some day from the 
growing strength of the army ; the " clerical 
peril " that will result for American li berty from 
the increasing influence of a numerous dis- 
ciplined and wealthy Roman Catholic Church. 
He reproaches President Roosevelt for his 
sensational attitude, his strenuous ways, and 
his spread-eagleism. While amazed by the 
quantity of work done by the newspapers and 
the tremendous equipment they use, he crit- 
icises the waste of money, time, and paper 
involved in "great" journalism. 

As for American customs, M. Gohier fell 
of course into the usual errors of foreign obser- 
vers, and collected sensational items of love 
stories, crimes, and advertisements, from the 
popular journals. Yet at the same time he 



[Feb. 16, 

observed and noted down many things that the 
average American does not always have his 
attention called to. He visited America at the 
very time of the scandals of the New York 
police and of the St. Louis and Minneapolis 
aldermen, and he has a fearful chapter on 
American political corruption. He saw men 
of so many origins and races in the large 
cities of the East and West that he wondered 
whether this amalgamation of men whose only 
common ties are, in his words, " the English 
language, the ice-cream soda, and chewing- 
gum " really form an Anglo-Saxon nation. 

The craze for physical excercise seems to 
him to be pushed too far. " The Americans 
judge men by their weight, as they do cattle in 
the stock-yards." He notes at the same time 
that this worship of muscle is accompanied by 
an undue development of the patent-medicine 
business. He saw buildings, fifteen stories 
high, filled with druggists and physicians ; and 
the papers were full of quack advertisements. 
At Coney Island he found a camp of palmists, 
and concludes that " America is the chosen 
land of charlatans and bunco-steerers." 

Being a strong anti-militarist, he lectures 
Americans on their admiration for Napoleon, 
" the greatest bandit in history," who had not 
even the excuse of being an athlete. 

The book is thus full of statements and 
judgments that will astonish the reader, and 
sometimes make him throw it down with impa- 
tience ; full also of terse epigrams, and true and 
sound observations. Taken all in all, it shows 
a real sympathy for the spirit, the aims, and 
the character of the American nation and Amer- 
ican civilization. Othon Guerlac. 

Recent Fiction.* 

Mrs. Paget Toynbee, in her preface to the first 
volume of the new Oxford edition of the Letters of 
Horace Walpole, states that 3,061 letters have been 
included, representing 150 correspondents. Of the 
407 letters not included in Cunningham's edition. 111 
are now printed for the first time. It seems that a 
number of the letters, inter alia, to Hannah More, have 
been tampered with, and disfigured by the cancelling 
of passages, the erasure of proper names, and, worse 
than all, by the insertion (apparently in the handwrit- 
ing of Hannah More herself) of words and phrases 
which Walpole never wrote. In one letter the name 
" Madame Piozzi " has been erased, but is still legible 
through the erasure. Wright, the editor of the 1840 
edition of the letters, filled the blank with the name 
of Bruce, the African traveller ! in which he is followed 
by Cunningham. Some of the most interesting of the 
new letters are those addressed by Walpole to his school- 
fellow Charles Lyttelton (afterwards Bishop of Carlyle). 
Of the eleven portraits of Walpole included in this 
edition, three are now published for the first time. 

Place aux dames ! The most important books of 
fiction in our present selection are Mrs. Wharton's 
" Sanctuary " and Miss Glasgow's " The Deliver- 
ance." Each of these novels is, in its ovin peculiar 
fashion, a masterpiece of conscientious workman- 
ship, vivid in its portrayal of a half-tragic situation, 
and powerful in its appeal to our human sympa- 
thies. Aside from their common quality of snc- 
cessf nl performance, the two books stand far apart 
from one another. " Sanctuary " is no more than a 
novelette, hardly more than a short story, while 
" The Deliverance " is a full-grown work of fiction, 
spanning many years of suffering and unachieved 
purpose, and provided with a great multiplicity of 
incident and detail. Bat both are works of art in 
a highly satisfactory sense. 

Mrs. Wharton's art is of subtler and more delicate 
quality than Miss Glasgow's. She presents us with 
a case of conscience, studied in two generations. A 
young woman learns, on the eve of her marriage, 
that the man she loves is endowed with a radical 
weakness of character, that he has sinned, and is 
unwilling to make open confession to the world and 
face the consequences of his dereliction. At first 
her whole high-strung nature revolts, and she casts 
him off. Second thought reverses her decision ; she 
thinks of the moral weakness which must be the 
inheritance of the child of such a man ; she decides 
that she will be the mother of that child, and devote 
her life to its strengthening against the sort of 
temptation to which the father had succumbed. 
This is the brief prologue to the story. The longer 
second part opens some score of years later, and the 
moral problem quickly presents itself. The father 
has long since died, and the son has grown to man- 
hood. The father's sin had taken the form of a 
suppression of evidence the disclosure of which 
would have led to scandal and the loss of fortune. 

* Sanctuary. By Edith Wharton. New York : Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 

The Deliverance. By Ellen Glasgow. New York: 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Judith of the Plains. By Marie Manning. New York ; 
Harper & Brothers, 

Long Will. A Romance. By Florenee Converse. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Torch. By Herbert M. Hopkins. Indianapolis: 
The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

My Friend Prospero. By Henry Harland. New York : 
McClure, Phillips & Co. 

Mr. Salt. By Will Payne. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin 

The Daughter of a Magnate. By Frank H. Spearman. 
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The O'Ruddy. A Romance. By Stephen Crane and 
Robert Barr. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Incomparable Bbllairs. By Agnes and Egerton 
Castle. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

The Shutters of Silence. By Q. B. Burgin. New 
York : The Smart Set Publishing Co. 

The Key of Paradise. By Sidney Pickering. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 




The son's temptation is to win a prize in his profes- 
sion by appropriating the work of a dead friend, 
and passing it off as his own. The winning of the 
prize will mean to him both professional advance- 
ment and the love of the woman upon whom his 
heart is set. The ensuing conflict between his 
warring impulses is revealed to us only by hints 
and suggestions ; it never comes to a dramatic issue, 
or even to direct discussion. The mother, trembling, 
stands aloof and awaits the outcome upon which 
depends the defeat or victory of a lifetime of con- 
secration to a single aim. Words will not avail ; 
the time has come when the man must save himself 
if he is to be saved at all. We approach the clos- 
ing scene in breathless suspense ; the situation is 
poignant to the extreme of endurance, and the relief 
is correspondingly great when the better nature of 
the young man triumphs, and he seeks the sanctu- 
ary of his mother's arms, seeing at last as by a 
lightning flash all that she has done for him, and 
all the larger implications of the struggle from 
which he has in the end emerged victorious. " I 'm 
not worcn the fight you 've put up for me. But I 
want you to know that it 's your doing — that if you 
had let go an instant I should have gone under — 
and that if I 'd gone under I should never have 
come up again alive." These are the last words of 
this deeply moving book, and they linger long in 
the memory. 

" The Deliverance" is the most important book 
thus far written by Miss Glasgow. It makes clear 
the fact that this novelist has '' come to stay," and 
that her work may be expected to go on broadening 
and deepening with the years. The scene of the 
story is Virginia, and the period is that covered by 
the past quarter- century. Tobacco provides its 
harmony with a sort of basso ostinato very much as 
hemp performs a similar function in one of the 
novels of Mr. James Lane Allen. We are con- 
scious of its presence everywhere as the ground- 
work of the structure, and made to realize that the 
entire scheme of life portrayed by the novelist rests 
upon that foundation. If this be a borrowing of 
Mr. Allen's idea, it is made quite legitimate by the 
original treatment it receives. More questionable, 
however, is the use of Malory at a certain point in 
the narrative, for Miss Glasgow takes the very pas- 
sage introduced with such striking effect in " The 
Choir Invisible," and turns it to exactly the same 
emotional effect. One feature of " The Deliverance " 
is ingeniously contrived, but remains absolutely 
unconvincing. Old Mrs. Blake has been blind since 
the middle of the Civil War, her family has lost its 
fortune, and moved from a colonial -mansion to an 
humble cottage ; yet through all these vicissitudes 
she has been made to believe that nothing is 
changed, that she still owns her hundreds of slaves, 
that the Confederacy has triumphed, and the South 
become a nation. This situation passes the bounds 
of all possible credulity, and, however tempting it 
was to the author, should not have been woven as 
it is into the very structure of her fabric. The love 

interest of the story is provided by Christopher 
Blake, the dispossessed inheritor of the plantation, 
and Maria Fletcher, the granddaughter of the ras- 
cal who has come into its ownership by fraud upon 
his former employer. The boy grows up to hate 
the Fletchers with all the passion of a strong and 
primitive nature ; the girl grows up in ignorance 
alike of the history of her grandfather's fortune 
and of the feelings that rankle in the breast of the 
seeming peasant who is her neighbor. When they 
are first thrown together in their early adult years, 
each is instinctively attracted to the other, while 
assuming the mask of hatred or scorn. Not for 
many years is this instinctive feeling to ripen, and 
in the meanwhile Christopher [goes on nursing his 
hate and planning revenge, while Maria contracts a 
loveless marriage and disappears from the scene for 
a long time. It is by means of this leisurely devel- 
opment that the author achieves her largest effects. 
We know that the outcome is inevitable, but we 
approach it with such deliberation that all the sub- 
tle psychological processes of the years find room 
for analysis and exposition, and the figures of both 
characters become very completely human. The 
book has many minor features and characters de- 
serving of warm praise ; we have not space even for 
their mention, but trust that we have said enough 
to send our readers to one of the strongest and 
most vital productions of recent years. 

"Judith of the Plains," by Miss Marie Manning, 
is a story that starts out in much the same fashion 
as Mr. Garland's " Hesper." A young woman of 
education and refined associations is on her way to 
the strange world of the far West, and is, like Mr. 
Garland's heroine, greatly bewildered by her expe- 
riences. Here, however, the resemblance ends, for 
the young woman is little more than a lay figure in 
the subsequent unfolding of the plot, and the real 
heroine appears in the character of the half-breed 
woman for whom the book is named. After we have 
stopped thinking about the likeness to " Hesper," 
we begin to discover points of resemblance to " The 
Virginian," particularly in the reported speech of the 
Wyoming cowboys, which in its humorous aspect 
seems to us nearly as good as Mr. Wister's best. The 
humor of this story is, indeed, its saving quality, for 
it is very badly constructed, and has no plot worth 
mentioning. Being a woman's novel, it indulges in 
a good deal of rhapsodizing about the desert and 
mountains — an element which a man would have 
minimized or omitted altogether. The writer cer- 
tainly has both style and imagination, and these 
qualities, together with her unfailing humor, make 
up in part for the lack of a definite plan, and keeps 
the story going in a fairly effective way. 

England in the latter half of the fourteenth 
century is the theme of " Long Will," a historical 
romance by Miss Florence Converse. It is the 
England of Chaucer and Gower, of Langland and 
Wyclif , of John Ball and Wat Tyler, of Richard II. 
and John of Gaunt. It is the England of rival 
claimants for the throne, of incipient questionings 



[Feb. 16, 

of the established faith, of the profound social 
anrest resulting from the Black Death and the 
Statutes of Laborers. All of these men and matters 
are skilfully interwoven into a tapestry of patient 
literary workmanship having for its central figure 
the author of " Piers Plowman," and for its central 
theme the searchings of heart which that extraor- 
dinary poem occasioned among the dumb masses 
of the toilers. Charm is given to the narrative by 
the presence of an imagined daughter of Langland 
and her courtly lover, attendant upon the youthful 
prince and king. The girl goes on a pilgrimage 
through rural England to preach her father's gospel 
of true democracy and to bear the message of the 
coming uprising. The story reaches its climax with 
the peasant revolt, when Wat Tyler and his fol- 
lowers take possession of London and spread terror 
in their train. The skill with which all this mate- 
rial is used deserves high praise, as does also the 
effective use made by the author of the text of 
" Piers Plowman." The book is studded with fit- 
ting excerpts from the poem, applied in such a way 
as to make us understand the passion underlying its 
bald phrases far better than we can understand 
it from reading the histories of literature. Miss 
Converge has grappled in a fairly successful fashion 
with the chief difficulty of her task — that of con- 
triving a mode of speech which shall be really in 
keeping with the age she depicts. What she has 
done may best be shown by an example. The words 
are Long Will's, spoken in soliloquy. 

" Pity me, God I I am a weak man ! — I did never no 
deeds but them I thought not to do ; — never, all my life 
long ! Count my deeds, O Qod, — they are so few, — and all 
of them have I condemned afore in other men. Now, I let 
my daughter go forth on a fool's errand, and in a child's plot 
that must fail ; mayhap she will meet worse than death on 
the road ; but I give her my blessing. Jesu, — Mary, — guard 
this my daughter that I have so weakly put forth upon the 
world ! How may a man dare say nay to his child, if she be 
a better man than he, — an actyf man, a doer o' deeds ? How 
may a man dare forbid any soul to follow Conscience ? Oood 
Jesu, I am but a jongleur, — a teller o' tales, — i am afeared 
o' deeds. I see them on so many sides that I dare move nor 
hand nor foot. And if I do, I trip. Best never be doing. — 
If a man might be all words, and no deeds ! " 

The diction of which this is a typical illustration 
will at once be seen to embody not a little of the 
fourteenth century English fashion in its simple 
directness, its quaint naiveti, and its hint of the 
unassimilated French element in the language. It 
is sometimes too stiff, and the illusion is far from 
complete at many points, but how admirable it is 
in comparison with the conventional phrasing of the 
bastard jargon which serves the average historical 
romancer for a medium ! Here, at least, is a seri- 
ous effort to achieve reality, and not a deliberate 
evasion of the whole problem. 

It must have taken a lively imagination to invent 
the character of Babington, the university president 
who is the central figure in " The Torch," by Pro- 
fessor Herbert M. Hopkins. Babington presides 
over a Western institution, and is a compound of 
bully and hypocrite, tuft-hunter and snob. When 

a member of the faculty incurs his dislike, he says, 
" Off with his head ! " like the Qaeen in " Alice," 
and off it goes. We have a fairly wide acquaintance 
among university presidents, but have never met 
with a specimen at all resembling this caricature. 
Now Mr. Hopkins, in writing the present book, had 
a very laudable design. It was his aim to protest 
against the autocratic character of the management 
of many of our universities, and to plead against 
the evils which naturally result from too great a 
concentration of power in the executive. These 
evils are manifest in many quarters, and such a 
protest is desirable. But the whole purpose of the 
argument is defeated by the grossly improbable 
account given us of this particular executive and 
his acts. Furthermore, Mr. Hopkins has committed 
something worse than an indiscretion in selecting 
certain happenings in the recent history of a great 
Western university, presenting them in a sensa- 
tional light, and basing upon them the very struc- 
ture of his story. No one can read the book with- 
out perceiving at once that a particular president 
of a particular university is aimed at, and no one 
acquainted with the institution and the man can 
fail to be shocked at the travesty. Unfortunately, 
the book will find many readers who are without 
the personal knowledge necessary for a corrective, 
and such readers will be influenced by an account 
which is distorted and discolored from beginning 
to end. The mischief will be the greater for the 
very fact that the story is strongly conceived, and, 
although misleading as a whole, embodies many 
fragments of undoubted truth. It is in vain to 
plead that the novelist takes his suggestions wher- 
ever he may find them; in the present case he has 
done more than act upon a mere suggestion : he 
has seized upon a situation already made familiar 
to thousands of readers through the sensational 
newspaper press, and has so dealt with it as to' 
create prejudices of the bitterest sort in the minds 
of readers not conversant with the facts in the case. 
There is no doubt that Mr. Henry Harland's 
late novels have the very quintessence of charm. 
This charm results from a dainty style formed upon 
the best French models, a marked delicacy of poetic 
sentiment, and an exquisite sense of proportion and 
fitness. Yet the charm is absolutely superficial, and 
the depths of character have no existence as far as 
the figures which people his pages are concerned. 
" My Friend Prospero " is the gay and joyous love- 
story of an English nobleman and an Austrian 
princess, thrown together in an Italian castle and 
the surrounding landscape. Each remains ignorant 
of the rank, and even the name of the other, until 
the very end, when a fairy godmother reveals both 
secrets, and clears the way for a mutual under- 
standing. A story like this is no more amenable 
to serious criticism than a butterfly or a humming- 
bird, yet we are disposed to suggest two matters 
that come near to being defects. One of them is 
the introduction for one brief scene of the Ameri- 
can friend of the hero, who plays no real part in 




the story, and serves only to help the hero make 
-conversation when next he meets his heart's desire. 
The other is a certain over-insistence upon the 
money motive, which clouds the bright romantic 
Atmosphere of the tale. Such lovers as these have 
nothing to do with such considerations ; they are 
not denizens of a material and mercenary world, 
and their fortunes are not bound up in the ordinary 
-concerns of an average prosaic humanity. 

Mr. Will Payne's new story, " Mr. Salt," offers 
us another picture of commercialism in a great 
-city, this time in vignette form, for the work is 
hardly more than a novelette. The hero — if we 
may apply to him that useful term — is a captain 
of industry, and the heroine one of his stenogra- 
phers. Since one of the first acts of the latter is to 
commit perjury in a court of justice, in the inter- 
-ests of her employer, we must be excused for a cer- 
tain inability to follow her career with complete 
-sympathy. The romance between the man and the 
woman grows apace, and ends in the usual way. 
The story is written from full knowledge of the 
sort of life with which it deals, and is not without 
touches of delicate human feeling. It certainly 
gives us life — of a sort — and it comes near to 
giving us literature — of a minor order. 

The American railway is the real subject of Mr. 
Frank Spearman's " The Daughter of a Magnate," 
although a love-story is provided as a sort of sub- 
sidiary attraction, and as a concession to the con- 
ventions of fiction. The scene is the far West, the 
language is that spoken in those parts by men en- 
gaged in railway work. It is rather too technical 
for the comfort of the average reader. " Even the 
porter of the dead car deserted his official corpse, 
and after Number One pulled out of Medicine Bend 
and stuck her slim, aristocratic nose fairly into the 
big ranges the Lalla Rookh was left as dead as a 
stringer to herself and her reflections " — this is the 
sort of thing we find in every chapter. We have 
no doubt of its truth to life and to railroading, but 
too much of it wearisome. There is always some- 
thing fine in the spectacle of man struggling against 
nature and coming out triumphant; we get this 
sort of satisfaction in two scenes particularly, one 
of which represents the hero at work repairing the 
damage done by a disastrous washout, while the 
other finds him bringing a train (and the heroine) 
safely through a perilous blizzard. The whole story 
is informed with a tense energy that at least keeps 
one in a state of breathless attention to its movement. 

A novel written even in part by the late Stephen 
Crane comes to us at this late day as a surprise. 
The other part is the work of Mr. Robert Barr, but 
whether by way of collaboration or the piecing-out 
of a fragment we are not informed. At all events, 
the book is not obviously composite, and proves to 
be much more of a story than any of the books of 
Mr. Crane that were published during his lifetime. 
It is called « The O'Ruddy," and is the tale of a 
roistering and dare-devil Irishman who comes to 
England after his father's death on a mission to the 

Earl of Westport, falls in love with the earl's 
daughter, and wins her by sheer audacity in the 
face of all sorts of obstacles. The depiction of this 
character and the account of his deeds seem to be 
intended as a satire upon this particular type of 
swashbuckling adventure, and the stock situations 
are outlined in a spirit of extravagant burlesque 
which is highly amusing. The book is a singularly 
racy one, and may be read with unflagging interest. 

When we reviewed " The Bath Comedy," by 
Mr. and Mrs. Egerton Castle, we remarked that we 
" would gladly remain in such company for an in- 
definite period." It is to the same company of 
Mistress Kitty and her satellites that we are again 
introduced by <' Incomparable Bellairs," the sequel 
which the authors have kindly provided for the 
earlier book. Kitty is as capricious and bewitch- 
ing as ever, and her devoted Irish lover (who really 
wins her this time) is as audacious and reckless as 
when he made his first desperate siege of her affec- 
tions. Other figures appear, notably that of a gra- 
cious Quaker maiden, who serves as an effective 
foil to the titular heroine. The book is a mixture 
of wit and tender sentiment, alternately sparkling 
with the one and melting with the other, and is 
fascinating from first to last. 

In " The Shutters of Silence," Mr. G. B. Burgin 
has made effective use of a Trappist monastery in 
the northern wilderness of Canada. In this estab- 
lishment a boy, abandoned by his mother and lost 
by his father, takes refuge, and grows to manhood 
in its peaceful and austere seclusion. He is of ille- 
gitimate birth and his unnatural mother has rid 
herself of him in order that she may marry and be 
safe from the discovery of her sin. When the boy 
has grown up, the father learns his whereabouts, 
and rescues him before he has taken his vows to 
the order. He is taken to England, introduced to 
society, and made to know something of the joys 
and sorrows of life. Next to the description of the 
monastic life itself, which is pictured with sombre 
and haunting fidelity, the study of his development 
under this startling change of conditions is the most 
interesting feature of the story, The young man 
falls in love, but the cup of happiness is dashed from 
his lips when he learns the secret of his birth, and 
he flees to the refuge of his earlier years. Here he 
is at last found by both father and mother, the 
former now a widow and the latter at the point of 
death ; a belated marriage ceremony takes place, 
and the youth goes back into the world with a name 
that he may now legitimately bear. Such is the out- 
line of a story which may lay claim to a fair degree 
of originality, and which is of more than ordinary 

"The Key of Paradise," by Mr. Sidney Pickering, 
is an Italian romance of a hundred years ago, when 
the Napoleonic wars filled the world, and brought 
terror into the fairest of lands. The interest of the 
story, however, is private, and the history serves only 
for relief. There is an Italian princess, the husband 
who maltreats her, and the sympathetic English 



[Feb. 16, 

soldier who seeks to win her love. The outcome 
is rather unexpected, for the princess, despite her 
wrongs, remains faithful to her marital obligations, 
and wins her husband's devotion in the end. The 
work is carefully planned, and wrought out with 
such nicety of finish that, although the performance 
is slight, it is unusually satisfactory from every 
artistic point of view. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs ox New Books. 

Let no one suppose from the plain 
^^t^r/"*"^'' t'tle "Ferns, a Manual for the 

own book. ' 

Northeastern States" (Holt), by 
Mr. Campbell E. Waters, that we have here simply 
a text-book, or at best a descriptive list of species, 
as manuals of plants and animals are wont to be. 
The work is this, and very much more. It is a very 
handsome volume, beautifully bound and printed, 
with ornate cover and gilt top, fit to lie upon the 
table among the latest and handsomest books of the 
year. Furthermore, text and illustrations alike are 
not designed primarily for the man of science, but 
for the amateur, for the men and women who love 
ferns, the most graceful and beautiful forms of all 
the green world about us, and, loving them, would 
fain be able to give appropriate name to each and 
every one. To such the volume will certainly make 
a strong appeal. The original feature in the pres- 
ent treatment of the ferns is the effort made to use 
stem-structure, revealed in cross-section, as a means 
of identification and so for the framing of an arti- 
ficial key. This may sometimes be helpful, and the 
facts so brought out may be at times confirmatory ; 
but after all, it would seem that anyone sufficiently 
skilful to use his lens to meet the requirements of 
this key should be able to study in the old-fashioned 
way the fruit-dots, indusia, pinnae, etc., and would 
find the effort far more interesting. For some 
reason, several species described in the text are not 
named in this key. The illustrations are nearly all 
half-tones from photographs, and show well the 
advantages and disadvantages of the process. The 
views of the species in their native haunts are, many 
of them, very beautiful ; but the reproductions of 
the individual fronds are generally disappointing. 
The process is not adapted to the subject. The 
delicacy of these filmy things is lost. This is espe- 
cially the case where the illustration represents the 
object enlarged. Here the photograph reminds one 
of the pictures of plaster- casts taken from the faces 
of the dead. Photography cannot, or at least does 
not, portray these things. One touch of Gibson's 
pencil were worth it all. No doubt some of the 
illustrations, showing details, fructifications, sori, 
etc., will be serviceable in identifying generic types ; 
but the camera is clearest only where it is less needed, 
as in the case of some of the shield-ferns and spleen- 
worts, and brings no help, or little, where illustra- 
tion should serve. Thus, the figure intended to 

illustrate the indusia of Cystopteris shows really 
nothing that can be so recognized. Our author 
wisely gives precedence in each case to the common 
name ; but he also presents the name by which each 
form is known in science, although without citing 
the name of the author of the binomial approved. 
While it is refreshing to be delivered from the cus- 
tomary inane discussions of questions of nomencla- 
ture, still no scientific name in natural history may 
be correctly written unless the name of the author 
accompanies it. It may be worth saying here that 
for appearance sake, if for no other reason, it were 
well to begin every specific name, no matter what 
its origin, with a small letter. But these are minor 
criticisms ; the book as a whole is a beautiful one, 
and likely to be widely useful. It is one of the few 
real nature-study books so far offered to the Amer- 
ican people. Here is no nonsense, no child's-talk ; 
and 'if the author's style be somewhat conversa- 
tional, and confidential at times, he nevertheless 
tells his story in an interesting and straightforward 

There is a fascination in any bio- 
a^£!^HU "^ graphic material relating to the Roe- 

setti family. The readers of the 
new volume of " Rossetti Papers, 1862 to 1870 " 
(imported by Scribner) will feel the charm of the 
subject, and will delight in subtle glimpses of char- 
acter and environment, but they will deplore the 
lack of chapters or similar divisions into which the 
material might have been more conveniently and 
effectively grouped. More than five hundred pages 
of consecutive letters and journal-extracts, with a 
few parenthetical notes, become wearisome when 
there is no break in structure and but meagre 
dramatic incident. This volume continues the twa 
earlier compilations entitled " Ruskin, Rossetti, 
Preraphaelitism " and " Preraphaelite Diaries and 
Letters." The latter volume ended with the death 
of Gabriel Rossetti's wife, and the burial of his 
poems in her casket ; the present book deals with 
the intervening events until 1870, when the poems 
were resurrected and published. Much of the ma- 
terial here presented has been incorporated already, 
indirectly, into other books upon the Rossetti family. 
With a revival of interest which comes from a 
perusal of the direct sources, however, one reads 
again of the estranged relations between Ruskin 
and Rossetti, of the brotherly interest of Gabriel 
in the publication of Christina Rossetti's poems, of 
William Rossetti's appreciative studies of Walt 
Whitman, Shelley, and Blake, and of the tragic 
blight upon the eyes of Gabriel and his forced renun- 
ciation of art. The growth of the artist's power 
and popularity, the submerged yet exquisite skill 
of the poet, are clearly portrayed in the letters of 
friendship and appreciative criticism from Ruskin, 
Hamerton, Madox Brown, William Bell Scott, 
Mrs. Gilchrist, and the American friends. Professor 
Norton and W. J. Stillman. Among the later and 
most interesting of the letters is one written by 




Gabriel from Scalanda, Sussex, to Professor and 
Mrs. Norton, then at Florence. In it, he refuses an 
invitation to join them, because of his troublesome 
eyes, but expresses the most cordial friendship in 
a tone of unwonted intimacy. Of the poems then 
just published he wrote : 

" I hope that when you get my book you will agree with 
me as to the justness of my including all it contains. I say 
this because there are a few things — and notably a poem 
called Jenny — which will raise objections in some quarters. 
I only know that they have been written neither recklessly 
nor aggressively (moods which I think are sure to result in 
the ruin of Art), but from a true impulse to deal with sub- 
jects which seem to me capable of being brought rightly within 
Art's province. Of my own position I feel sure, and so wait 
the final result without apprehension." 

Practical essays *' Lectures on Commerce" (Univer- 
«n commerce and sity of Chicago Press) is the title of 
industry. ^ volume edited by Mr. Henry Rand 

Hatfield, and containing sixteen papers read before 
the students of the recently founded College of 
Commerce and Administration in the University 
of Chicago. In the first of these papers, entitled 
"Higher Commercial Education," Professor J. 
Laurence Laughlin, dean of the new college, pre- 
sumably defines the scope of the undertaking. « To 
the virile and enterprising spirits who are tempted 
by the great rewards of banking, railways, insur- 
ance, trade and industry," he observes, " the uni- 
versities have — at least not until very recently — 
offered no inducements." Further on, he says : 
" It is startling to think how little influence the 
universities of to-day have had in training the great 
men in the constituencies of banking, railways, in- 
surance, trade and industry, diplomacy, journalism, 
and politics." Only with reference to the older 
subjects, the " humanities," does he accord '* accu- 
racy of statement, precision, logic, the judicial spirit, 
the love of truth, and a sense of form," and he asks 
if it is not possible to extend these virtues into the 
actualities of commerce and administration. But 
the stress of his remarks seems still to be laid upon 
" the great rewards," " the great men," and not 
upon " the love of truth." His lecture also illus- 
trates the prime diflficulties of the new education 
in a brief discussion of journalism, assuming as 
he does that the practical training of a newspaper 
office makes *' hacks," and that " the policy and 
influence of a newspaper depend upon whether 
or not it shows a masterly grasp of the political, 
economic, legal, and literary subjects which the 
public are thinking about." But it is not because 
of their editorial columns, where this " masterly 
grasp " may only be displayed, that modern news- 
papers are influential; it is because of their news 
columns almost wholly. The real journalistic 
" hacks " are those with the training Professor 
Laughlin intends giving in the college of which he 
is dean ; " the great rewards " come to those whom 
he thinks are made into " hacks." The fact is, in 
the last analysis, that newspaper success depends 
mainly upon such a knowledge of contemporary life 
as is denied university faculties by the very terms 

of their being. The remaining lectures in the vol- 
ume are by railway men, merchants, manufacturers, 
and bankers well known in the city of Chicago, few 
of them with any theoretical training, but all with 
achieved success gained by personal effort and 
practical work. These papers make most interest- 
ing and instructive reading ; but it cannot be said 
that they lend themselves to proof of Professor 
Laughlin's contentions for his new school. 

The mournful narrative of England's 
The wofui past seven centuries of oppression and 

misgovernment in Ireland has been 
retold in summarized form by Mr. Thomas Addis 
Emmet, under the composite title of "Ireland under 
English Rule,or A Pleaforthe Plaintiff " (Putnam). 
He tells his profoundly moving story in calm and 
dignified language, without outburst or objurgation. 
The only severity found in his relation inheres 
in the extraordinary character of the events re- 
cited, and throughout his work the historical spirit 
dominates. It does not, however, profess to be a 
history ; it is a historical summary, merely, but one 
susceptible of much use by students. Mr. Emmet's 
"plea" consists largely of copious extracts from 
historical writings of past centuries. Naturally, 
these quotations are derived in great measure from 
Irish sources, yet enough of them appear from 
British and continental writers to relieve the book 
from any appearance of resting on a purely parti- 
san basis. The writers quoted are all in substan- 
tial accord as to the merits of Ireland's claims and 
the character of her wrongs. A running thread of 
judicious commentary by the author connects to- 
gether this summary of quotations from older 
writers. The sad history will appeal forcibly to 
American readers, for whom primarily Mr, Emmet 
writes. But one can read between the lines a calm 
and earnest address to the better sense of the 
British people, whose government it is, and not 
themselves, that is so severely indicted. While Mr. 
Emmet confessedly " holds a brief " for the cause 
of Ireland, and has prepared his essay in some 
sense officially, as the President of the " Irish Na- 
tional Federation of America," it is not merely nor 
even largely an oratorical effort. It is apparent 
from the character and style of the " plea " that the 
pleader feels a day of redemption for Ireland is at 
hand, and that his summary of the merits of the 
cause he loves is intended, not to increase nor even 
to perpetuate the past tension, but to lead toward 
and assist in establishing a better and a more harmo- 
nious understanding for the future as to the deserts 
of Ireland. These two handsomely printed volumes 
are a worthy American contribution toward that de- 
sirable result, while at the same time furnishing 
much justification for the Irish contention of the past 
centuries. A bibliography of one hundred and 
seventy titles attests the extent of reading which has 
qualified Mr. Emmet for the work he has undertaken 
of arousing in a new form, for the new century, in- 
terest in the welfare of " the Emerald Isle." 



[Feb. 16, 

Lord Ronald That a part is often better than the 
Stt/heriand-Oower whole is well illustrated by Lord 
in abridgment. Ronald Sutherland-Gower'fl "Rec- 
ords and Reminiscences " (inaported by Scribner), 
a handsome and profusely illustrated octavo of 624 
pages. It is at once an amalgamation and an abridg- 
ment of the author's well-known '' Reminiscences " 
and *' Old Diaries," the curtailed one-volume form 
being prepared, we are told, by request. But even 
in abridgment the noble lord has in no wise slighted 
the claims due to himself and his family, fifty pages 
being devoted to the record of his birth and ances- 
try. Although a man's progenitors, like his chil- 
dren, are more interesting to himself than to others, 
the author has succeeded in enlivening these open- 
ing chapters with anecdote and history of some- 
thing more than personal significance. Under his 
genial guidance we follow the fortunes of the 
Sutherlands, the Gowers, and the Levesons — for 
all three are his family names, though he contents 
himself with the use of but two — and find them 
in general prosperous even to the point of tameness. 
This tameness is occasionally relieved, however, as 
by the fatal poisoning of the eleventh earl of Suther- 
land and his Countess, in 1567, by Lady Isabel 
Sinclair. The tragedy was attended by other thrill- 
ing events worthy to be embalmed by the historical 
novelist. On the Gower side of the house, one of 
the family was all but immortalized, unenviably, by 
having his name inserted in Dr. Johnson's Dictionary 
as a synonym for renegade ; bat the printer refused 
to humor the lexicographer. Such, at least, is the 
story. In the author's account of Cliveden House 
he takes unnecessary pains to quote from Pope that 
familiar but untruthful line which places the death 
of Buckingham " in the worst inn's worst room," 
whereas the Duke breathed his last in the farm- 
house of one of his tenants. As is already known, 
it is Lord Sutherland-Gower's extended travels and 
his interviews with noted persons that give the chief 
value and interest to his pages. In this particular 
the new book has all the charm of its parent vol- 
umes, besides being freed from many of their 
superfluities. But the reviewer, to be true to his 
traditions, must note with regret the lack of an 

A great many besides those who dare 
A monograph ^j^j^^ ^^^ flattering title of connois- 

on mezzoltnit. . . . ", • ,, 

seur will rejoice in the series of luxu- 
riant monographs projected by Messrs. G. F. Put- 
nam's Sons, in connection with an English house, 
under the general title of '^ The Connoisseur's 
Library." The series will comprise twenty volumes 
in all, covering exhaustively and authoritatively 
every form of objet d'art affected by the modern 
collector. The- editor of the series, Mr. Cyril 
Davenport, is responsible for the initial volume, 
dealing with Mezzotints, the most interesting and 
beautiful, as well as the most difficult to produce, 
of all forms of artistic engraving. Mr. Davenport 
knows his subject thoroughly, and though there is 

of necessity much technical matter in his pages, he 
is always lucid and intelligible even to the tyro. 
The first chapter has to do with the practical side 
of the subject, describing minutely the technical 
process of mezzotint engraving, both in monotone 
and color, and giving directions for the care, 
preservation, and identification of prints. The re- 
maining three chapters are largely historical and 
critical, dealing respectively with the best known 
seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century 
engravers. It is interesting to know that, though 
engraving in mezzotint has not lacked for exponents 
on the continent, the greatest masters in this me- 
dium have been Englishmen, and mezzotinting may 
properly be called an English art. For the future 
of his subject Mr. Davenport is not very hopeful. 
A few gifted mezzotinters are still working, but the 
recently improved methods in photogravure repro- 
duction have introduced a formidable rival to the 
art. Modern photogravure work has not yet been 
able to attain the depth and velvety lustre of pure 
mezzotinting ; and being almost entirely a mechan- 
ical process it may never hope for much favor in the 
eyes of collectors. But for all practical ends the 
photogravure fills the place of the mezzotint, and 
is of course infinitely less expensive, especially 
where large numbers of prints are required. The 
plates selected to illustrate Mr. Davenport's text 
are excellent specimens of the best results in modern 
photogravure work. There are forty in all, exem- 
plifying the art of nearly every master in mezzotint 
engraving. The mechanical form of the present 
volume is dignified and excellent in every detail, as 
such a work should be. The binding especially, so 
often a deplorable feature in English book-making, 
is thoroughly serviceable, a minor point worthy of 
commendation being the method of mounting the 
plates on linen guards instead of flimsily sewing 
them in, as is almost invariably done. 

That the fashion of regarding his- 

Ameriean hittory ^ g^igj ^^^^ ^^^ viewpoint of 

and geography. ,.,."' . . '^ . , 

politics IS passing away, is evident 
from two books which have recently appeared. The 
first, by Miss Ellen Churchill Semple, is entitled 
"American History and its Geographic Conditions" 
(Houghton), and presents an extremely careful and 
comprehensive arrangement of the successive events 
in American history, with a convincing argument 
to prove that the determinant factors in its develop- 
ment are geographical. The second book, by Mr. 
Albert Perry Brigham, " Geographical Influence in 
American History" (Ginn), is a shorter work, evi- 
dently designed to show what are the geographical 
and geological features of America, and to prove 
that these are real, but by no means the only, in- 
fluences in the country's development. This author 
lays great stress on the fact that racial characteris- 
tics help to mould civilization ; herein differing from 
Miss Semple, who declares their impotency, citing 
the comparison of Canada and the United States as 
an example. Both Miss Semple and Mr. Brigham. 




give essentially the same descriptions of the purely 
geographical conditions of America: the various 
sections of the country, their topographical features 
and connecting waterways. But while Mr. Brigham 
takes geology as his point of departure, and has a 
great deal to say of " the background of ages of 
physical evolution," the " glacial belt," and the 
«' ice-sheets," Miss Semple confines herself to com- 
paratively modern conditions, — i. e., to those since 
the discovery of America. Moreover, although she 
treats such subjects as the Early Settlements, the 
Louisiana Purchase, and the Civil War, in detail, 
yet she places her emphasis on the present and 
future. This is especially true of her chapters on 
the geographical distribution of cities and indus- 
tries, and of railroads. And aside from the differ- 
ent points of departure, the further treatments of 
the subject differ, — that of Miss Semple being 
the more detailed, that of Mr. Brigham the more 
general. Miss Semple states in the beginning her 
conclusion : " The most important geographical fact 
in the past history of the United States has been 
their location on the Atlantic opposite Europe ; and 
the most important geographical fact in lending a 
distinctive character to their future history will 
probably be their location on the Pacific opposite 
Asia." Mr. Brigham similarly gives as '' the one 
fact of overshadowing importance in the history of 
America, that a wide ocean separated an advanced 
civilization and a relatively dense population from 
a wide, rich, and almost unoccupied continent." 
Both books are of unusual interest, not only to the his- 
torian and geographer, but also to the general reader. 

In Miss Lilian Pettengill's book en- 
The problem, 0/ jj^jg^j u Toilers of the Home" (Dodd, 

Mead & Co.), another attempt is 
made to throw light upon the question of domestic 
service. Believing that the opinions of the average 
mistress are not only vague but unfair, the author 
spent nearly a year in household service, that she 
might view the problem from all sides. It would 
perhaps be impertinent to suggest that experience 
as mistress might also be necessary to absolute fair- 
ness. But the author is evidently sincere in her 
intention, and the book might furnish a wealth of 
material for discussion in a woman's club. She 
records, in five somewhat long chapters, her experi- 
ence in as many families. The book is full of details 
and personal gossip, and certainly presents all sorts 
and conditions of women, from the delightful " spin- 
sters three" to the would-be great lady and the 
all-too-rare good housekeeper. The conclusions, 
summed up in a final chapter, add nothing to facts 
already worn with much discussion ; their greatest 
interest is in their na'ivetS. The long and indefinite 
hours of service, the lack of home and social life, 
and the supposed disgrace of being a domestic ser- 
vant, are mentioned as the difficult factors in any 
satisfactory settlement of the problem. By way 
of solution. Miss Pettengill suggests that servants 
should never live in the houses of their employers, but 

in homes of their own, or in little colonies by them- 
selves. In this way she thinks the work would be- 
come more definite, the grade of service demanded 
and rendered improved, and the loneliness of the 
position remedied. In all this, it is a question 
whether the remedy is not worse than the disease; 
but we must heartily agree with the statement that 
" the housekeeper's problem is largely one of self- 
government." The sub-title of the book, '' A Col- 
lege Woman's Experience as a Domestic Servant," 
leads one to wonder what college training resulted 
in the production of an English style so careless, 
would-be-sarcastic, and often obscure, as that con- 
stantly used by the author. 

_. ,, , ,, Shortly before his death, the late Pro- 

The self-told •L it/-, i i r 

story 0/ a lessor Joseph LieConte completed for 

noble life. jjjg children and grandchildren a 

sketch of his eventful life. This autobiography 
has been prepared for publication (Appleton) by 
Professor W. D. Armes, his pupil and colleague. 
LeConte was born of Huguenot and Puritan par- 
entage, in the New England community in Liberty 
County, Georgia, in a family noted for its intellect- 
ual brilliancy and scientific predilections. It is not 
strange, therefore, that he should have chosen med- 
icine as a career ; nor that he should have found its 
practice, as conducted in those days, very irksome. 
The early chapters of the autobiography, dealing 
with these years, give a charming picture of social 
life in ante-bellum days on Southern plantations. 
In 1850 LeConte went to Cambridge and became 
one of Agassiz's first pupils, graduating in the first 
class from the Lawrence Scientific School. He at 
once began his busy career as educator, investigator, 
scientist, and philosopher, at first in his native South 
and after the war on the Pacific Coast. His ac- 
count of an extended tour through the Northwest 
and about the Great Lakes, in 1844, and his por- 
trayal of conditions in the South during and after 
the war, are of historical value as faithful pictures 
of the times, and these, as well as the whole book, 
are written in charming style, simple and direct, so 
that the interest of the reader never flags. The 
greatest value of the book lies, however, in its par- 
tial self -revelation of the man whose intellectual 
virility and gentle unfailing courtesy made " Pro- 
fessor Joe " the idol of many generations of students, 
and still keep his memory green from the Sierras 

to the sea. 

The Puritan Revolution in England 
The flight oj jg ^ subject to which the world has 

Charles II. . •> . , , , , 

given much serious thought; but thus 
far the marvellous career of the great Protector and 
the tragic death of Charles Stuart have received the 
greater share of this attention. Charles II., on the 
other hand, has not proved so attractive a subject 
either to the historian or to the novelist. Recently, 
however, that inglorious monarch has found an en- 
thusiastic biographer in Mr. Allan Fea, who seems 
to have made the Restoration period his particular 
field of research. Not long ago he published an 



[Feb. 16, 

account of Prince Charles's escape across the Chan- 
nel after the battle of Worcester ; this year he has 
given us a companion volume entitled " After Wor- 
cester Fight" (John Lane). In this new work he 
republishes the materials used in writing ^' The 
Flight of the King," consisting of five tracts pro- 
duced either in printed or manuscript form during 
the reign of Charles II. Source materials are, as 
a rule, not very interesting reading, but in this case 
a work has been compiled which is singularly at- 
tractive. The book is beautifully printed and sup- 
plied with numerous illustrations of historic value. 
The editorial work has been done with considerable 
care ; the editor has added some information from 
tradition and state-papers, most of which is, how- 
ever, of the antiquarian order and has but slight 
value as history. Still, Mr. Fea's zeal is to be com- 
mended, and anyone who has read his earlier work 
will be sure to appreciate this companion volume. 

Dangers of "^^^ popularization of the results of 

popularizing research in the various fields of the 

teitnce. physical and natural sciences is more 

and more demanded by the ever increasing class 
of readers whose previous information and training 
have opened to them the gates of science, but who 
still lack the technical information or the recourse 
to original sources which alone can give immediate 
access to her latest revelations. Our popular mag- 
azines have attempted to meet this demand, in some 
cases by contributions from specialists, in others, 
unfortunately, from less trustworthy sources. Not 
only readability, but reliability, is a prime requisite, 
if such papers are to command respect in scientific 
circles. Mr. Carl Snyder's " New Conceptions in 
Science" (Harper) meets the first prerequisite, for 
here the latest news from the firing-line of research 
is given with the dash and abandon of the field cor- 
respondent, and with something also of his disre- 
gard for the petty details of fact. The author is not 
an authority in any field of science ; yet he essays 
what no single expert would dare, a "clear and con- 
cise exposition of the newest conceptions in science 
in various fields." To an evident lack of informa- 
tion on the older and more fundamental conceptions 
and facts of science, the author adds his attitude of 
the special-pleader for a materialistic philosophy, 
and for fundamental changes in present social 
methods. The critical reader, though not informed 
in the technicalities of science, may readily detect 
fallacies in these parts of the book. 

Everyday life in 

If for no other reason, the dual king- 
dom known as Austria-Hungary is of 
world-wide interest because of the 
strange assemblage of races occupying the domin- 
ions of Emperor Francis Joseph. The Germanic 
Austrians and the Hungarians or Magyars, taken 
together, form less than half of the total popula- 
tion. The majority of Austro-Hungarian peoples 
belong to races which are neither "Austrian" nor 
Hungarian," properly so-called. Most of them 

are of Slavonic origin, — Czechs, Croatians, Servians, 
Ruthenes, Poles, Slovaks, and Austrian Bulgarians, 
Others are of races nearly allied to the Latin group. 
— Roumanians or Wallachians, and Italians. And 
of Jews, Greeks, Turks, and Gipsies, there are not 
a few. There are corresponding differences of lan- 
guage, religion, and habits of life, making it diffi- 
cult to describe in a single volume the characteris- 
tics of such a complex nationality. Yet we find 
this dual kingdom and its people not only intelli- 
gently, but most entertainingly, treated by Mr. 
Francis H. E. Palmer, in "Austro-Hungarian 
Life in Town and Country," issued as a volume 
in "Our European Neighbours" series (Putnam). 
Possibly the author's successful treatment of his 
difficult subject is due to his having already fur- 
nished a volume upon Russian life in the same 
series. With Russian life he repeatedly compares 
what he finds in Austria-Hungary, and he gives 
us an insight into Austro-Hungarian affairs that it 
would be scarcely possible to obtain otherwise than 
through a long residence in the country. 


Mark Twain's " Jumping Frog " in what may be 
called its tri-lingual form is made into a small volume 
of its own by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. The text 
comprises the original English of the tale, then the 
French version as published in the " Revue des Deux 
Mondes," and finally the author's painful reconstruc- 
tion of his pet story, "clawed back into a civilized lan- 
guage once more by patient, unremunerated toil." This 
re- translation is one of the funniest things ever done 
by Mark Twain, and goes well with his commentary on 
the German language. 

Messrs. Herbert S. Stone & Co. publish two com- 
panion volumes respectively entitled " A Book of Amer- 
ican Prose Humor" and " A Book of American Humor- 
ous Verse." The editing is anonymous, but appears 
to be particularly well done in the case of the volume 
of verse. The other volume, representing only a baker's 
dozen of authors, did not offer the same opportunity for 
skilful selection and combination. Both are noteworthy 
for the representation of very recent humorous writing. 

A recent addition to the "Historic Lives" series 
(Appletons) is a volume on Champlain, the founder of 
New France, by Mr. Edwin Asa Dix. The various 
editions of Champlain's "Voyages" seem to have been 
followed closely in collecting the material for the 
sketch, and a number of Champlain's drawings from the 
same source are reproduced. It is a modest and straight- 
forward narrative, devoid of either fulsome eulogy or 
a spirit of disputation. 

Professor William MacDonald's " Select Statutes 
and Other Documents Illustrative of the History of 
the United States, 1861-1898," published by the Mac- 
millan Co., supplements the author's volume of " Select 
Documents," covering the earlier period, in a highly 
satisfactory way. The number of papers given is one 
hundred and thirty-one, beginning with Lincoln's first 
call for volunteers, and ending with the Treaty of Paris. 
Teachers of American history will find this collection 
an invaluable adjunct to their work. 





Anster's translation of the first part of " Faust " is 
added to the series of " Pocket Classics " imported by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Mark Twain is reported to be at work on a new 
novel, which will appear some time this year, with the 
imprint of Messrs. Harper & Brothers. 

Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. will issue this month a 
one-volume life of Napoleon, prepared by Mr. R. M. 
Johnston, recently appointed Austin Teaching Fellow 
at Harvard University. 

" Political Parties and Party Policies in Germany," 
by Professor James Howard Gore, is a pamphlet pub- 
lication of the Messrs. Putnam, issued in their series 
called " Questions of the Day." 

" Machiavelli and the Modern State," three lectures 
delivered at the Royal Institution, London, by Mr. 
Louis Dyer of Harvard University, will be published 
at an early date by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

The " Tannhauser " metrical romance of Herr Julius 
Wolff, translated into English by Mr. Charles G. 
Kendall, makes a two-volume work now published in 
holiday guise by Mr. Richard G. Badger. 

" Sunshine and Love," compiled by Miss Katharine 
G. Spear, is a book of devotional prose, giving selections 
for every day in the year. It is prettily bound in limp 
leather, and published by Messrs. Jennings & Pye. 

Mr. William C. Sprague's "Napoleon Bonaparte," 
published by the A. Wessels Co., is a history written 
for boys, which presents the character of the imperial 
brigand in the popular, rather than the ethical light. 

Mr. E. Phillips Oppenheim, whose novel entitled 
" A Prince of Sinners " attracted attention last year, 
has written a new romance, " Anna, the Adventuress," 
which Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. will publish shortly. 

" Outlines of Greek History," by Professor William 
C. Morey, is a school text-book just published by the 
American Book Co. The book is topical in method, 
illustrated, and furnished with references for outside 

Wycherley and Shadwell (the latter a new volume 
edited by Professor Saintsbury) have been added to the 
new thin-paper edition of the '• Mermaid Series " of 
English dramatists, now being imported by the Messrs. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons send us a third (author- 
ized) edition of " The Gentle Art of Making Enemies," 
by the late James McNeill Whistler. The entertaining 
book will doubtless find amused readers for many years 
to come. 

Herr Wilhelm Meyer-Forster's story of " Old Heidel- 
berg," upon which Mr, Richard Mansfield's latest popu- 
lar play is based, comes to us in an English translation 
by Mr. Max Chapelle, and is published by Messrs. 
Dodge & Metcalf. 

We have received Volume VII. of the " Publications 
of the Mississippi Historical Society," edited by Mr. 
Franklin L. Riley. It is a substantial octavo of more 
than five hundred pages, largely filled with original 
historical material. 

" Joseph and the Land of Egypt," by Professor A. H. 
Sayce, and " Joshua and the Palestinian Conquest," by 
Professor W. H. Bennett, are the latest volumes in the 
" Temple Series of Bible Handbooks " published by the 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Don Pedro A. de Alarcon's " El Nino de la Bola," 
edited by Mr. Rudolph Schwill, is a Spanish text just 
published by the American Book Co. The work is 
abridged to something like half its natural dimensions. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. send us the seventh 
edition, revised, of " Longmans's School Geography," by 
Messrs. George G. Chisholm and C. H. Leete. The 
work is in ordinary book form, with no maps but other 
illustrations in abundance. 

The first book of fiction to be brought out this year by 
the Lothrop Publishing Company will be "The Human 
Touch," a story of Western life. The author. Miss 
Edith K. NichoU, is an English woman,^a daughter of 
the late Dean of Westminster. 

An analysis of Tennyson's " In Memoriam," prepared 
by Mr. Charles Mansford, was printed privately for the 
use of the author's students some fifteen years ago. It 
is now given to the larger public by Messrs. E. P. 
Dutton & Co., who issue the work in a neat volume. 

The Delegates of the Clarendon Press are making 
arrangements for a thorough revision of Liddell and 
Scott's standard " Greek-English Lexicon," under the 
supervision of Mr. Arthur Sidgwick. They solicit con- 
tributions from scholars in the way of corrections or 

Under the general title of " Unknown Heroes of the 
Navy," Mr. Edgar Stanton Maclay is preparing for the 
Baker & Taylor Co. a series that promises to possess 
considerable popular and historical interest. The first 
volume will be devoted to Moses Brown, a captain in 
our navy of the Revolution. 

Mr. Stephen Gwynn, author of "John Maxwell's 
Marriage," has finished his work on "Landmarks of 
Literature," and the Macmillan Co. will publish it within 
a few weeks. Later in the spring the same firm hopes 
to bring out Mr. Gwynn's life of Thomas Moore in the 
" English Men of Letters " series. 

A pamphlet imported by the Messrs. Scribner gives 
us " The Hundred Love Songs of Kamal Ad-Din of 
Ispahan," translated from the Persian by Mr. Louis H. 
Gray, and put into quatrains by Mrs. Ethel Watts 
Mumford. This is stated to be the first translation of 
the work into any occidental language. 

" On the Eve " and " Fathers and Children " are two 
volumes just added to the new subscription edition of 
Tourgu^nieff, published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. The translation is by Miss Hapgood, who also 
supplies an introduction to each novel. The frontis- 
piece illustrations are very happily conceived. 

Mr. Henry E. Krehbiel, the musical critic and lec- 
turer, has furnished an introduction to Kufferath's 
« Parsifal of Richard Wagner," which Messrs. Henry 
Holt & Co. announce for immediate publication. Mr. 
Krehbiel considers this "the best single help to the 
study of ' Parsifal ' with which I am acquainted." 

" A List of Books on the Philippine Islands in the 
Library of Congress," prepared by Mr. A. P. C. Griffin, 
is a recent volume sent us from the Government Print- 
ing Office. It includes references to periodicals, and a 
chronological list of maps compiled by Mr. P. Lee 
Phillips. The whole work makes a volume of four 
hundred pages. 

It is announced that the letters of John Ruskin to 
Charles Eliot Norton are to be published in two volumes 
next autumn by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and 
that, in the meantime, selected portions of this corre- 
spondence will appear in the " Atlantic Monthly." As 



[Feb. 16, 

is well known, Professor Norton was Ruskiu's most 
intimate friend in this country, and the letters are said 
to reveal a naore genial and pleasant side of Ruskin's 
personality than has been shown in any of his corres- 
pondence previously published. 

A text of "General Zoology," by Professor Charles 
Wright Dodge, is published by the American Book Co. 
The work is based upon Orton's " Comparative Zoology," 
one of the most successful of the older treatises upon 
the subject. The same publishers send us a volume of 
" Homeric Stories for Young Readers," retold in simple 
language by Professor Frederic Aldin Hall. 

An " Elementary Guide to Literary Criticism," by 
Professor F. V. N. Painter, is a recent school publica- 
tion of Messrs. Ginn & Co. The aim of the book " is 
to show the student what to look for in the study of 
any literary work." In other words, it is a practical 
rhetoric of an elementary sort, as well as an exposition 
of the elements of excellence in literary productions. 

" The Select Tennyson," edited by Mr. J. Logie 
Robertson, is a volume for school use and for private 
study published by Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 
It includes many of the shorter poems, besides large 
parts of "The Princess" and "In Memoriam." The 
selections are all made from the poet's earlier work 
upon which copyright no longer exists. 

Volume IV. of the " American Art Annual," edited 
by Miss Florence N. Levy, is at hand. This useful 
publication has not been issued during the past two 
years, and so the present volume is really a review of 
the sales, exhibitions, publications, and reports of a 
period of three years. It also includes an index to the 
whole four volumes thus far published. 

" Pendennis " follows " Vanity Fair " in the new 
subscription edition of Thackeray which the Messrs. 
Scribner are engaged in publishing, and fills, like its 
predecessor, three of the thirty-two handsome volumes 
of which this set is to be made up. They are highly 
satisfactory volumes to look at and to handle, and we 
are tempted for their sake alone to read our Thackeray 
all over again. 

An interesting study of " The Philosophy of Ernest 
Renan," by Mr. Herman G. A. Brauer, is a doctoral 
thesis of the University of Wisconsin, and is published 
as a number in the " Philology and Literary Series " of 
that institution. To the " Engineering Series " of the 
University publications a brief paper on " The Progress 
of the Ceramic Industry," by Mr. Edward Orton, has 
just been added. 

The following German texts are sent us by the 
American Book Co: " German Composition," by Mr. 
B. Mack Dresden; " Bunte Geschichten fiir Unfanger," 
by Miss Emma M. Stoltze; a selection of Grimm's 
"Kinder- und Hausmarchen, edited by Professor B. J. 
Vos; and "Undine," edited by Professor J. Henry 
Senger. From Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. we have 
E. Werner's " Heimatklang," edited by Miss Marian 
P. Whitney. 

An undertaking of interest to lovers of fine book- 
making no less than to students of American history 
is announced by the University Press of Cambridge and 
Messrs. A. W. Elson & Co. of Boston, in conjunction. 
This is a series of " Monographs of the American Rev- 
olution," with a hitherto unpublished essay on Thomas 
Jefferson by the late Paul Leicester Ford as the first 
volume. The illustrations will form an important 
feature, consisting in the initial volume of two portraits 

of Jefferson, one an original signed etching by Mr. W. 
H. W. Bicknell and the other a photogravure, and a 
vignette etching of Monticello. The volume will be 
printed upon Imperial Japan paper, in an edition lim- 
ited to 500 copies. 

The publication of Mrs. Irene Grosvenor Wheelock's 
handbook to the " Birds of California " which has been 
postponed several times on account of the elaborate 
nature of its make-up, is now definitely announced for 
the latter part of this month. Mrs. Wheelock's book 
will no doubt take its place as the standard reference 
book on Pacific Coast ornithology. It has been lavishly 
illustrated by Mr. Bruce Horsfall. 

Four new volumes have come to us in the series of 
illustrated reprints published by Messrs. D. Appleton 
& Co. They are: " The Third Tour of Doctor Syntax 
in Search of a Wife," with Rowlandson's colored plates; 
"The National Sports of Great Britain," by Henry 
Aiken, with colored plates; Pierce Egan's " Life in 
London," with colored illustrations by the Cruikshanks; 
and Lover's " Handy Andy," with the author's illus- 
trations in black and white. 

IiisT OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 77 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 


A. History of Modern England. By Herbert Paul. Vols. 
I. and II., each 8vo, gilt top, uncut. Macmillan Co. Per 
vol., $2.50 net. 

The Cambridge Modern History. Planned by the late 
Lord Acton, LL.D.; edited by A. W. Ward, G. W. Proih- 
ero, and Stanley Leatbes. Vol. II.. The Reformation. 
Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 857. Macmillan Ci>. 
$4. net. 

Rocky Mountain Exploration: A Brief History, with 
Especial Reference to the Expedition of Lewis and Clark. 
By Reuben Gold Thwaites. lUus., 12mo, pp. 276. " Ex- 
pansion of the Republic Series." D. Appleton & Co. 
$1.25 net. 

Madiseval England : Enelish Feudal Society from the Nor- 
man Conquest to the Middle of the Fourteenth Century. 
By Mary Bateson. Illus., 12mo, pp. 448. ** Story of the 
Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.35 net. 

The Real Birth-Date of Columbus, 1451 : A Critical Study. 
With a Bibliography. By Henry Vignaud. 12mo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 121. London: Henry Stevens, Son & 


Abraham Lincoln and his Presidency. By Joseph H. 
Barrett, LL.L). In 2 vols., illus.. large 8vo, gilt tops, 
uncut. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke Co. $5. net. 

Samuel Chapman Armstrong: A Biographical Study. 
By Edith Armstrong Talbot. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, un- 
cut, pp. 301. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50 net. 

Memorials of Mary Wilder White: A Century Ago in 
New England. By Elizabeth Amelia Dwight ; edited by 
Mary Wilder Tileston. Illus. in photogravure, large 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 409. Boston : Everett Press Co. 
$2.50 net. 

The Story of the Lopez Family: A Page from the His- 
tory of the War in the Philippines. Edited by Canning 
Eyot. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 217. Boston: 
James H. West Co. $1. 


English Literature: An Illustrated Record. By Richard 
Garnett, C.B., and Edmund Gosse, M.A. Vols. II. and 
IV., completing the work. Illus. in color, photogravure, 
etc., 4to, gilt tops, uncut. Mitcmillan Co, Per vol., $6. net. 

Essays and Addresses, 1900-1903. By the Right Hon. 
Lord Avebury, P.C. Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 296. 
Macmillan Co. $3. net. 




Eighteenth Century Essays on Shakespeare. Edited 

by D. Nichol Smith, M.A. Large 8vo, uncat, pp. 358. 

Macmillan Co. $3. 
Points at Issue, and Some Other Points. By Henry A . 

Beers. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 273. Macmillan Co. 

$1.50 net. 


Evelina; or. The History of a Young Lady's Entrance into 
the World. By Fanny Barney ; with Introduction by 
Austin Dobson ; illus. by Hugh Thomson. 12mo, gilt 
edges, pp. 477. " Cranford Series." Macmillan Co. $2. 

Pendennis. By William Makepeace Thackeray. "Ken- 
sington" edition; in 3 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., 
Kvo, gilt tops, uncut. Charles Scribner's Sons. (Sold only 
by subscription.) 

The Poems of Philip Freneau, Poet of the American 
Revolution. Ekiited for the Princeton Historical Associa- 
tion by Fred Lewis Pattee. Vol. II., large 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 407. Princeton University Library. 83. net. 

The Defence of Guenevere, and Other Poems. By Will- 
iam Morris. 16mo, gilt top, pp. 248. Longmans, Green, 

The Third Tour of Doctor Syntax in Search of a Wife. 
Illus. in color by Thomas Rowlandson. 16mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 265. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

Handy Andy : A Tale of Irish Life. By Samuel Lover ; 
illus. by the author. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 444. 
D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

The National Sports of Great Britain. By Henry Aiken. 
Illus. in color, 16mo, gilt top, uncut. D. Appleton & Co. 

Life in London. By Pierce Egan ; illus. in color, etc., by 
I. R. and G. Crnikshank. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 297. 
D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 


The Dynasts : A Drama of the Napoleonic Wars, in Three 
Parts, Nineteen Acts, and One Hundred and Thirty 
Scenes. By Thomas Hardy. Part First ; 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 234. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

The Divine Vision, and Other Poems. By A. E. 12mo, 
gilt top, pp. 123. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 


My Friend Prospero. By Henry Harland. With frontis- 
piece, 12mo, pp. 317. McClure, Phillips & Co. $1..50. 

The American Prisoner : A Romance of the West Coun- 
try. By Eden Phillpotts. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 501. 
Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Lux Crucis: A Tale of the Great Apostle. By Samuel M. 
Gardenhire. 12mo, pp. 392. Harper & Brothers. $150. 

Sylvia's Husband, By Mrs. Burton Harrison. 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 221. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25. 

A Little Garrison: A Realistic Novel of German Army 
Life of To-day. By Fritz von der Kyrburg (Lieutenant 
Bilse); trans, and edited by Wolf von Schierbrand. 12mo, 
pp. 308. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 

Said the Fisherman. By Marmaduke Pickthall. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 302. McClure, Phillips & Co. $1.50. 

From Paris to New York by Land. By Harry De 

Windt, F.R.G.S. Illus., 8vo, pp. 311. Frederick Warne 

& Co. $3. net. 
The Great Northwest and the Great Lake Region of 

North America. By Paul Fountain. Large 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 355. Longmans, Green, & Co. $4. 
The Adventurer in Spain. By S. R. Crockett. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 338. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 
Turkish Life in Town and Country. By Lucy M. J. 

Garnett. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 336. "Our European 

Neighbours." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.20 net. 


Religions of Authority, and the Religion of the Spirit. 
By Auguste Sabatier; trans, by Louise Seymour Hough- 
ton, Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 410. McClure, Phil- 
lips & Co. $3 50 net. 

The New^ Testament in the Christian Church: Eight 
Lectures. By Edward Caldwell Moore. 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 367. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Liberal Christianity: Its Origin, Nature, and Mission. By 
Jean R^ville ; trans, and edited by Victor Leuliette. 
12mo, pp. 205. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

The Story of Our Lord's Life. By Maud Montgomery. 

Illus. in color, 12mo, pp. 163. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

90 cts. net. 
Natural Salvation : The Message of Science outlining the 

First Principles of Immortal Life on the Earth. By C. A. 

Stephens, M.D. 12mo, pp. 121. Norway Lake, Maine: 

The Laboratory. 
The Congregational Way: A Handbook of Congregational 

Principles and Practices. By George M. Boynton. 12mo, 

gilt top, pp. 221. Pilgrim Press. 75 cts. 
From Agnosticism to Theism. By Charles F. Dole. 12mo, 

pp. 29. Boston : James H. West Co. 30 cts. 


Fatigue. By A. Mosso; trans, by Margaret Drummond, 
M.A., and W. B. Drummond, M,B, 12mo, pp. 334. 
"Science Series." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

Electric Traction: A Practical Handbook on the Applica- 
tion of Electricity as a Locomotive Power. By John 
Hall Rider. Illus., 12mo, pp. 453. "The Specialists' 
Series." Macmillan Co. $3. net. 

Testing of Electro-Magnetic Machinery and Other Ap- 
paratus. By Bernard Victor Swenson, E.E., and Budd 
Frankenfield, E E. Vol. I., Direct Currents. Illus., 8vo, 
pp. 420. Macmillan Co. $3. net. 


The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in 
Modern Times. By W. Cunningham, D.D. In 2 vols., 
large 8vo, uncut. Macmillan Co. $7.50 net. 

The Policy and Administration of the Dutch in Java. 
By Clive Day, Ph.D. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 434. 
Macmillan Co. $2. net. 

The English Statutes in Maryland. By St. George 
Leakin Sioussat, Ph.D. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 111. Bal- 
timore : Johns Hopkins University. Paper, 50 cts. 

Who's Who, 1904: An Annual Biographical Dictionary. 

12mo, pp. 1700. Macmillan Co. $2. net. 
Recuiel de Locutions Fran^aises. Par Armand-Georges 

Billaudeau ; ouvrage soigneusement revu par A. Antoine. 

Large 8vo, pp. 452, New York : G, E, Stechert, $2,50, 
Howe's Handbook of Parliamentary Usage. By Frank 

William Howe. ISmo, pp. 54. New York : Hinds & 

Noble. 50 cts. 


Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the 42d 
Annual Meeting of the National Educational Association, 
Held at Boston, July 6-10, 1903. Large 8vo, pp. 1080. 
Winona, Minn : Published by the Association. 

Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 
1902. Vol. 2, 8vo, pp. 1200. Government Printing Office. 

A Synoptic Text-Book of Zoology, for Colleges and 
Schools. By Arthur Wisswald Weysse, A.M. Illus., large 
8vo, pp. 545. Macmillan Co. $4. net. 

Principles of Political Economy. By Charles Gide. Sec- 
ond American edition ; re-translated by C. William A. 
Veditz, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 705. D. C. Heath & Co. $2. 

Demosthenes on the Crown. Edited by William Watson 
Goodwin, Hon. LL.D. 12mo, pp. 296. Macmillan Co. 
$1.10 net. 

New Physical Geography. By Ralph S. Tarr, B.S. Illus., 
12mo, pp. 457. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

A First Book in Latin. By Hiram Tuell, A.M., and Harold 
North Fowler, Ph.D. Revised edition ; illus., 12mo, 
pp. 300. Benj. H. Sanborn & Co. $1. 

Elementary Plane Geometry. By James McMahon. 12mo, 
pp. 358. American Book Co. 90 cts. 

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1904] THE DIAL 135 

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MARCH 1, 1904. Vol. XXXVL 





Eleanor Harrows 140 


Bryant's Index Expurgatorius. Q. B. S. 


Percy F. Bicknell 143 

AN EPIC OF QUEEN BESS. Charles Leonard 

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A LATTER-DAY PEPYS. Josiah Renick Smith . 152 


Kofoid 155 

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NOTES 163 




The public university supported by taxation, 
and forming the keystone in the educational 
arch of the Commonwealth, offers one of the 
most familiar, and at the same time one of the 
most distinctive features of the American sys- 
tem. In our Western and Southern States, 
indeed, this part of the educational machinery 
is so taken for granted as both necessary and 
logical that we should find much difficulty in 
dismissing it from the terms of our thinking 
about educational matters. That the State uni- 
versity is the logical outcome of our national 
attitude toward education will be admitted with- 
out much argument. We believe it a para- 
mount duty of the State to provide for the free 
education of its citizens, and that principle 
once accepted, the question of how far public 
education shall be carried becomes one of mere 
expediency, of ways and means only, involving 
no fundamental principle whatever. It is ob- 
vious that the education provided at the publio 
charge should be the best that is demanded by 
intelligent opinion, the best that is justified by 
economic conditions. 

On the other hand, it is equally evident from 
our educational history that the public univer- 
sity is not necessary in the sense that we should 
have no higher education at all without it. 
That agency failing us, we should still have 
private institutions of learning, and these, if 
in unrestricted occupancy of the field, would 
undoubtedly be much more numerous than they 
now are, possibly numerous enough to make up 
fully for the failure of the community to recog- 
nize its higher responsibilities. The fact that 
a national ideal which leaves to private initia- 
tive so many matters fostered by government 
support in other countries has not been willing 
to leave this matter also to take care of itself 
offers convincing evidence of the seriousness 
with which we confront our duties in the edu- 
cational field. Hardly any other nation even 
now confronts those duties as seriously as we 
do ; no other nation has a record as long and 
consistent as ours for recognition of this solemn 
educational obligation of the State. 

The early history of college education in 



[March 1, 

America is not only interesting in itself, and 
even romantic at times, but it is also singularly 
instructive in the light which it throws upon 
the persistency of the national attitude toward 
education. Mr. Elmer Ellsworth Brown, the 
author of a recent publication of the Univer- 
sity of California, entitled " The Origin of 
American State Universities," has made an 
interesting study of the conditions surrounding 
the higher education in our early history, the 
influences that shaped our pioneer colleges, 
and the tendencies that at last resulted in the 
type of institution now known as the State 
university. It is the case with nations as well 
as individuals that ideals which eventually 
become distinctly defined originate in some 
semi-conscious impulse, and grope their way 
toward complete realization. This is notably 
the case with the American ideal of the higher 
public education, as Mr. Brown makes clear 
in the course of his investigation. That all 
education, the highest no less than the lowest, 
must be a matter of public concern, is a cor- 
ollary from the very principle of democracy, 
and the gradual establishment of this view 
in our polity is the subject of an important 
chapter in the history of our institutional evo- 

The colonial period in America witnessed 
the foundation of nine colleges, of which the list 
is as follows: Harvard (1636), William and 
Mary(1693), Yale (1701), Princeton (1746), 
Pennsylvania (1753), King's, afterwards Co- 
lumbia (1754), Brown (1764), Queens, after- 
wards Rutgers (1766), and Dartmouth ( 1769). 
All were established primarily for the purpose 
of religious instruction ; but all showed early 
tendencies to escape from that limitation. Gen- 
erally speaking, these colleges, whatever the 
ecclesiastical organization for which they stood, 
were tolerant enough in their conditions of 
membership. Also generally speaking, they 
received from the State some measure of sup- 
port, either directly or indirectly — by money 
appropriations, land grants, exemption from 
taxation or permissive legislation in the matter 
of lotteries — and in return for these favors, 
the State claimed a certain degree of control 
over the colleges. As the period of the Rev- 
olution drew near, there came to be a growing 
consciousness on the part of the public that 
the colleges were somehow failing to respond 
to the needs of the commonwealth. They 
remained sectarian in management, and their 
close-corporation type of government prevented 

them from serving as representative agencies 
of a plastic society tending to shape itself upon 
lines more and more democratic. We conse- 
quently find that resolute attempts were made, 
beginning some time before the Revolution 
and extending many years beyond it, to enlarge 
the scope of governmental control, and to con- 
vert these essentially private corporations into 
quasi-public institutions. 

These attempts failed all along the line. 
They were particularly persistent, before the 
Revolution, in the cases of Yale and King's ; 
after the Revolution they were continued in 
these cases and several others, the movement 
receiving its couiJ de grace in 1819, when the 
adjudication of the Supreme Court, in the 
leading case of Dartmouth College, forever 
settled the long-vexed question. This case is 
chiefly famous because of its wide bearings, 
and because it enforced in unmistakable terms 
the Constitutional provision prohibiting a State 
from making any law impairing the obligation 
of contracts. In its educational significance, 
which alone concerns us here, it meant that the 
charters of the colonial colleges were not sub- 
ject to revison, in the sense of enlarged State 
control, by legislative enactment. Webster's 
masterly argument disposed of that question 
for good, and thus transformed the whole 
movement for making public institutions out 
of the existing colleges into a movement for 
the establishment of new institutions under 
the complete control of the State. 

The nearest colonial approach to a State 
university as we understand the expression was 
probably offered by Harvard in its earliest 
days. "Up to 1650," says Mr. Brown, "it 
was as nearly like a state university as the 
colony was like a modern state." But it lost 
much of this character after an amendment to 
the charter enlarged the powers of the Corpo- 
ration. We have seen how the attempts to 
make state institutions out of the other col- 
leges were marked by failure, although Penn- 
sylvania, Columbia, and Dartmouth " had each 
its brief term of service as a State institu- 
tion." Soon after the Revolution the movement 
for permanent State universities took definite 
shape, and the Southern States were the first 
to make such establishments. The legislature 
of North Carolina erected a State university in 
1789, and the legislature of South Carolina 
in 1801 followed the example thus set by its 
neighbors. In the Old Dominion, after re- 
peated attempts to transform the ancient foun- 




dation of William and Mary bad been thwarted, 
the efforts of Thomas Jefferson to establish a 
true State institution came to fruition, and in 
1819, the year of the Dartmouth College de- 
cision, the University of Virginia entered upon 
its honorable and influential career. 

The chief opportunity, however, for the ex- 
ercise of this new governmental function first 
clearly recognized in the South was to be found 
in the new Northwest. Here was a field free 
for experiment, and unhampered by any insti- 
tutional inheritance. Congress had already 
prepared the way by providing the Territory 
with a fundamental law in the form of that 
great Ordinance which has been the Magna 
Charta of the liberties of five great common- 
wealths. Congress had also, in its character 
as universal landed proprietor, devoted to the 
educational purposes of the future a not incon- 
siderable fraction of the national domain. The 
history of State universities in the Northwest is 
not easy to present in simple outline, because 
of the gradual stages by which the several in- 
stitutions have come to their full growth. Ohio 
University was chartered in 1804, the year 
after the admission of the State, but it re- 
ceived no public support except from the Con- 
gressional grants of land. Ohio is thus in a 
way descredited educationally, in spite of its 
forty colleges (mostly small and sectarian), 
and in spite of the fact that in the University 
of Cincinnati it offers a pioneer example of 
the public city university which is bound to be 
one of the general educational developments 
of the future. Indiana and Illinois, which 
come next in the order of statehood, have 
done better. The University of the former 
commonwealth has a history beginning with 
the Indiana Seminary of 1820, and the Uni- 
versity of the sister State, growing out of the 
Industrial University chartered in 1867, has 
made up for its youth by its rapid recent de- 

It is to Michigan and Wisconsin, however, 
the last two States organized in the North- 
western Territory, that we must look for ex- 
amples of the American State university in its 
most typical form. These strongly- manned 
and generously-supported institutions, making 
their influence felt in every county and town 
of their respective States, have for the first 
time shown what higher education at the public 
charge may mean, and have thus set examples 
and served as models, not only for their less 
progressive neighbor-commonwealths, but also 

for nearly all the newer States of the West and 
Southwest, the States made out of the Louis- 
iana Purchase, the territory wrested from 
Mexico, and the Oregon country. Both Mich- 
igan and Wisconsin took the lead at the very 
start in the matter of public higher education, 
and have never had to contend against import- 
ant or richly-endowed private foundations. It 
was as early as 1817, long before Michigan 
became a State, that the territorial legislature 
called into being the " Catholepistemiad or 
University of Michigan," although the institu- 
tion, under its more chastened modern desig- 
nation, was not opened for students until a 
quarter of a century later. The founding of 
the University of Wisconsin dates from 1848, 
having been coincident with the creation of the 
State itself. The influence of these two great 
institutions upon the educational development 
of the West has been very marked. They have 
set the pace, as it were, for the institutions of 
similar type that have been organized during 
the last fifty years in a score or more of the 
Western and Southern States. They have also 
shown, for the first time, that the State univer- 
sity may be so liberally planned, and brought 
to so high a degree of efficiency, as fairly to 
rival the rich private foundations of an earlier 

The large endowments of the great private 
university corporations are doubtless imposing, 
but the potential endowment of a flourishing 
State university, backed by the public opinion 
of a populous commonwealth, should be found 
even more so. Not only does the " plant " 
exhibited at such places as Madison and Ann 
Arbor compare favorably in impressiveness 
with what may be seen at Ithaca or New Haven, 
but their regular annual appropriations, if 
capitalized, would represent totals of the same 
order of magnitude as those represented by 
the invested funds of the private corporations 
concerned in this comparison. And the pos- 
sibilities of growth, in the case of the State 
university, are not limited by the generosity 
of a few wealthy individuals, but are as bound- 
less as the wealth of the whole community. 
And even, as the University of California has 
recently shown us, the State institution may 
become the mark for private philanthropy as 
well as the object of public expenditure, thus 
uniting both sources of supply in a common 
beneficent aim. 

We have no idea that public competition in 
the matter of university education will ever 



[March 1, 

force the private institutions out of existence. 
The experience of the last thirty years, marked 
as it is by such foundations as Johns Hopkins, 
Bryn Mawr, Clark, Stanford, and Chicago, 
makes it fairly evident that we shall have new 
private universities in increasing numbers. 
But the State establishments must henceforth 
be counted as worthy competitors in this field 
•of generous rivalry. In the course of time we 
«hall also have tax-supported colleges in our 
larger cities, for this must be the natural course 
of development of our city high schools. And 
all these institutions, public and private, will 
tend more and more to offer public service in 
the broadest sense, and to discourage all nar- 
row aims and antiquated methods. The only 
sufferers in this competition will be the insti- 
tutions that ought to suffer — those that offer 
an indignity to the very spirit of education by 
setting some form of sectarian teaching in the 
foreground of their activities, those that do not 
encourage the most absolute freedom of teach- 
ing and investigation, those that remain so hide- 
bound in tradition as to be unable to adapt 
themselves to the ever-changing and ever-broad- 
ening demands of an advancing civilization. 
In this light, we may await without alarm the 
survival of the fittest among educational types, 
and view without a pang the disappearance of 
those that are based upon prejudice and con- 
secrated to outworn creeds. 

There is evidence upon every hand that we 
are now in a -fair way of approach toward the 
realization of the principle " that no sort of 
higher education can possibly be a merely 
private concern," that all the types of univer- 
sity management " are leading up to the one 
type of American university, which is that of 
an institution ministering liberally and con- 
stantly to the higher life of the people and of 
all the people." These words of our author 
are enforced by a series of striking quotations 
from Governor Livingston of New York, one 
of the most enlightened educational thinkers 
of the eighteenth century. It would not be 
easy to improve upon the following programme, 
which was framed by Livingston exactly a cen- 
tury and a half ago : 

" The true use of education is to qualify men for the 
different employments of life to which it may please 
God to call them. 'Tis to improve their hearts and 
understandings, to infuse a public spirit and love of 
their Country; to inspire them with the principles of 
honor and probity ; with a fervent zeal for liberty, and 
a diffusive benevolence for mankind; and in a word, to 
make them more extensively serviceable to the Com- 


In these days of abbreviations and brusqueness, 
when the diction and manners of shop-girls and 
political rings penetrate even college circles, when 
f eve people take time for the formalities and graces 
that dignify and beautify social intercourse, vre 
rejoice that a new biography, a reprint of his here- 
tofore uncollected essays, and another edition of 
" Marius the Epicurean," turn our attention once 
more to Walter Pater. He appears like a courte- 
ous gentleman of the old school. Coarseness and 
slanginess did not seem to him necessary concom- 
itants of virility. He is not a mere stylist : most, 
of the critical judgments in his works on "The 
Renaissance" and "Plato and Platonism" are 
sound, and the scholarship evinced in " Marius the 
Epicurean " is genuine and broad ; yet nothing of 
haste or shoddiness mars his thought or its expres- 
sion. That he lived "unspotted from the world," 
his life, his love of truth and beauty, and his per- 
sonal charm, all indicate. 

We know Pater, not from outward life and posi- 
tion, but from his inward experiences, embodied in 
pages where thoughtful heroes — Marius, Gaston, 
Sabastian, Emerald Uthwart, and the rest — pace 
with stately mein. Still, it may be interesting to 
recall that, born in London in 1839, of Catholic 
parents, he was descended from Watteau's pupil 
Pater, — for, as one stands before the small pictures 
of Pater, the eighteenth-century French artist in 
the collection La Caze in the Louvre to-day, he 
sees the origin of some of the English critic's love 
of delicate colors and restful charm. When twenty- 
two years old. Pater was graduated from Queen's 
College, Oxford, and placed by the examiners in 
the second class, where Matthew Arnold's name 
stood eighteen years before. After becoming Fel- 
low of Brasenose in 1865, he never severed his con- 
nection with that college, being always a lecturer, 
and eventually dean. But even if the setting of 
his life plays little part in our knowledge of him, 
we are glad to hear from Mr. Gosse and Mr. Sharpe 
that he was a pale-faced, thick-set man, walking 
heavUy, almost as if lame, fond of young people as 
well as of golden light, — though we almost knew 
beforehand that his rooms, furnished in blue, were 
characterized by "delicate austerity," and feel as 
though we had already seen the Wedgewood vase 
full of flowers standing against the soft yellow wall- 
paper, the two bronze ornaments of fine Italian work- 
manship, and the Lucca della Robbia Madonna on 
his walls. Nor are we surprised that the creator 
of the sensitive Marius did not enjoy walking under 
an overhanging rock, that snakes disturbed his calm, 
that the fragrance of white jonquil and syringa 
almost gave him pain, while meadow-sweet brought 
a sudden "fugitive sense of distant pastures and 
twilight eves and remote scattered hamlets." 

Yet, well as we know this quiet Oxford writer, 
we are ahnost at a loss with whom to compare him. 




In English letters, his eight volumes of criticism and 
imaginary portraits stand alone, suggesting neither 
predecessor nor contempoi'ary. Still, it may not. be 
too strained to discover resemblances between his 
spirit and that of the fifteenth century Florentine 
painter, Sandro Botticelli. Perhaps in comparing 
the two we must eliminate from Botticelli something 
of his quaintness. Yet, as Bacon says, "There is 
no excellent art that hath not some strangeness in 
the proportion," and our sense of meeting an old- 
fashioned gentleman, when we see Pater, may be a 
lesser degree of the feeling with which we survey 
the figured gowns and oddly imagined flowers in 
Botticelli's pictures. Naturally, they share those 
primal attributes, the final test of an artist's genu- 
ineness, — reverence for truth, and supreme care for 
beauty as its only complete expression; attributes 
so mixed that each was both philosopher, grasping 
firmly fundamental principles, and artist, infinitely 
interested in details of form. Botticelli writes a 
commentary on the Divine Comedy, yet rarely fails 
to wreathe the roses or coil the silken scarfs about 
his angels' heads. And Pater, interpreter of Plato, 
so demands beautiful words that his caricature is 
the heartless Mr. Rose, cold devotee of art for art's 
sake, walking through the pages of Mallock's "New 
Republic." So united in both men is the love of 
ideas and a sense of concrete images, that each is 
kin to Pater's contemplative Marius, to whom, with 
all his abstract speculation, the word " home " must 
always have presented a pale red-and-yellow marble 
house, " with two centuries of sea-wind in the velvet 
of the mosses, along its inaccessible ledges," where 
the small glazed windows framed " the pallid crags 
of Carrara like wildly twisted snow-drifts above the 
purple heaths." Moreover, because of their devo- 
tion to truth and beauty, both take unusual pains 
in their task of pressing thought and feeling into 
form, — as a result of which carefulness, the work 
exhibits singular freedom from exaggeration, a 
kind of disciplined restraint. That this seeming 
passivity expresses reserve power and not weakness, 
Botticelli's " Calumny," — so full of vehement im- 
petuosity that even the statues in their niches join 
the action, — and the strong human tragedy of 
Emerald Uthwart, testify. 

However, not simply the common property of 
artists, but more special individual traits, do Pater 
and Botticelli hold in common. Like his hero 
Marius, Pater's " first boyish sense of priesthood, 
the sense of dedication," survived, and so strength- 
ened that at the time of his death he contemplated 
taking orders ; and we read that Botticelli, turning 
from his painting, became a follower of Savonarola, 
although the stern Monk of San Marco doubtless 
thought the artist's Venus only fit for burning on 
the Pile of Vanities. The world of neither reveals 
the child's certain God, at hand to ward off evil 
giants in the dark. 

But if theirs is the maturer insight that knows 
the difference between faith and knowledge, they 
respond no less fully to the divine suggestiveness 

of common things, — the faint shadows of pigeons 
against a white wall, moving heads of golden grain 
beneath the wind, the curve of the green wave be- 
fore it breaks. For each, too, the world had lost 
something of its careless, primitive blitheness. As 
a rule, the Greeks emphasized the type, and rested 
happy in their sense of Nature's stability. Did not 
the Homeric sea forever wash the bases of moun- 
tains, the purple clusters and green olives return 
each year? and were not the soft cream Doric 
columns prominent against the sky's deep blue, 
friendly to the laws of Zeus, and to be depended 
upon as Mother Demeter herself ? Not permanent 
types, but changing individuals, compose the world 
of Pater and Botticelli ; men and women wounded, 
like Amf ortas with the Saviour's spear, from which 
they blindly shrink. The fleetingness of life, its 
wistful vistas and sad mysteries, are a large part 
of their conception ; and whether it be the " cer- 
tain fresh way " the leaves of Florian's poplar 
have of " dealing with the wind, making it sound 
in never so slight a stirring of the air like rvm- 
ning water," or Marius's " upright stone, still with 
mouldering garlands about it," marking the heaven- 
touched spot where the lightning had struck dead 
the ancient laborer, whether it be the limpness of 
the Madonna's hold upon her baby, or the droop- 
ing head of the Spring Goddess, their lovely images 
usually border the fountains of tears. 

Born of their conception of individuals, in ever- 
changing relations, a sensitiveness to the compro- 
mises that knit the universe together distinguishes 
both men. Botticelli, as Pater himself suggests, is 
interested neither in Paradise nor Inferno, but in 
the great middle-world between the two. All of 
his angels have a human look. On every page of 
Pater lie subtle distinctions, the blending shades 
always spanning the spaces between black and 
white. It is the modern relative spirit. No tinge 
of the coldness of the partisan toward all but the 
favorite truth lingers in him, none of the bitter- 
ness of the cynic, no trace of the metallic imper- 
viousness of the dogmatist to whatever contradicts 
his theory. Whether we read his delineation of 
Gaston de Latour, perceptibly incorporating the 
form and color of the Chartres Cathedral ; or of 
Watteau, the court painter, cherishing his lovely 
dreams amid sordid actualities ; whether he tells 
us that we come to Michael Angelo's figures in the 
Sacristy of San Lorenzo, "for solemnity, for dignity 
of impression perhaps, but not for consolation," 
or defines the qualities of style as mind and soul, 
"reasonable structure " and " color and mystic per- 
fume," we feel his to be the " intellectual finesse " 
and "tender and delicate justice in the criticism of 
human life " of which he writes. 

Indeed, Pater and Botticelli always possess to a 
large degree that of which they treat. That is, both 
men illustrate Maeterlinck's saying, "nothing be- 
falls us that is not of the nature of ourselves." The 
subjectivity of Botticelli's ideal of beauty makes his 
Madonna and his Venus twin sisters. And in spite 



[March 1, 

of Pater's singular catholicity of sympathy, furnish- 
ing him insight into lives dissimilar as Winkelman's 
and Wordsworth's, Plato's and Lucca della Rohbia's, 
he usually detects in his object certain qualities of 
feeling his own soul knows : in Charles Lamb, a dis- 
interested practice of literature, treatment of prose 
style as an art, and criticism as appreciation ; in 
Rossetti, a "sustained impressibility toward the mys- 
terious conditions of man's everyday life," giving 
"a singular gravity to all his work"; in Raphael, 
a power of painstaking and joining of the philoso- 
pher's mind to the artist's hand. In his "Imaginary 
Portraits " this subjectivity is even more conscious. 
Pater is our comrade, whatever the time or place, 
— whether we enter with Marius the presence of 
Marcus Aurelius, skate with Sabastian Van Stork 
in an Ostade landscape, or, enclosed by bare white 
walls, dream with Emerald Uthwart of the rose per- 
fumes of his mother's garden. 

But Pater and Botticelli resemble one another 
not merely in their union of philosophic and ar- 
tistic susceptibilities, in their sense of the shadow 
of change upon men's faces, in their belief in the 
relativity of truth, and in their subjective tempera- 
ment ; nor is it these characteristics chiefly that 
endear them to the hearts of their lovers. There 
is also that ever midefined quality which we call 
"charm," for they both belong to that group of 
artists who, as Pater says, " have a distinct faculty 
of their own by which they convey to us a peculiar 
quality of pleasure." In each we find a "profound 
expressiveness," that " seal " upon his work " of 
what is most inward and peculiar in his moods and 
manner of apprehension." This charm, this per- 
sonality, sounding gently through the mask of form, 
lives in the lines of Botticelli's angels' feet, his 
fluted shells and spiral candles, the curved limbs of 
his Graces beneath their diaphanous draperies, the 
leafy decorations of his PaUas. And hardly less is 
it visible in the turns of Pater's sinuous sentences, 
his favorite images, his delight in participles and 
words in "ness," touching with strangeness and 
wistfulness, loveliness and expressiveness, his style, 
marking it ever with the " intimate impress of an 
indwelling soul." 

Nevertheless, for all his charm, Pater's genuine 
audience never wUl be large. He has neither ex- 
horted men to act, nor chosen themes of universal 
interest. The very delicacy of his discernment and 
the exquisite nicety of his expression involve a want 
of incisiveness in his style, so that his thoughts slide 
smoothly over inattentive, weary, or unsympathetic 
readers, leaving little mark. In addition to this de- 
ficiency of emphasis, his style lacks that most pop- 
ular literary excellence, — the chief nerve of epic, 
novel, and drama, — motion. It is the smooth- 
surfaced lake reflecting perfectly calm trees, shining 
reeds, and cloud-crossed sky, not the on-rushing 
stream sweeping aU before it ; and so dull and rest- 
less is the human mind that placidity, however 
beautiful, soon wearies most men. Yet such is the 
law of compensation, that to some writers, of genius 

neither the greatest nor the most popular, is meeded 
by their comparatively few intimates a share of love 
inordinately large. So, although Pater's are neither 
the unmeasured heights of the Shakespeares and Mil- 
tons, nor the foot-hills of the Macaulays and Longf el- 
lows peopled with crowds, perhaps a few, untempted 
by the loftiest peaks, and shunning the swarming 
lesser ridges, always maybe found on his unassuming 
summit, calmed by the charming vistas of his broad 
and quiet view. Mary Eleanor Barrows. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

The list of forbidden words and phrases prepared by 
William CuUen Bryant for the guidance of his subor- 
dinates on the New York Evening Post has often been 
reprinted as law and gospel for those that would speak 
and write correctly. A few itenas have been dropped, 
having passed into good usage since Bryant's time, I 
wish to draw my pen through a few more, hoping others 
will follow my example, until the cancellation becomes 
too broad and black to be erased. 

First, the prepositions " over " and " above " are for- 
bidden in the sense of " more than." I may, it appears, 
call myself under ninety, but not over eighty; I may 
count from one up to one hundred; I may speak of the 
higher numbers and the lower numbers; but I must not, 
80 far as the interdicted prepositions are concerned, 
conceive of my numeration as ascending. I rebel. 
The usage is convenient and time-saving. In case of 
any possible ambiguity, I will cheerfully use the circum- 
locution "more than"; but where no such misunder- 
standing is possible I choose the shorter form. The 
Germans have adopted an exactly analagous usage with- 
out fear and without reproach. Furthermore, see I. Cor. 
XV. 6. " He was seen of above five hundred brethren." 

More briefly, I wish to defend the use of " reliable." 
Its formation is illogical, it is true; but so is that of 
some words similarly formed and now in good and 
regular standing, as laughable, indispensable, unaccount- 
able, available, objectionable, perishable, marriageable. 
The purist must yield here to the claims of convenience 
and custom. Again, why such an outcry against the 
word " deceased " ? Used both participially and sub- 
stantively, it fills a gap. Shakespeare did not scruple 
to write, " this gentleman . . . deceased as he was 
born." Another forbidden word is " standpoint." But 
we now have good authority for its use. If our Teu- 
tonic cousins may regard a thing from their standpunct, 
why may not we from ours? " Endorse," in the sense 
of " approve " is also on the list. Is it because of its too 
vivid suggestions of commerce and bill-brokerage? Yet 
all terms, however abstract, had once their concrete 
meaning. Moreover, we find the word in this derived 
sense as far back as Sir Thomas More. " Day before 
yesterday " is put under the ban. We are told to say 
"the day before yesterday." This is finical. The 
article was made for man, not man for the article. 

Finally, Mr. Editor, with all due respect for the de- 
ceased, I hope over ten thousand of your readers will 
endorse my opinion and adopt my standpoiat in regard- 
ing Bryant's strictures as no longer wholly reliable. 

Maiden, Mass., February 20, 1904. 




t Ittto g00hs. 

Armstrong and the Hampton School..* 

The race question, like poverty, we have 
always with us ; but never has so much and 
80 intelligent thought been given to it as now. 
Dealing historically and practically with our 
negro problem, and more briefly with the In- 
dian question, Mrs. Talbot's life of her father, 
General Armstrong, is instructive as well as 
interesting. From Armstrong himself, and 
later from his distinguished pupil at Tuskegee, 
we have learned the only hopeful method of 
dealing with our inferior races ; and this book 
emphasizes and illustrates the doctrines held 
by these men. But, turning a little aside from 
such weighty matters, let us direct our atten- 
tion more especially to the inspiring person- 
ality of the founder of the Hampton school. 
The tardy appearance of his biography, eleven 
years after his death, is probably owing to his 
express request that no life of him should be 
written. Yet the author thinks now, in view of 
the good influence such a book cannot fail to 
exert, that he would not raise unreasonable ob- 
jections to its publication. 

Samuel Chapman Armstrong was fortunate 
in his parentage and in the scene of his birth. 
His father was of Scotch-Irish extraction, his 
mother a Massachusetts woman, and he was 
born on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 
where his father was settled as a missionary. 
The fine climate and noble scenery of that 
beautiful archipelago, together with the best 
of home influences, were favorable to healthy 
physical, mental, and moral development ; and 
when the young man made his way to Williams 
College and the lecture room of Mark Hopkins, 
he was well equipped for the position of leader- 
ship he so easily and naturally assumed. Gen- 
ius, as Mr. Barrie has defined it, is the power 
to be a boy again at will. Armstrong never 
outgrew or wished to outgrow the boy that was 
in him, and it was the rollicking effervescence 
of youthful spirits that carried him triumph- 
antly over obstacles which others called insur- 
mountable. But before coming to these a few 
words of his descriptive of Hawaiian life must 
be given. He was one of eight children, the 
family resources were small, and he early 
learned the meaning of hard work. At school 

* Samuel Chapman Armstrong. A Biographical Study. 
By Edith Armstrong Talbot. Illustrated. New York: 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 

— the Royal School at Punahou — Kalakaua 
and Liliuokalani, afterward king and queen, 
were among his playmates. Here is his de- 
scription of the Kawaiahao church, where his 
father preached to 2600 people who swarmed 
to hear him from miles around. 

"Outside it was like an encampment; inside it was 
a sea of dusky faces. On one side was the King's 
pew, with scarlet hangings; the royal family always 
distinguishing themselves by coming in very late, with 
the loudest of squeaking shoes. The more the shoes 
squeaked the better was the wearer pleased, and often 
a man, after walking noisily in, would sit down and 
pass his shoes through the window for his wife to wear 
in, thus doubling the family glory. Non-musical shoes 
were hardly salable." 

So well did the youth profit by such school- 
ing as was available that he was able at twenty- 
one to enter the junior class (the class of 1862) 
at Williams. For to this college, the birth- 
place of the foreign mission movement, his 
father naturally sent him. After a few months 
of dormitory experience in old East College, 
he was invited to share a room with the 
president's son Archibald. This admission to 
Dr. Hopkins's family circle was of advantage 
to the young man in more ways than one. En- 
joying the best of social influences, he kept 
clear of secret societies, relying on his own un- 
aided merits for making friends. " When one 
joins a secret society," he writes in one of his 
letters home, " all in it are his sworn friends, 
right or wrong ; this is childish." It was the 
influence and teaching of Dr. Hopkins, the 
recognized leader in his department of instruc- 
tion, that young Armstrong valued most in his 
college course. Years afterward we find him 
teaching mental and moral philosophy to his 
dark-skinned pupils at Hampton, and using his 
old teacher's " Outline Study of Man " for a 

As soon as he was out of college, in the 
summer of 1862, he joined the army as a vol- 
unteer, raising a company at Troy for Colonel 
Willard's regiment, the 125th New York. 
Being, however, an alien by birth, he did not 
heartily espouse the Union cause until the 
Emancipation Proclamation brought home to 
him what he was really fighting for. But even 
as an abolitionist he was at first rather luke- 
warm. As he expressed it at the time, — 
« I am a sort of abolitionist, but I hav n't learned to 
love the Negro. I believe in universal freedom, I be- 
lieve the whole world cannot buy a single soul. The 
Almighty has set, or rather limited, the price of one 
man, and until worlds can be paid for a single Negro I 
do n't believe in selling or buying them. I go in, then^ 
for freeing them more on account of their souls than 



[March 1, 

their bodies, I assure you. . . . The Union is to me 
little or nothing. I see no great principle necessarily 
involved in it. I see only the 4,000,000 slaves, and for 
and with them I fight." 

It was not until he became lieutenant-colonel, 
and afterward colonel, of a colored regiment, 
that he thoroughly warmed to his work, though 
from the first he was conspicuous for his brav- 
ery, his command of his men, and his bold ini- 
tiative. Gettysburg was the only great battle 
•he had the good fortune to take part in, and 
•here he rendered brilliant service at a most 
•critical moment. But the war ended before 
he had found the opportunity he longed for to 
iprove beyond question the valor and effect- 
iveness of negro soldiers. With the title of 
brevet brigadier-general, Armstrong retired to 
private life at the age of twenty-seven. 

But he was not long to remain in idleness. 
Seeking work in the newly-established Freed- 
men's Bureau, he was appointed agent for ten 
counties in Virginia and school superintendent 
of a large and loosely defined area. The educa- 
tional needs of the negro soon engrossed his 
attention, and, with the support and encourage- 
ment of the American Missionary Association 
in the spring of 1868, he started his school at 
Hampton, the first vigorous and successful 
attempt at industrial training in the country. 
This, too, was in the face of the discouraging 
results attained at Oberlin in combining agri- 
culture with book-learning. The story of the 
long fight for success at Hampton, the repeated 
begging excursions to the north and west, the 
concert tours of negro students to " sing up " 
some needed school building, the reception of 
a squad of Indian pupils in 1878, and the mas- 
terly methods employed for making the red- 
skins learn industry from their African asso- 
ciates, — all this must be got from the book 
itself. At intervals we catch a characteristic 
glimpse of the man Armstrong in his most 
pleasingly human aspect. He had early been 
led to look forward to the ministry as his 
destined calling, but something in him pro- 
tested against pulpit-pounding for a life-work. 
It was peculiarly distasteful to him to pray in 
public. A scrap here and there from his let- 
ters reveals his state of mind. In 1865 he 
writes : 

" When a meeting-house burns up I care very little; 
under the trees it is better — under the evening sky as 
the sun goes down in glory (as we worship) is the 
grandest time and place for it. I am terribly down on 
two sermons every Sunday. The drawing-out process 
is the best and truest. Set the people to work and the 
ministers to chewing tobacco if necessary to make them 

like other men, not still and mannerish, but open, free, 
hearty and happy. A good hearty, healthy laugh is as 
bad for the devil as some of the long nasal prayers I 
have heard — yes, worse. There is religion in music, 
in the opera. . . . Ministers say the opera is bad; I 
find religion there. They say to walk or ride out on 
Sunday is wicked. My bethel is by the seashore; there 
the natural language of my heart is prayer. So of the 

Strictly orthodox himself in the essentials 
of creed, and insisting that his school should 
be known as unswervingly orthodox, he yet 
was broad-minded enough to see that no church 
has a monopoly of truth. The American Mis- 
sionary Association was troubled with scruples 
about receiving aid for the Hampton school 
from unorthodox sources. But Armstrong let 
no such considerations disturb him ; and, as a 
matter of fact, a large part of his revenue for 
many years came from philanthropic Unitari- 
ans. " When it comes to the scratch," he 
declares in his outspoken way, " I believe in 
the prayers of the unorthodox — why are they 
not as effectual as any ? " In truth he was 
forced to neglect no possible means of raising 
money in his life-and-death struggle for pecun- 
iary support. This was of course a ruinously 
expensive method of carrying on his work ; it 
so sapped his vitality that he died when he 
should have been in the prime of life, at the 
age of fifty-four. Listen to his own account 
of the way he "drove things," under highest 
pressure, as long as strength was left him : 

" It is hard — this begging; it takes all one's nervous 
and physical strength, even when people are kind and 
polite, as they generally are. It is never and never can 
be easy, and I have always to use all my strength, fire 
every gun in order to bring to the hurried, worried busi- 
ness men that powerful influence that alone can secure 
money in a place like Boston, where for every dollar 
that even the richest are able to give there are ten 
chances to put it to good use and twenty demands for 
it from one source or another. It is amazing how hard 
is the pressure of appeal and yet how polite and good- 
natured most people are, how patiently they listen and 
how many give up their last spare dollar not needed for 
personal comfort. Boston has been educated to giving 
and gives splendidly. But thousands are turned away 
— few succeed, many fail who try for money, just as 
in the business world. In all this howling appeal and 
fearful competition of charities I have been making the 
best fight I could." 

It is worthy of note that he found hard times 
to have little effect on men when appeal was 
made for charity. In seasons of prosperity 
their hearts were hardened rather than moved 
to benevolence. The pinch of poverty seemed 
necessary to generate sympathy for others' 
needs. Among the cheering notes of the book 
is the expressed conviction of this educator of 




negroes that the granting of suffrage to the 
colored man has not been a mistake. Had we 
first waited for the negro's education and eleva- 
tion, we should have waited indefinitely; the 
Southern whites would have blocked his way 
to the schoolhouse. The consciousness of being 
entitled to vote is a stimulus to the voter to 
make himself worthy of his citizenship. 

Dwelling a moment on the man as seen by 
his friends, let us take a look at General Arm- 
strong through the eyes of one at whose hearth 
he felt most at home. 

" He talked little of his work unless asked directly 
about it. He caught up any topic that was touched 
upon and tossed the ball of conversation most nimbly 
to and fro. A delightful gaiety is my most general 
recollection. There were serious moments when he 
rose to very great heights of simplicity and insight. . . . 
One felt the whole striving of the man toward a goal 
he revered. But geniality, wit, humanity, all these 
showed in his speech, and when he came in it was always 
as if a wind of strength and healing blew. I never saw 
him discouraged or downcast, even when things seemed 
very doubtful. I remember his telling me once about 
a college mate he had just seen who had grown sud- 
denly very rich, and spreading his hands, he said, 
* These are all there is between my little girls and the 
world,' and then he threw back his head and gave a 
most boyish laugh. 'And that's the way I like it!* 
He was often brilliant, always delightful, even when we 
knew he was tired and suffering. . . . He told delight- 
ful stories to my children, and no one ever went away 
from him without strength and fresh hope." 

Bravely he lived and bravely died, sticking 
to his post of duty to the last. He was buried 
at his own request " in the school graveyard, 
among the students, where one of them would 
have been put had he died next." His por- 
traits — ten of them are in this book — are 
especially interesting as showing how truly in 
his case the child was father of the man. Of 
him, if of anyone, it can aptly be said that 
his days were "bound each to each by natural 
piety." Perct F. Bicknell. 

An Epic of Quekn Bess.* 

Kuskin in his old age seriously complained 
that if he had not wasted his time on art he 
might have been the first geologist of Europe. 
Probably he was right. Geikie in his great work 
on Geology quotes passage after passage from 
the "Modern Painters." The part of that 
work which is the surest to live is the part 
devoted to the laws of growth and structure in 
earth and its belongings. The art critic is at 

* Elizabeth of England. A Dramatic Romance. By 
N. S. Shaler. In five volumes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin 

his best when he recognizes and reveals nature's 
artistry in her foreground pictures of grass and 
flower and tree, in her architectures of moun- 
tain, in her floating poems of cloud. Yet 
Kuskin's very great and minute knowledge of 
what would ordinarily be classed as scientific 
facts did not impede or imperil his poetic sense. 
Rather it was fuel that fed his fire of creative 

One of the first of American geologists has 
now come forward with a theory and a proof 
that the scientific instinct and training are not 
opposed to poetic feeling and power — that they 
are rather allied and spring from one root. In 
a modest and ingenuous preface to his immense 
dramatic romance, " Elizabeth of England," 
Mr. N. S. Shaler states that he began the work 
as an experiment to see how far he had retained 
his early feeling for literature after many years 
of absorption in science. He regrets that science 
should make its votaries indifferent to the higher 
forms of literature, and denies the necessity for 
it. He goes further, and claims that the scien- 
tific and the poetic mind work with the same 
materials and largely with the same methods. 
And in testimony thereof he lays before us his 
five-volumed poem. 

This is well I This is very well ! The loss 
which poetry has sustained in modern times 
has not been the loss of the world — its hold 
upon that was always precarious ; it has been 
the loss of the great minds of thd age, so many 
of whom have withdrawn into science and have 
treated the claims of literature with bitter skep- 
ticism. If poetry can win them back it will 
win the world readily enough. Poets have 
always been willing to claim all knowledge for 
their share. Plato, the most poetical of philos- 
ophers, placed over his school the inscription 
that only through mathematics could anyone 
enter there. Dante knew the whole science of 
his age as did Goethe of his. The antagonism 
has been on the side of the men of science. 
Their supposed facts, their supposed laws, their 
supposed exact knowledge have made them deaf 
and blind to the music and the picture which 
body forth the real meanings of the world. 
Just at present, when many of their supposi- 
tions are beginning to crumble beneath them, 
literature, which builds more truthfully and 
permanently than science, may have a chance 
to come into its own. 

So much for the thesis of faith which Mr. 
Shaler has nailed to the door of his huge cathe- 
dral of verse. Important as this declaration 
is, it must not detain us, for we have the poem 



[March 1^ 

itself to deal with, and that can hardly be done 
in a brief critical article. We may say at once 
that it seems to us one of the largest and noblest 
works in pure literature which has appeared 
in many a day. 

Throwing historic accuracy aside, Mr. Shaler 
has recreated and interpreted a great historic 
epoch. He treats history as the best of the 
romance writers, Scott and Dumas, have done. 
But as far as his main figure and motive are 
concerned he is more delicate in insight, more 
profound in conception than they, — and his 
instrument of expression, his ringing, manly 
verse, yields him effects which stir the blood 
and rouse the emotions of the reader beyond 
anything that prose can do. 

The central idea of Mr. Shaler's whole work 
is Elizabeth's devotion to England. In the 
first play she betroths herself to her people, 
takes as a lover and a spouse the realm she 
is to rule. In the latter plays she is shown 
brooding like a mother over her subjects — 
nobles, knights, and common men. Nothing 
is allowed to interfere with her task in shaping 
their destinies. Courtiers, counsellors, lovers 
come to her and she tests them all, and rewards 
or sends them to the Tower or the block, — 
solely as they show their ability and willingness 
to aid her in making England great. Eliza- 
beth and England — these are the two person- 
ages of this epic drama. The many figures 
who fill in the scenes and who are drawn in 
many differing planes of reality and unreality, 
are merely the go-betweens, abettors or oppo- 
nents of that mighty passion. 

It is obvious that Mr. Shaler is one of those 
poets who work from within outwards, whose 
poems are moulded by the idea — not allowed 
to spring up from the life of the world. He 
is a Schiller rather than a Goethe. A slight 
comparison of his Elizabeth with the Queen 
Bess of Sir Walter Scott will suffice to show 
this. Scott's Elizabeth is a daylight Elizabeth, 
the stout-hearted but very worldly-minded 
daughter of Bluff King Hal. Mr. Shaler's 
Queen is an Elizabeth of the dark and the 
depths. She is always keyed to tragic intensity 
of purpose, or hovering on the verge of hyster- 
ical breakdown. She is never vulgar and never 
scandalous. The crimes she commits are for 
the good of England, and she pays for them 
with an agony of remorse which the real Queen 
would have scoffed at. She is a morbid Eliza- 
beth, an Elizabeth with nerves, who ought to 
go under treatment to a modern specialist. 
Mr. Shaler represents her always at concert 

pitch of emotion, always as planning by herself 
or with Cecil to save or shape England. May 
we be forgiven the comparison, but as scene 
after scene, play after play unfolds the same 
situation, England in danger and Elizabeth to 
the rescue, we are a little reminded of Mr. 
Micawber and his wife rushing into each other's 
arms and swearing eternal fidelity. The mas- 
ters are not thus monotonous. Achilles is not 
always shouting in the trench. He takes his 
ease in his tent with his friends and his female 
captives, and consumes huge shins of beef at 
banquet with the other chiefs. Hamlet is not 
always brooding on the infinite. He talks to 
the players, chaffs Polonius, and wooes Ophelia. 
Mr. Shaler seems to have been conscious of the 
want of relief, which, in his first four plays 
makes for us such a gloomy picture of Merry 
England, and in the final drama of the series 
he tries to set this to rights by bringing before 
us a long succession of pastoral pictures of the 
realm that Elizabeth has saved. The intention 
at least is admirable, but the tragic note re- 
turns and the scene closes with Elizabeth the 
Woman going down in utter wreck, destroyed 
by Elizabeth the Queen. 

Granting Mr. Shaler's right to use his ma- 
terials as he pleases, there can be no questioning 
the artistic effect of his picture of the epoch 
or the power in his presentation of its central 
figure. On the first reading, his book is com- 
pelling, almost overwhelming. He sweeps us 
along much as he wills. His own sympathy 
with nobleness is so great that again and again 
he brings us to tears by his presentation of 
utter loftiness of purpose or utter heroism of 
act. It is only when we begin to reflect and 
criticize that we feel the lack of flesh and blood 
in his creations. 

The form in which Mr. Shaler has cast his 
work raises the old question of the legiti- 
macy of the epic drama as a form of art. As 
Matthew Arnold pointed out, the categories of 
art forms which the Greeks left us — epic,, 
tragedy, comedy, lyric, and the like — cannot 
easily be bettered. To mix two of them is to 
produce a bastard form which will probably 
be weaker than either of the originals. Mr» 
Shaler's dramas are hardly plays, the whole 
work is hardly an epic, and the mixture results 
in weakness in the scenic arrangement and 
the characters themselves. Take the figure of 
Essex in the fourth play of the series. It is 
splendidly conceived, but it is not realized 
in either an epic or dramatic way. He is de- 
scribed infinitely, everybody talks about him^ 




he talks about himself, but he is not set on his 
legs to do anything, at least until the very last. 
Or take the scenes where the Queen views 
from the ramparts of Dover Castle the de- 
struction of the Armada. It is a fine epic 
situation, finer than Helen's view of the hosts 
from the walls of Troy. But Homer soon sends 
his heroine away and plunges into the real busi- 
ness of the poem, the hand-to-hand fighting. 
There is nothing but reflex action in Mr. 
Shaler's piece. The light of the burning Span- 
ish ships is reflected on Elizabeth's face, and 
the heroism of her fleets and of Gait, in whom 
is, for the moment, embodied the might of En- 
gland, are merely described to her by messen- 
gers. However, the question whether all this 
is not right enough and good enough, whether 
the epic drama has not won its place as a new 
art genre^ is still open. Mr. Shaler has plenty 
of modern precedents — the works of Charles 
Wells, Sir Henry Taylor, Mr. Swinburne, and 

Mr. Shaler's first piece, "The Coronation," 
comes nearer to being a true play than any of 
the others. It has a central motive, fantastic 
indeed, but beautiful, to which everything else 
is related, and it has a scenic arrangement 
which is in some measure theatrical. The early 
scene where Elizabeth, bidden to Mary's fes- 
tivity, appears before her robed in black and 
uttering Cassandra cries of woe, shows the 
touch of the born dramatist. The scene with 
Wyatt and his followers is powerfully drama- 
tic, as are the scenes in the Tower, though these 
last are too scattered. Elizabeth's flight or pas- 
sage to Woodstock with Beddingfield and his 
knights, while Robin of the wildwood with his 
yeoman march unseen around her to ward 
off hostile strokes, is vividly portrayed. The 
shadowy creation of Robin, who is simply En- 
gland's love incarnate, is Mr. Shaler's triumph 
as an allegorizing poet. 

The second play, " The Rival Queens," has 
also a motive highly poetic if not theatrically 
effective. The gloomy, silent tower in the North 
where Mary of Scotland is imprisoned stands 
out threateningly against Elizabeth's busy, 
bustling court. But the contrast is hardly 
carried out dramatically, there is no collision 
of the Queens as in Schiller's great piece for 
the theatre, and the play falls apart at the 
close. There is one figure in this play, Petrie, 
the odd, loyal traitor, who is the most human 
and the best dramatically realized character in 
the whole work. He is new in kind and he does 

In " Armada Days" all pretense indeed of a 
drama is cast aside. It is a great sweeping ode 
of England's might. As far as we know, the 
passion, the exaltation, the greatness of those 
days has nowhere else found such utterance. 
England owes Mr. Shaler a debt for summing 
up the splendor of that, its greatest day, as no 
historian or poet has done before. 

In " The Death of Essex," Mr. Shaler has a 
really dramatic theme, but his curious fault of 
painting mainly by reflex action, of keeping his 
principals apart and letting intermediaries do 
the work they should be at themselves, destroys 
it as a play. It is a noble poem, however, and 
the conflicting emotions of Elizabeth as woman 
and Queen are depicted with consummate 

The last play, " The Passing of the Queen," 
is little more than a series of pictures of En- 
gland in its glory and of Elizabeth in her dis- 
contented old age. Like Shakespeare in the 
final scenes of " The Merchant of Venice " 
and " The Tempest," Mr. Shaler has tried to 
present us with a vision of peace and beauty 
to calm our spirits after the storm and stress 
of the previous action. We wish we could say 
that he succeeds ; but his pastoral scenes are 
far less effective than his heroic ones. Never 
for a moment, with all his elaborated pictures 
of manor house and cottage, of wood and 
meadow and hill, does he recall the charm that 
resides in the moon-glimpsed gardens of Bel- 
mont or Prospero's airy pageant in the en- 
chanted isle. 

There must be fifteen thousand lines of 
blank verse in Mr. Shaler's work, certainly a 
gigantic experiment. It is more than that, — 
it is an achievement. The blank verse is really 
individual. It does not recall any modern mas- 
ter at all. Mr. Shaler, in his preface, says he 
has been told that it is in the manner of the 
Elizabethans, but he does not know why. It is 
easy to tell him. It is so crowded with meta- 
phors, so compact of similes, that it can recall 
nothing else but the rank growths of Eliza- 
bethan dramatic verse. Open at random and 
the style stares us in the face. 

'« And now they tramp 

Over this realm they hold with sheathed blades 

And make our fields to wonder how they lack 

Our bones within their earth." 

That is concentrated. In many of the quieter 
scenes the actors seem to be handing each 
other borquets of posies of speech, tied up with 
pink ribbons. Yet Mr. Shaler's verse is hardly 
the verse of the great artificers. It lacks their 



[March 1, 

sonority, their variety of cadence, most of all 
it lacks their sensuousness. It is not sensuous 
at all. We cannot indeed think of a single page 
in the five volumes which has the carven form, 
the blazing or sober color, habitual with the 
great users of English blank verse. Mr. 
Shaler's instrument is at its best in passages 
of emotion, good in a lower way in passages of 
thought, and not good at all in passages of 
desciiption. As he lacks, in the main, the 
faculty of scenic composition, so he lacks the 
gift of felicitous sensuous phrase. He strikes 
out fine lines again and again. "How hard to 
rule," says Elizabeth, 

'■ Men who are born with scepters in their hearts." 
But that is intellectualized. In his last play 
Mr. Shaler brings Shakespeare into the busi- 
ness, and for scene after scene he walks be- 
side Elizabeth and discourses with her on the 
large subjects of life and death. We cannot 
say that Shakespeare's moralities and philos- 
ophy, which the Queen accepts as oracles, 
strike us as being very profound ; and there are 
few passages which would seem fitting utter- 
ances of Shakespeare's golden mouth. Here 
is perhaps the speech that comes nearest to it. 
Elizabeth has practically asked Shakespeare to 
record her life, and he answers : 
" My Queen, were you our hearer, that we 'd do, 
And count all time and men our audience 
For perfect understanding of the part. 
But they who wait us cannot see the play 
That lives in splendor by them, for they feel 
The soul that is beside them like their own, — 
Fouled with the fellow earth they know too well; 
So we must seek the shadow land to find 
Brave empured names of other time and realm 
To bear the garb we fashion from the web 
Our common lives here weave. Ay, the far orbs 
Are as the earth, mere clods j yet they are stars 
For they are far : but had we dwelt on them, 
Trod in their mire and bitten of their dust 
We should not see their glory." 

Mr. Shaler has indeed made good the argu- 
ment of his preface. The scientist who can 
do such work as " Elizabeth of England " 
may confidently claim his place among the 
first poetic artists of his clime and time. 

Charles Leonard Moore. 

Man as the Centre of the Universe.* 

Under the general title of " The Belles Lettres Se- 
ries," Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. announce an extensive 
series of reprints, covering nearly the whole field of 
English literature. The characteristic note of the series 
is «' literature for literature's sake." The list of editors 
announced includes some of the most eminent scholars 
and litterateurs in this country and abroad. Several 
volumes will be published immediately. The books will 
be attractively bound, and sold at a very low price. 

Nearly a year ago there appeared in the 
" Fortnightly Review " an article on " Man's 
Place in the Universe," from the pen of Dr. 
Alfred Russel Wallace, whose name is a house- 
hold word among men of science the world over. 
The views set forth in this essay were so diver- 
gent from those usually advocated by writers 
on the plurality of worlds, that much discussion 
was aroused. Some astronomers, in particular, 
attacked the soundness of Dr. Wallace's ideas 
with considerable vigor. But he was in nowise 
disheartened, and determined to explain his 
theories in greater detail. 

Thus was born a substantial book bearing 
the title of the original article, and following 
the same general course of thought. Most 
writers on the plurality of habitable worlds 
have given free rein to the imagination, and 
have peopled the star depths with intelligent 
beings, many of whom may be vastly superior 
to mankind in mental power. They are not 
even content to leave the other bodies in our 
solar system tenantless. The remaining plan- 
ets, especially Mars, have been made to support 
sentient life, and the sun itself has been sup- 
posed to shelter inhabitants who were more or 
less content beneath its shining surface, being 
protected from the intense heat by a heavy 
layer of black cloud. With imaginings of this 
sort Dr. Wallace has no sympathy. His field 
of inquiry is restricted to a consideration of 
the evidence for or against the probable exist- 
ence on other worlds of such organic life, 
especially human, as is found upon the earth. 
Such an inquiry at once leads into the field of 
astronomy. So rapid has been the march of 
this science during the past few years, especially 
with reference to our knowledge of the sidereal 
universe, that Dr. Wallace considers it best to 
explain at length the processes employed by 
astronomers in this particular branch of re- 
search, and the substantial results won by their 
diligence. Therefore, after devoting a couple 
of chapters to a description of the main trend 
of thought pursued by former writers on the 
plurality of worlds, he discusses such topics 
as the distance and distribution of the stars, 
and their evolution, in the light of the " New 
Astronomy." To this discussion one-third of 
the book is devoted. The author's information 

* Man's Place in the Univebse. A Study of the 
Results of Scientific Research in Relation to the Unity or 
Plurality of Worlds. By Alfred R, Wallace, LL.D. New 
York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 




is drawn from a wide range of the best astro- 
nomical authorities, and is substantially accu- 
rate and up-to-date. He frequently refers to 
the writings of Professor Simon Newcomb, who 
is regarded by many as the foremost living 
astronomer, and to those of Miss Agnes Gierke, 
whose explanations of the results won by mod- 
ern astronomy are regarded by astronomers as 
complete, trustworthy, and altogether admir- 

Here and there Dr. Wallace makes remarks 
which show his lack of acquaintance with prac- 
tical astronomy, but these little slips do not 
affect the general trend of his writing. For 
example, on p. 38 he gives numerical values of 
the mean errors of spectroscopic observations 
of the velocities of stars in the line of sight, not 
realizing that the accuracy of such work has 
vastly increased since the observations which 
he mentions were made. On p. 79 it is stated 
that the time taken by light to pass from 
the sun to the earth is eight minutes thirteen 
and one-third seconds. It is several seconds 
greater than this. On p. 106 we read that 
" violent commotions in the sun, indicated by 
the sudden appearance of faculse, sun-spots, 
or prominences on the sun's limb, are always 
accompanied by magnetic disturbances on the 
earth "; this is not in accord with astronomical 
records. On p. 113 the ignition of meteors is 
attributed to " friction," instead of to the dim- 
inution of their energy by the pressure of the 
condensed air in front of them. On p. 128 
one finds the astonishing statement that " of 
course all the variable stars are to be found 
among the spectroscopic binaries," an item 
of information which will be news to those 
astronomers who are busied with researches on 

But, as we have remarked, slips of this 
sort do not affect the author's main argument, 
which begins in the seventh chapter of his 
book. The conclusion toward which he works, 
and which he endeavors to render probable by 
a series of arguments which are drawn from 
the universe about us, and also from the phy- 
sical, chemical, and biological conditions which 
now obtain on the earth, is "that man, the cul- 
mination of conscious organic life, has been 
developed here only in the whole vast material 
universe we see around us." 

The foundation of the argument is as fol- 
lows. The stellar universe is not infinite in 
extent, but limited. The Milky Way, which 
contains the vast majority of the stars, is a 
huge ring surrounding us. Its component 

stars are made up of the chemical elements 
which we find on the earth and in our sun^ 
and these elements, together with the bodies 
which they form, are subject to the physical 
laws with which we are familiar. Near the 
centre of the Milky Way the sun, with its 
planetary family, is situated. This foundation^ 
or series of premises, is derived by Dr. Wallace 
from the writings of prominent astronomers, 
and may be said to represent, in general, the 
opinions prevailing among those who have 
looked into the subject particularly. Upon this 
substructure the author, availing himself con- 
tinually of the best current ideas in astronomy, 
geology, physiology, etc., erects his superstruc- 
ture. The train of reasoning is cumulative, 
and the method of presentation rouses the 
reader's interest, and puts him in sympathy 
with the author's contentions. The mysteries 
of organic life, its close adjustment to its ma- 
terial terrestrial environment, the changes in 
air, water, extent and elevation of land surface, 
atmospheric dust, etc., which would seriously 
modify or destroy man's existence, are set forth 
in fascinating fashion. The other planets of 
our system are examined and pronounced un- 
fit for habitation ; the existence of planetary 
systems about other stars is discussed, and its 
improbability asserted. 

The prevalent ideas of the evolution of man's 
body require that climatic conditions on the 
earth's surface shall have been substantially 
stable for ages past. Dr. Wallace claims that 
the sun has probably been near the centre of our 
universe for ages, and that this central position 
for a long period of time has been " specially 
favourable, perhaps absolutely essential, to life- 
development on the earth." But how shall we 
keep the sun near the centre of the universe, 
during millions of years, in the face of the fact 
that astronomers are well-nigh unanimous in 
asserting that it is moving approximately to- 
ward the star Vega ? To this the author replies 
that it is wholly improbable that the sun moves 
in a straight line, when all celestial movements 
known to us are in curves, and that it is "far 
more probable that we are moving in an orbit 
of some kind around the centre of gravity of 
a vast cluster, as determined by the investiga- 
tions of Kapteyn, Newcomb, and other astron- 
omers ; and, consequently, that the nearly 
central position we now occupy may be a per- 
manent one." On this point it must be said 
that astronomers generally think that the evi- 
dence now at command does not indicate that 
there is a centre about which the sun revolves. 



[March 1, 

However, this evidence does not exclude such 
an hypothesis, and Andi^ in his recent and 
highly praised work on stellar astronomy shows 
that such a theory of revolution conforms to 
certain facts about the observed proper motions 
of stars, and even deduces — by making cer- 
tain assumptions — a period of twenty-two mil- 
lion years for a single revolution. 

But, after all, what shall we say of a specu- 
lation which suggests the startling thought that 
man is perchance the designed outcome and 
crown of the workings of a universe which is 
so extensive and magnificent that the human 
mind is smitten with awe in contemplating its 
vastness, complexity, and splendor ? Is it pos- 
sible that the Creator has employed means so 
stupendous for the development of a creature 
seemingly so insignificant as man? Let us 
remember that the apparent immensity of the 
circuit of the Milky Way is due to the short- 
ness of the measuring rod which we apply to 
it, and that the shortness of the measuring rod 
is due to the fact that our physical forms are 
small and move slowly about the earth's sur- 
face, chained thereto by gravity. If we were 
to believe that the soul of man, when once it 
has laid aside " this muddy vesture of decay," 
can fly to Arcturus as quickly as it can now 
think itself there, how celestial distances which 
now appall us by their magnitude would shrink 
to hand-breadths ! If we were to take the dis- 
tance from the sun to some star in the Milky 
Way as a unit of measure, how moderate would 
its vast circumference appear ! Perhaps we 
should be willing to say with Milton 

" that great 
Or bright infers not excellence; the earth, 
Though in comparison of Heaven so small, 
Nor glistering, may of solid good contain 
More plenty than the sun that barren shines, 
Whose virtue in itself works no effect. 
But in the fruitful earth ; there first received 
His beams, unactive else, their vigor find." 

Let our conceptions of the potency, the pos- 
sible future magnificence, and the splendid 
powers of the human spirit become sufficiently 
exalted. Perchance we may reach some sum- 
mit of thought where we shall be ready to 
declare that the Almighty is not limited by 
our feeble and inadequate conceptions ; that 
He — with whom a thousand years are as " a 
watch in the night " — knows no bounds of 
time or space ; that He is not parsimonious 
amid infinite resources ; that He may have 
brought into being our wonderful universe, 
and have watched over and directed its devel- 
opment in order that it might become a school 

in which men, now in the feeble beginnings of 
a deathless life, might be trained for ends at 
present dimly perceived by them, but embraced 
in the all-sufficient phrase, " for the glory of 
Crod." Herbert A. Howe. 

Sculpture in America.* 

Sculpture is an austere muse — austere save 
when some rare genius discovers that artifice 
by which marble, or stone, is made suggestive 
of the morbidezza of painting. Art has been 
described as " the harmonic expression of 
human emotion"; of the plastic art one might 
have a prima facie right to say that it is 
the expression, through the emotions, of the 
character of the artist, it is the outcome of his 
idiosyncrasy, the expression of his manner of 
feeling in the presence of the visible world. 
Sculpture has its graces, but they are those of 
no other art ; it seldom gives rise to any rev- 
erie ; it awakens less than any other art the 
sentiment of the infinite, because it is never 
vague, obscure, indeterminate in its effects — 
everything is fixed with the last degree of pre- 
cision. As a nation, we are a practical and a 
cynical people, and the sculptors that appeal 
to us — appeal to the mind, to the soul, and 
bear thither a thought, a sentiment, capable of 
touching or elevating it — are few. 

In the comprehensive introduction to his 
" History of American Sculpture," Mr. Lorado 
Taft, himself a sculptor of no mean achieve- 
ment, points out that if British painting was 
unimportant in England at the time when the 
American colonies were in process of making, 
it may be said that British sculpture did not 
exist at all, in consequence of which our ances- 
tors here in America were without sculptural 

"The Pilgrim Fathers were the elder brothers of 
those men who decapitated the cathedral statuary, who 
burned paintings and tabooed the drama. This world 
to them was a vale of tears, and art was a temptation 
to be strenuously resisted. . . . The Quakers who fol- 
lowed in Pennsylvania were hardly more favorable to 
the fine arts than their brothers in New England. . . . 
The early Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam came 
direct from the land where Rembrandt and Franz Hals 
were even then producing their masterpieces; but there 
was neither a Rembrandt or a Hals among them, nor by 
any possibility a sculptor, since the artistic expression 
of the Hollanders has always been pictorial rather than 
plastic. ... It may be urged that the Virginia colonies 

*Thb History of American Sculpture. By Lorado 
Taft. Illustrated. New York : The Macniillan Co. 

American Masters of Sculpture. By Charles H. 
Caffin. Illustrated. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. 




were made up of different material; that the cavaliers 
who founded Jamestown were to some extent men of 
culture and luxury. To this fact may be attributed the 
earliest patronage of sculpture in America — the com- 
missions given by Virginia to Houdon in 1781 and 1785 
for representations of Lafayette and Washington; but 
beyond this we find no appreciable results, since native 
production in the South came even later than in the 
North. ... So this broad land lay in the sun and 
waited — waited without knowing it for the day of art 
to appear." 

Though any attempt at classification is admit- 
ted to be more or less arbitrary, the space of 
time covered in Mr. Taft's book is divided in 
a general way into three periods : the first, 
1750 to 1850, bringing to notice " the faint 
foreshadowings of our coming achievements " 
— evidencing out of what unpromising material 
present conditions have been wrought and tell- 
ing, at the same time, with practical succinct- 
ness, a story of struggles and successes of the 
<leepe8t significance to American art ; the second 
period, 1850 to 1876, was characterized by a 
few sturdy men who made the succeeding period 
possible ; the third period, 1876 to 1903, sig- 
nalizes, in reality, the birth of sculpture in 
America — a period in which the art for the 
first time reached the dignity of a national 
expression — "something neither Anglo-Saxon 
nor Italian nor French ; but a fusing of all 
these elements into an art which is vital and 
significant — the true product of the country 
and the age which have given it birth." 

The opening chapters are concerned with the 
early history of the glyptic art in the United 
States, the first worker of whom there is record 
being Mrs. Patience Wright, who attained a 
wide reputation for clever portraits in wax long 
before the Revolution. Then followed the wood- 
carving of William Rush and the unrelated 
efforts of Hezekiah Augur. With the opening 
years of the last century came the first Amer- 
cans destined to make sculpture a profession, — 
Greenough in Boston, Crawford in New York, 
Powers in Cincinnati. " It is difficult to real- 
ize," says Mr. Taft, " that our actual achieve- 
ment from the very kindergarten stage of an 
unknown art to the proud position held by 
American sculpture in the Paris Exposition of 
1900 has been the work of three score years 
and ten — has been in its entirety by not a few 
men now living." 

No previous work has ever covered the ground 
referred to as the first period so concisely as the 
present volume. The chapters on minor sculp- 
tors of the early days include many names 
hitherto omitted. A chapter devoted, to the 
native element in early American sculpture 

deserves careful perusal ; in it special stress is 
laid upon the work of Clark Mills, who first 
taught our forefathers the meaning of the words 
" equestrian statue." 

As their own country afforded neither sculp- 
tural instruction nor examples, almost all Amer- 
ican sculptors of the first half of the century 
were animated by a single desire — to get to 
Italy. American colonies existed at Rome and 
Florence, where the student adopted theCanova 
tradition of sweetened classicism and worked 
in an atmosphere tainted with artistic and 
political decadence. In his "American Masters 
of Sculpture," Mr. Charles H. Caffin contends 
that it is not surprising that much of the sculp- 
ture of this period, though considerably admired 
in its day, strikes us now as coldly and pedantic- 
ally null, unconvincing, and grandiloquent, or, 
at best, innocuously sentimental. It was Emer- 
son who said in the presence of these uninspired 
works, " the art of sculpture has long ago per- 
ished to any real effect." The succeeding phase 
of Italo- American art — " this universal pretti- 
ness, which seems to be the highest conception 
of the crowd of modern sculptor8,"as Hawthorne 
lamented, — gained for this cotorie the name 
of executants, not composers. Then followed 
a reaction against self-expatriation. Henry 
Kirke Brown, of whose work the equestrian 
statue of General Scott at Washington is a 
conspicuous example, studied in Italy, but with 
the conviction that American sculptors should 
occupy themselves with American subjects upon 
American soil. Goethe used to say that no man 
can discern the heart of a movement or of a 
work of art, who does not put himself into 
heart relations with that which he is trying to 
understand. Very few of that self-expatriated 
school of American sculptors escaped the level- 
ing influence of Italy. The man who reads 
the Iliad and the Odyssey with his heart as 
well as his intelligence must measurably enter 
into the life which these poems describe and 
interpret ; he must identify himself for the 
time with the race whose soul and historic 
character are revealed in epic form as in a 
great mirror ; he must see life from the Greek 
point of view, and feel life as the Greek felt 
it. It is little wonder that the few Americans 
who accepted commissions for American sub- 
jects and chiselled these works in their foreign 
studios failed to achieve success. 

It was at the Centennial Exhibition that this 
country first beheld the wonders of foreign art. 
Parisian-trained sculptors rose into a prom- 
inence which, within a short time, became 



[March 1, 

domination. With only a few exceptions all 
our sculptors of the present generation have 
acquired their training, either wholly or in 
part, in Paris. But our art is not now French 
as it was once Italian. With the advent of 
Saint-Gaudens there came a notable change 
in the spirit of American sculpture, — Paris 
merely vitalized the dormant tastes and ener- 
gies of America. Mr. Caffin has this to say : 

" France, ever since the middle ages, has never been 
without a succession of great sculptors. When the Gothic 
spirit had spent itself, that of the late Italian Renaissance 
was imported ; and the art, continually adjusting itself to 
the changing conditions of national life, has been held in 
uninterrupted honour to the present time. It is in this 
branch of the fine arts that the French genius has found 
its most individual expression. Corresponding with the 
maintenance of fine traditions is the excellence of the 
system of teaching. The Institute and the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts perpetuate a standard, characterized by 
technical perfection and elegance of style, while the 
tendency to academic narrowness is offset by the influ- 
ence of independent sculptors; for there is not a thought 
wave in modern art that does not emanate from or 
finally reach Paris. It is the world's clearing-house of 
artistic currency." 

Mr. Taft's reasoning, along these same lines, 
on the subject of Franco-American training is 
interesting. He says : 

" While the men of the new generation have acquired 
such mastery of the ' mechanics ' of thi profession as 
wins the praise of their foreign instructors, their lan- 
guage is not always understood at home. Our people 
have no intuitive grasp of its meaning. In spite of the 
oft-repeated assurance that we know what we like, we 
do not even know what we are saying when we say it. 
It is true that we recognize what we like, and that we 
like it well, for the time at least. On the other hand, 
we do not have a 'grand passion ' for sculpture, taking 
it to heart like the modern French. Our feelings are 
not outraged by bad work, nor by transgressions of 
venerated laws of style, of balance, of movement, and 
of other sacred traditions. Likewise are we insensible, 
in large measure, to the charm of these fundamental 
virtues. Unless a work of sculpture shows something 
more, unless it makes a special appeal by its significance, 
its emotion, or its insistent beauty of face or form, we 
are as indifferent to it as though it were not; we do 
not, perhaps, even see it. We lose much, of course, 
but there is after all something rather fine in this sturdy 
independence. It may, indeed it must, result in an art 
of greater meaning and intensity than we have hereto- 
fore known. We say to the artist, as it were: * Put in 
all the " composition," all the " technic " you please; we 
have nothing against them ; but first of all give us some- 
thing we can understand and sympathize with.' Hence 
it follows that the mere ' Beaux- Arts figure,* so closely 
allied with the ohjet de Paris, has already had its day 
with a considerable portion of our community. It has 
followed the Graces and the Cupids of our Italian age." 

Mr. Caffin's volume and the closing portion 
of Mr. Taft's work are both descriptive of 
the last quarter of a century's history of our 
sculpture. Space will not permit us to draw 

comparisons of the critical treatment of con- 
temporary artists by the two authors. Both 
concede that the position of Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens is one of preeminence — that no other 
sculptor of our time has so attuned the tradi- 
tions of his art to the key of the modern spirit 
for the expression of grand con ceptions. A mongr 
other sculptors treated in special chapters by 
both writers are Macmonnies, Ward, Bartlett, 
French, Adams, Brenner, Niehaus, and Bar- 
nard. In conclusion Mr. Taft argues that in 
this bewildering period of American history, 
elements new, varied, and contradictory are 
pouring into the national crucible ; doubtless 
the solvent will be adequate to reduce all these 
to a condition of homogeneity, but no man can 
say just what the ultimate product will be. 

Mr. Caffin has written with notable clear- 
ness of the great American figures in this art. 
The distinguishing feature of his book is that 
it is a critical review, constantly illuminating 
facts by principles. The earnest and animated 
style in which it is written grows out of the 
subject and is supported by it, always rising 
naturally to the requirements of the occasion. 

That Mr. Taft clears away a great deal of 
dead wood from the obscure records of early 
American sculpture is a thing to be thankful 
for. Of the value of his book as a history for 
general reference, it would be hard to say too 
much. It is true that probably no one person 
will agree with all his statements, but, on the 
other hand, there are few who will not approve 
of the general tendency of his remarks. That 
he should now and then arouse contradiction 
is not surprising, for there are many points in 
the subject he has chosen in regard to which 
authority and reason may justly differ. 

Both volumes are attractively printed and 
bound, and both contain numerous illustrations- 
helpful to the text. Ingram A. Pyle. 


Many years ago Macaulay commended to our 
acceptance the paradox that a small man could 
write a great book ; proving it by the extreme 
case of James Boswell and his Life of Johnson, 
But the fallacy of the dictum lies in the un- 
equal " distribution " of the term " great. "^ 
Boswell's hero was great, and the portrait of 
him was literally a " speaking likeness," but 

*The Creevey Papers. A Selection from the Correspond- 
ence and Diaries of the late Thomas Creevey, M.P. Edited 
by the Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P., LL.D., 
F.R.S. In two volumes. Illustrated. New York: E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 




the eager, servile, foolish, painstaking Bozzy 
could not produce a book that was, in any hon- 
orably subjective sense, great. It is the great 
Doctor who wrote that book on the soft recep- 
tive tablets of his follower's memory ; and the 
true fame of it is his. Yet, somehow, we would 
not have it otherwise. Had Boswell been wiser 
or more self-respecting, English literature would 
have lacked perhaps its most entertaining biog- 

The " Creevey Papers " are of the genre of 
Samuel Pepys's Diary rather than that of 
James Boswell's Life of Johnson. Mr. Thomas 
Creevey lived for the larger part of a life of 
seventy years among the royalty, nobility, and 
gentry of England ; instead of one adored great 
man he had no hero (unless possibly it were 
Lord Grey), and yet he knew everybody. Born 
at Liverpool in 1768, he was educated for the 
bar, but entered Parliament in 1802 as repre- 
sentative of the borough of Thetford, which, 
in those good old unreformed days, was in the 
pocket of the Duke of Norfolk. His shrewd- 
ness, activity, and tact made him a useful party 
man to the Whigs, especially the Radical wing 
of that party ; while his good-humor, his fund 
of anecdote, and his willingness to fit in any- 
where, made him a frequent guest at number- 
less dinner-tables in town and country. When 
the Whigs came into power in 1806, Creevey 's 
services were recognized by his appointment to 
the Secretaryship of the Board of Control, a 
minor position in the " Cabinet Of All the 
Talents," which he held for only a year, going 
out with the short-lived ministry in 1807. 
Later, he sat in Parliament for the pocket- 
boroughs of Appleby and Downton, succes- 
sively. In 1880, at the age of sixty-two, he 
received from the Whig government, first the 
Treasurership of the Ordnance, and afterwards 
that of Greenwich Hospital. He died in 1838. 

Such is the meagre outline of an active but 
in no way illustrious career. Its interest to us 
consists in the fact that this industrious man 
found time, during his forty years of public 
life, to write voluminous letters to his step- 
daughter. Miss Elizabeth Ord, as well as to 
numerous friends ; and in this immense mass 
of papers we have a sort of journal intirne of 
English court, political, and society life, from 
the latter days of George the Third to the 
accession of Queen Victoria. By actual count, 
the index to these volumes contains flhe names 
of about 1450 persons, mostly of high degree, 
with whom Creevey had some sort of acquaint- 
ance. A more resolute diner-out never lived. 

and he was admitted on intimate terms to some 
of the noblest houses in England, from Windsor 
Castle down. It is not surprising to hear that 
the publication of these papers has stirred up 
much interest in British circles. 

As a young man, Creevey belonged to the 
Prince of Wales's set, with social headquarters 
at the Pavilion in Brighton ; and a careful search 
through these letters fails to disclose a single 
creditable item to improve the accepted reputa- 
tion of the First Gentleman of Europe. None 
of George the Fourth's entourage at any time 
of his life had any illusions about him, and 
Creevey least of all. The atmosphere of those 
unedifying days reeks with the fumes of strong 
drink. Let one scene suffice. 

" It used to be the Duke of Norfolk's custom to come 
over every year from Arundel to pay his respects to the 
Prince and to stay two days at Brighton, both of which 
he always dined at the Pavilion. In the year 1804, 
upon this annual visit, the Prince had drunk so much as 
to be made very seriously ill by it, so that in 1805 (the 
year that I was there), when the Duke came, Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, who was always the Prince's best friend, 
was very much afraid of his being again made ill, and 
she persuaded the Prince to adopt different stratagems 
to avoid drinking with the Duke. I dined there on both 
days, and letters were brought in each day after din- 
ner to the Prince, which he affected to consider of great 
importance, and so went out to answer them, while the 
Duke of Clarence went on drinking with the Duke of 
Norfolk. But on the second day this joke was carried 
too far, and in the evening the Duke of Norfolk showed 
he was affronted. The Prince took me aside and said 
— * Stay after every one is gone to-night. The Jockey's 
got sulky, and I must give him a broiled bone to get 
him in good humor again.' So of course I stayed, and 
about one o'clock the Prince of Wales and the Duke of 
Clarence, the Duke of Norfolk and myself sat down to 
a supper of broiled bones, the result of which was that, 
having fallen asleep myself, I was awoke by the sound 
of the Duke of Norfolk's snoring. I found the Prince 
of Wales and the Duke of Clarence in a very animated 
discussion as to the particular shape and make of the 
wig worn by George II." 

Creevey's intimacy with the Prince ended 
when the latter became Regent ; and from this 
time on, the letters have plenty of robust crit- 
icism of the Defender of the Faith, who is gen- 
erally referred to as "Prinney." When the 
famous suit for divorce against Queen Caroline 
was underway in the autumn of 1820, Creevey 
was an eager listener to all the proceedings. 
He sent off to his step-daughter hourly notes 
of the trial's progress, and joined lustily in 
the general rejoicings when the Government's 
attack upon the Queen had broken down. 

" Three times three I if you please, before you read a 
word further. The Bill is gone, thank God ! to the 
devil. Their majority was brought down to nine — 108 
to 99; and then the dolorous Liverpool came forward 



[March 1, 

and struck. He moved that his own bill be read this day 
six months. You may well suppose the state we are all 
in. The Queen was in the house at the time, but 
Brougham sent her off instantly. . . . The state of the 
town is beyond everything. I wish to God you could 
see Western. He is close by my side, but has not 
uttered yet — such is his surprise." 

In the autumn of 1814, Mrs. Creevey's 
health beginning to fail, her husband took her 
to Brussels. Considering the date, it turned 
out a singularly inappropriate place for an in- 
valid needing rest and tranquility ; for the 
Creeveys were still there when the return of 
Napoleon from Elba brought on the Hundred 
Days and Waterloo. As Mr. Creevey kept 
quite a full diary during those eventful times, 
and as he was honored with a good deal of the 
Duke of Wellington's confidence, we get some 
new and vivid glimpses of the great soldier. 
When the Duke returned to Brussels after the 
battle of Waterloo, Creevey visited him at his 

" As I approached, I saw people collected in the street 
about the house; and when I got amongst them, the first 
thing I saw was the Duke upstairs alone at his window. 
Upon his recognizing me, he immediately beckoned to 
me with his finger to come up. . . . The first thing I 
did, of course, was to put out my hand and congratu- 
late him upon his victory. He made a variety of obser- 
vations in his short, natural, blunt way, but with the 
greatest gravity all the time, and-without the least ap- 
proach to anything like triumph or joy. « It has been 
a damned serious business,' he said. ' Blficber and I 
have lost 30,000 men. It has been a damned nice 
thing — the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life. 
Bliicher lost 14,000 on Friday night, and got so dam- 
nably licked I could not find him on Saturday morning; 
so I was obliged to fall back to keep up (regain ?) my 
communications with him.' Then, as he walked about, 
he greatly praised those Guards who kept the farm 
(meaning Hougomont) against the repeated attacks of 
the French ; and then he praised all our troops, uttering 
repeated expressions of astonishment at our men's cour- 
age. He repeated so often its being so nice a thing — 
so nearly run a thing, that I asked him if the French 
had fought better than he had ever seen them do before. 

— 'No,' he said, « they have always fought the same 
since I first saw them at Vimeira.' . . . Now that seven 
years have elapsed since that battle, and tho' the Duke 
has become — very foolishly, in my opinion — a poli- 
tician, and has done many wrong and foolish things 
since that time, yet I think of his conversation and 
whole conduct on the 19th — the day after the battle 

— exactly the same as I did then; namely, that nothing 
could do a conqueror more honor than his gravity and 
seriousness at the loss of life he had sustained, his ad- 
mission of his great danger, and the justice he did the 

For so good a Kadical, Creevey could be a 
stout opponent of progress when it took the 
form of railways, the introduction of which 
was bitterly fought by his friends the landed 
proprietors. He submitted, however, like 

everybody else, to the inevitable ; and his de- 
scription of his "first ride on the cars" (which 
in his case was " a ride on the first cars,") has 
a curious interest to-day. 

" 14th (November, 1829). To-day we have had a lark 
of a very high order. Lady Wilton sent over yester- 
day from Knowsley to say that the Loco Motive ma- 
chine was to be at such a place upon the railway at 
12 o'clock for the Knowsley party to ride in if they 
liked, and inviting this house to be of the party. So 
of course we were at our post in 3 carriages and some 
horsemen at the hour appointed. I had the satisfac- 
tion, for I can't call it pleasure, of taking a trip of five 
miles in it, which we did in just a quarter of an hour. 
As accuracy upon this subject was my great object, I 
held my watch in my hand at starting, and all the time; 
and as it has a second hand, I knew I could not be de- 
ceived; and it so turned out there was not the differ- 
ence of a second between the coachee or conductor and 
myself. But observe, during those five miles, the ma- 
chine was occasionally made to put itself out, or go itj 
and then we went at the rate of 23 miles an hour, and 
just with the same ease as to motion or absence of 
friction as the other reduced pace. But the quickest 
motion is to me frightful; it is really flying, and it is 
impossible to divest yourself of the notion of instant 
death to all upon the least accident happening. It gave 
me a headache which has not left me yet. Sefton is 
convinced that some damnable thing must come of it; 
but he and I seem more struck with such apprehension 
than others. . . . The smoke is very inconsiderable 
indeed, but sparks of fire are abroad in some quan- 
tity; one burnt Miss de Ros's cheek, another a hole in 
Lady Maria's silk pelisse, and a third a hole in some 
one else's gown. Altogether, I am extremely glad in- 
deed to have seen this miracle, and to have travelled in 
it. Had I thought worse of it than I do, I should have 
had the curiosity to try it; but, having done so, I am 
quite satisfied with my frst achievement being my last" 

The free and easy atmosphere pervading 
these letters precludes any literary finish ; the 
tone is colloquial and at times low ; slang is 
not eschewed ; and every eminent person of the 
day is regularly nicknamed. George the Third 
is " Old Nobs"; George the Fourth " Prinney "; 
his consort is "Mrs. P."; and William the 
Fourth is "Our Billy." To call the Duke of 
Norfolk "The Jockey" is only historical; less 
obvious are such names as "Slice" for the 
Duke of Gloucester, " The Pop" for the Duchess 
of Cleveland, and " Madagascar " for Lady Hol- 
land ; while Creevey's distrust of the brilliant 
Lord Brougham shows itself in a variety of 
epithets — " Beelzebub," " The Archfiend," 
and " Wickedshifts." 

We have only passing glimpses of some of 
the wits and men of letters whom Creevey was 
continually meeting and dining with, such as 
Sheridan, Sydney Smith, Luttrell, " Tommy " 
Moore, and Samuel Rogers — whose deathly 
appearance is rather heavily satirized by speak- 
ing of him as "the deceased poet." Creevey 




must have heard a great many mots with which 
he might have brightened his pages. He loy- 
ally records a gallant saying of the sailor King, 
William the Fourth, about Lady Wellesley 
(who was a daughter of Mr. Caton, of Phila- 

" When she was in waiting at Windsor, some one, in 
talking of Mrs. TroUope's book, said, < Do you come 
from that part of America where they " guess " and 
where they " calculate " ? * King Billy said, * Lady 
Wellesley comes from where ihej fascinate.' " 

Creevey lived long enough to see the acces- 
sion of Victoria, whose fresh young purity and 
decision of character brought a great sigh of 
relief and hope from a long-burdened nation. 
The veteran politician did ready homage to 
her charm, but coolly and perhaps maliciously 
thus touches up her personality : 

" Here comes in the Queen, the Duchess of Kent the 
least bit in the world behind her, all her ladies in a row 
still more behind; Lord Conyngham and Cavendish on 
each flank of the Queen. . . . She was told by Lord 
Conyngham that I bad not been presented, upon which 
a scene took place that to me was truly distressing. 
The poor little thing could not get her glove off. I 
never was so annoyed in my life; yet what could I do? 
but she blushed and laughed and pulled, till the thing 
was done, and I kissed her hand. . . . Then to dinner. 
. . . The Duchess of Kent was agreeable and chatty, 
and she said, 'Shall we drink some wine?' My eyes, 
however, were all the while fixed upon Vic. To miti- 
gate the harshness of any criticism I may pronounce 
upon her manners, let me express my conviction that 
she and her mother are one. I never saw a more pretty 
or natural devotion than she shows to her mother in 
everything, and I reckon this as by far the most ami- 
able, as well as valuable, disposition to start with in the 
fearful struggle she has in life before her. Now for her 
appearance — but all in the strictest confidence. A 
more homely little being you never beheld, when she is 
at her ease, and she is evidently dying to be always more 
so. She laughs in real earnest, opening her mouth as 
wide as it can go, showing not very pretty gums. . . . 
She eats as heartily as she laughs, I think I may say 
she gobbles. . . . She blushes and laughs every instant 
in so natural a way as to disarm everybody. Her voice 
is perfect, and so is the expression of her face when she 
means to say or do a pretty thing. ... At night I 
played two rubbers of whist, one against the Duchess of 
Kent, and one as her partner. . . . The Queen, in leav- 
ing the room at night, came across quite up to me, and 
said, • How long do you stay at Brighton, Mr. Creevey? ' 
Which I presume could mean nothing else than another 
rubber for her mother. So it's all mighty well." 

We have spoken of these volumes as a book 
by Mr. Creevey. So they are ; but we owe 
their appearance in this form to the industry 
and good taste of Sir Herbert Maxwell, who 
has edited them from the mass of papers placed 
at his disposal by Mrs. Blackett Ord, whose 
husband was the grandson of Mr. Creevey's 
eldest step-daughter. Sir Herbert has con- 
nected the extracts by explanatory paragraphs 

and has supplied plenty of personal footnotes 
telling us " who 's who." His task must have 
been, even at this late day, a delicate one. Bat 
it has probably been done with discrimination, 
and what few comments the editor has allowed 
himself have made us wish for more. The 
portraits, of which there are twenty-one, are 
beautifully reproduced in photogravure from 
pictures by Lawrence, Landseer, and others ; 
and the indispensable index is not wanting. 
JosiAH Kenick Smith. 

Recent Books of Travel..* 

The decadence of travel on American rivers, the 
rise of the Pullman car, and the decline of the pas- 
senger steamboat have left the present generation 
in gross ignorance of some of the finest of nature's 
panoramas, and have made unfamiliar to modern eyes 
the paths of early explorers and navigators, mission- 
aries and soldiers, traders and naturalists. Not the 
least important among these highways of pioneer 
days is the Ohio river, graphically described by Mr. 
Reuben Gold Thwaites in his volume entitled '* On 
the Storied Ohio." Here we are given the narrative 
of a journey by skifiE in 1894 from Brownville on 
the Monongahela to the " Father of Waters " at 
Cairo. An earlier account of this journey was 
printed in 1897 under the title "Afloat on the 
Ohio." The present new edition has been revised, 
and provided with numerous and suitable illustra- 
tions. No one is better able than Mr. Thwaites to 
write of the scenes which the banks of this stream 
witnessed in the early days of our history, nor to 
describe the part which this pathway played in the 
struggles between the English and the French for 
the possession of the West and in the losing fight 
which the red man waged against the pioneer a cen- 
tury and more ago. The book is unique in its 

*0n the Stokibd Ohio. By Reuben Gold Thwaites. 
Illustrated. Chicago: A. G. McClurg & Co. 

Climbs and Explorations in the Canadian Rockies. 
By Hugh £. M. Stutfield and J. Norman Collie. Illustrated. 
New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

A Pleasure Book of Grindelwald. By Daniel P. 
Rhodes. Illustrated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Norwegian By-Wats. By Charles W. Wood. Illus- 
trated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

From Broom to Heather. A Summer in a German 
Castle. By James Taft Hatfield. Illustrated. Cincinnati : 
Jennings & Pye. 

Budapest, the City of the Magyars. By F. Berkeley 
Smith. Illustrated. New York : James Pott & Co. 

To DAY IN Syria and Palestine. By William Eleroy 
Curtis. Illustrated. Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 

Towards the Rising Sun. By Sigmund Krausz. Illus- 
trated. Chicago : Laird & Lee. 

Around the Caribbean and across Panama. By 
Francis C.Nicholas. Illustrated. Boston : H. M. Caldwell Co. 

The Land of the Dons. By Leonard Williams. Illus- 
trated. New York : Cassell & Co. 

Toledo and Madrid. Their Records and Romances. 
By Leonard Williams. Illustrated. New York: Cassell & Co. 



[March 1, 

subject, interesting as a tale of travel and adven- 
ture, and especially valuable on account of its very 
full historical setting. 

Though the Canadian Pacific Railvray has drawn 
public attention to their accessibility in recent years, 
and tourists make short excursions among them 
from Banff and Glacier, the Canadian Rockies are 
but little known. The disappearance of trails over 
the passes following the decline of the fur trade has 
80 hindered exploration that Mounts Brown and 
Hooker, guardians of the Athabascan pass, have 
stood unchallenged since they were named by the 
botanist David Douglass in 1827. They were re- 
duced from their high estate in 1900 by Messrs. 
CoUid and Stutfield, and Mounts Forbes, Colum- 
bia, and Alberta were raised to reign in their stead 
as monarchs of the Rockies. Although members of 
the Appalachian Club have done much of late to 
bring these Canadian peaks and glaciers to the atten- 
tion of lovers of mountain climbing, it is to the 
enterprise of two English sportsmen (not of the 
sanguinary sort) that we are indebted for the fullest 
account yet published of that region. Mr. Hugh 
E. M. Stutfield, noted for his travels in Morocco, 
and Mr. J. Norman Collie, the veteran climber of 
the Himalayas, have made extended exploring trips 
among the Canadian Rockies, climbed many of the 
hitherto unsealed peaks, discovered glaciers and 
snow fields exceeding in extent those of the Alps, 
and completed a number of surveys of uncharted 
territory. A well-illustrated account of their ex- 
ploits is presented in "Climbing and Exploration 
in the Canadian Rockies," a work which gives not 
only the personal experiences of the authors, but in 
an historical rSsumS tells what is known from past 
explorations of surveyors, trappers, and guides. The 
recent writings of other enthusiasts are also quoted, 
so that the volume is an epitome of all that is known 
at present concerning this Switzerland of America. 
A carefully prepared map gives the results of the 
writers' explorations and the elevations thus far de- 
termined, while a chapter on sport and game is in- 
tended for the hunter. Near the Kootenay Plains, an 
old Indian gathering-place, where the tributaries of 
the Saskatchewan draining the largest icefields of 
these mountains unite to form the main stream, is 
the place which seems to the authors an ideal one 
for a tourist centre. " We may fairly anticipate that 
at the mouth of Bear Creek will be the Chamonix 
or Grindelwald of the Canadian Alps in days to 
come, when the remoter peaks and valleys of this 
beautiful region are more accessible to the outside 
world, and the new mountain playground of the 
American continent becomes no longer a dream but 
a reality." 

Mountain climbing in Switzerland presents a 
very different aspect to the novice than in the 
region described in the book just dealt with. In 
Switzerland experienced guides know the various 
routes and are aware of the dangers which beset 
them. A maximum of accomplishment with a mini- 
mum of effort is, barring hostile weather, assured 

to the tourist. The charms and terrors of the 
Jungfrau and the Wetterhorn are revealed in Mr. 
Daniel P. Rhodes's " A Pleasure Book of Grindel- 
wald," a work in which holiday travellers to the 
Oberland will find much of interest " outside of the 
province of the regular guide-books." The read- 
able text and fine illustrations in Mr. Rhodes's 
volume afford an excellent portrayal of the charms 
of this famous valley and its environs, and an in- 
sight into the life of the villagers of the Bernese 
Alps. A novel account is given of Grindelwald in 
winter and the sports at the rink. Those who have 
been, or intend to go, to Switzerland, or who plan 
or practise mountain climbing elsewhere, will find 
Mr. Rhodes's book rewarding. 

The reader who enjoys a running tale of travel, 
full of incident and illumined by conversation and 
small talk on topics more or less pertinent to the 
place and scene, will find his account in Mr. Charles 
W. Wood's " Norwegian By-Ways." The author 
is a veteran traveller well known through his books 
in similar vein on Spain and France. The present 
volume is not a collection of classified or assorted 
information, or even a work dominated by any par- 
ticular aim or revealing any characteristic point of 
view. The passing incident, the chance acquain- 
tance, the skydsgut, the snowfield, — mayhap the 
marmalade, serve as links in the chain of smoothly- 
flowing conversations which make up the greater 
part of the book. Withal it gives a pleasing pic- 
ture of the rugged land and sturdy folk of Norway. 

The story of a quiet summer spent in a quaint 
German castle at Staufenberg in Hessia is told, in 
a manner which brings to the reader much of the 
charm of village life in rural Germany, by Profes- 
sor James Taf t Hatfield, in his book entitled '' From 
Broom to Heather." With its abundant illustra- 
tions the volume affords an excellent picture of 
tourist experiences among Hessian villages and vil- 
lage folk and in the mediaeval town of Rothenberg. 
There is an account of the water cure at Salzscblirf , 
and an interesting chapter on Berlin. Regarding 
the latter city, the author says that " a new spirit 
has come into its architecture, a spirit which ex- 
presses itself in a joyous display of power and super- 
abundant luxury, but which at the same time brings 
to its service a cultured and discriminating taste." 
He notes in Berlin, also, the new movement in 
decorative art, " a long delayed manifesto against 
the heaviness and dulness of traditional styles and 

From the point of view of the Quartier Latin, 
the artist Mr. F. Berkeley Smith writes most enter- 
tainingly of " Budapest, the City of the Magyars," 
— of Pest, the miracle of modernity, with its broad 
streets, fine buildings, up-to-date tramways and 
underground railway, superb opera-house, parks, 
museums, and magnificent Parliament buildings, 
and of Buda with its palace. That this splendid 
city is not better known by the average traveller is 
due, says the author, to the fact that tourists are 
systematically discouraged from stopping at Pest 




by the Viennese, owing to the enmity existing be- 
tween the Austrians and the Hungarians. The au- 
thor is a clever raconteur, and he gives his readers 
a spicy account of his visit to a Magyar nobleman's 
estate, of the theatres, music halls, baths, and clubs 
of the city, and of the gipsy camps and their fa- 
mous music. The work is lavishly supplied with 
illustrations, notable for their excellence and fitness, 
from scenes painted, drawn, or photographed by 
the author. 

In sharp contrast with the cleanliness and en- 
terprise of this Magyar city on the verge of the 
Orient are the filth, antiquated facilities for travel 
and comfort, and the social and political instability 
of " Syria and Palestine of To-day," as described 
by Mr. W. E. Curtis, the veteran newspaper corre- 
spondent. The author makes very apparent the 
inadequacy of Turkish rule and the apathy of the 
people toward the Sultan, and he cites the evidence 
of the profound impression which the visit of the 
German Emperor made upon the country. The 
account of the changes wrought by the five German 
Lutheran colonies, which are made up largely from 
American sources, is of special interest. These col- 
onies are industrial communities which seek to 
regenerate the people of Palestine by offering an 
example of modern civilization and honest industry 
to Gentiles and Jews. Incidentally, their clean 
beds and fair charges are a godsend to travellers 
in a land where filth and extortion abound. Mr. 
Curtis's book, though made up of newspaper 
"copy," is comprehensive, modern, and apparently 
unbiased — except possibly as regards the Turk. 

In his volume entitled " Toward the Rising 
Sun," Mr. Sigmund Krausz takes his readers over 
a much greater extent of territory than do the two 
previous writers, his route lying from Constanti- 
nople, the ports of Greece and Asia Minor, through 
Egypt and India. Mr. Krausz follows the beaten 
path of tourists, recording his personal impressions 
of the sights along the way and freely expressing 
his opinions of the people with whom he comes in 
contact. His point of view appears to be that of 
a matter-of-fact commercial traveller, and his com- 
ments, while interesting and often entertaining, are 
devoid of any historical, sociological, or artistic 
perspective. The illustrations are abundant, but 
not always in good taste or of the best quality. 

A story of personal adventure among the Indians 
of the Mosquito Coast and with the Talamanca 
tribe in Costa Rica, and an account of extended 
travel in the coastal country of the United States of 
Columbia, across the mountains to Bogota, and on 
the Isthmus between Colon and Panama, is con- 
tained in Dr. Francis C Nicholas's "Around the 
Caribbean and across Panama." The author visited 
these countries in the interests of mining and com- 
mercial enterprises, and also in the service of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York. 
His commissions led him far from the few main 
lines of travel into the wilderness of tropical forest 
and waterways, where torrential rains, floods, fever, 

tropical vermin, savage beasts, and treacherous 
natives insure variety and interest, if not comfort 
and safety, to the traveller. Dr. Nicholas favors 
the Panama route for the Isthmian canal, and his 
book contains some interesting, though poorly- 
reproduced, photographs of the proposed route. 
The volume is interesting and timely, though not 
as illuminating on matters of present-day interest 
as many readers might wish. 

Mr. Leonard Williams, author of " The Land of 
the Dons," is an Englishman, whose long residence 
in Spain, together with a facile pen and ability at 
investigation, make him competent to wiite a book 
which covers with some degree of thoroughness not 
only the physical features of the country and the 
characteristics of the inhabitants, but also something 
of its literature, its political and social history, and 
the present national situation. One feels after read- 
ing the volume that much has been learnt about the 
country. Suggestive and interesting is the historical 
sketch to which the last quarter of the book is de- 
voted, under the novel captions, " The Past of the 
Present," "The Present of the Present," "The 
Future of the Present." Here are given a statement 
and summing-up of past mistakes in Spanish policy, 
foreign and internal, and an analysis of the defects 
in the nation's political and social life. The author 
outlines various reforms which a kindly feeling to- 
wards Spain and a belief in her future leads him to 
expect. The book is made delightful by the per- 
sonality of the writer. It is a charmingly humorous 
and upright mind that is here revealed, with a poetic 
temperament occasionally showing itself in some bit 
of perhaps too consciously fine writing. 

Mr. Williams is also the author of a new volume 
entitled "Toledo and Madrid, their Records and 
Romances." With light and vivid touch the writer 
takes us through scenes connected with Toledo's 
past and present. We visit Pedro the Armourer's 
work-shop, and see the famous blade in process of 
construction. We roam about the city, visiting the 
streets of the various crafts, and the ancient market 
with its cheaper stalls set apart for the poor. We 
visit the Jew's quarter, and watch a famous duel. 
It is all a dream that might easily come to one 
where every object so speaks of the past that the 
traveller and the present-day tenant seem anachron- 
isms. The intimate connection of Toledo with the 
ecclesiastical history of Spain, and the overshadow- 
ing of State by Church to the detriment of the 
country, is vividly set forth, and in the author's 
summary of Toledo of to-day is furnished an epitome 
of Spain's decline. The chapters on Madrid are 
devoted largely to historical matters, chiefly to an 
account of the manners and customs of the long 
reign of Philip IV., who came to the throne in 1621. 
The elaborate costumes of man and maid, the ex- 
travagant pastimes, and the vice and crime which 
everywhere flourished are described at length. The 
topography and economic and moral standing of 
" New Madrid " are dwelt on, but little is said con- 
cerning its art or architecture. The volume closes 



[March 1, 

with an historical sketch of the Escorial, and an 
account of a visit to the hirthplace of Cervantes, 
'* the Shakespeare of Spain," where one naay visit 
the rains of the university he attended and see in 
the church his baptismal certificate. 

Charles Atwood Kofoid. 

Briefs on New Books. 

Anuiustrated Volumes II. and IV. of "English 
record oj Literature : An Illustrated Record" 

English liierature. ^aye now been published in this 
country by the Macmillan Co., and the monumental 
work stands complete in its four volumes. What 
we said of it when the first volumes appeared need 
not now be repeated ; we are as glad to have 
these sections as we were to have the earlier ones, 
and the work as a whole is highly satisfactory 
in all respects save that of its inordinate weight, 
the consequence of printing it upon unnecessarily 
thick paper. Two volumes of this size might 
easily have sufficed for the whole, instead of four. 
Dr. Garnett, to our pleasant surprise, is the au- 
thor of about two-thirds of the second volume, 
carrying the record down to the death of Shake- 
speare, and leaving Dr. Gosse to begin his share of 
the task with the Jacobean writers. We say this 
because, on the whole, the work of the senior author 
has a better balance, a surer judgment, and a greater 
degree of accuracy than that of his colleague. In 
his treatment of Shakespeare Dr. Garnett, in our 
opinion, has too much dignified the Baconian lunacy 
by the amount of attention he pays to that most 
amazing of mare's nests. What he says is, of course, 
wholly by way of refutation, but we doubt if it was 
advisable to allude to it at all. And on still other 
grounds we may indulge in a little fault-finding 
when we come upon such an unpunctuated sentence 
as the following : " Bacon might be deemed capable 
of composing the speeches of Ulysses but these wood 
notes wild ! " But the treatment of Shakespeare and 
his group is on the whole admirable : popular in the 
best sense, yet the product of an exacting scholar- 
ship, and beyond all praise in the wealth of its illus- 
trative matter. The illustrations are, of course, the 
essential raison d'Ure of the whole work, and it is 
not easy to say enough in commendation of this 
feature of the record. So rich a collection of por- 
traits, places, autographs, and illuminations has 
never before been made — could hardly have been 
imagined — in connection with the subject of En- 
glish literature, before the appearance of these four 
volumes. Volume IV., if anything a trifle thicker 
and heavier than its predecessors, is entirely the 
work of Dr. Gosse. The illustrations, as the author 
admits, " descend through grades of picturesque 
decline to the period, not merely of the frock-coat 
and of the top-hat, but of that most insesthetic 
instrument, the photographer's lens." However, 
they remain quite as numerous as before, and be- 

come perhaps more varied in their interest. The 
treatment comprises four << Ages," that of Words- 
worth, to 1815, of Byron, to 1840. the Victorian, to 
1870, and that of Tennyson, to 1900. An Epilogue 
of a few pages follows these four sections, and 
introduces portraits of Mr. Swinburne and Mr. 
Meredith, the two greatest Englishmen left us, who 
might not be otherwise included because of the for- 
tunate circumstance that they are still alive. An 
Appendix gives texts of the Old English facsimiles^ 
and translations of the early MSS. and letters. An 
elaborate index to the whole four volumes completes 
the work. 

Feathered life ^^ ^^r very gratifying account of the 
in the land " Birds of California " (McClurg) 

o/tunthine. Mtb. Irene Grosvenor Wheelock has 

shown herself possessed of prime qualities as a stu- 
dent of nature. She has enthusiasm, patience, an 
instinct for close observation, and a capacity for 
arduous labor. Added to these qualities she has 
an easy and picturesque habit of narration which 
allows the interest of her readers no opportunity 
for flagging. Often as she has to relate the indi- 
vidual story of a group of beings with marked dis- 
similarity in traits and manners, she escapes the 
peril of monotony by admirable tact in the man- 
agement of incident and in the choice of felicitous 
phraseology. It was a somewhat daring venture to 
follow in a special field of research so recently and 
ably covered by Mrs. Florence M. Bailey, whose 
" Manual of Birds of the Western United States " 
is accepted as a standard in this department of 
American ornithology. Yet the present writer has 
not imitated or duplicated the achievement of her 
predecessor. She has produced a distinctly original 
work, which proves its raison d'etre by the amount 
of novel information it presents. In this, as in her 
previous popular book on "Nestlings of Forest and 
Marsh," Mrs. Wheelock pays particular attention 
to the babies in the bird world. It is with refer- 
ence to them rather than to the adult that she di- 
rects her investigations, intent upon observing the 
entire course of their development under the care 
and tutelage of the parent. It is a wonder how she 
comes upon so many intimate domestic scenes in 
the life of the birds, how she finds so many skilfully 
hidden homes and guarded secrets in their careful 
keeping. Her book is^the reward of a faithful 
watcher, up with the dawn and out all day long, in 
the fields and the forests, on the water and the 
mountain tops, never stopping for any obstacle that 
a woman's wit and will can overcome. There is 
little mention made of the difficulty and fatigue en- 
countered, but this may be read between the lines. 
It is pleasant to note that so much fruitful work 
was accomplished without the use of a gun. There 
was not a single instance, among the three hundred 
species described, of the murder of a bird or the 
ravage of a nest. Mrs. Wheelock adds substantial 
testimony to the theory that the school is a regular 
institution among wild animals, and that their young 




are trained by persistent discipline to walk in the 
way they should go. She was a frequent witness 
of the lessons in swimming, feeding, flying, and 
singing which the parent bird deems essential to 
the proper education of the fledgling. She like- 
wise furnishes considerable support to the lately- 
discovered fact that many young birds in the nest 
are fed by regurgitation for a length of time vary- 
ing with the species. She records a hundred and 
eighty cases in which the young hatched in a naked 
or semi-naked condition were fed in this manner 
for at least three days. Vultures were so fed for 
ten days, and a few, such as humming-birds and 
swallows, as long as they remained in the nest. 
Mrs. Wheelock has secured in Mr. Bruce Horsfall 
the help of a competent artist for the illustrations 
accompanying her narrative. These number ten 
full-page plates and seventy-eight text-drawings. 
The publishers have earned a full share of com- 
mendation by the rich and handsome dress in which 
they have clothed the book. 

A judiciously selected group of the 
^PZlZt masterpieces of English and Amer- 

ican legal literature, including fo- 
rensic arguments and judicial and professional 
-opinions presented during the nineteenth century 
and the closing half of the eighteenth, has been 
arranged and edited by Mr. Van Vechten Veeder, 
and published under the title of " Legal Master- 
pieces " (Keefe- Davidson Company, St. Paul). The 
purpose of the collection, as expressed by the editor, 
" is to bring together, from the whole field of legal 
literature, specimens of the best models of the va- 
rious forms of discourse and composition in which 
the lawyer's work is embodied." This purpose, of 
illustrating precisely how great jurists have argued 
great questions, has been well attained in these two 
volumes of upwards of 1300 pages. The forensic 
efforts selected are worthy of being gathered into 
such an anthology. Though it is not an exhaustive 
collection, and one misses some favorites and notes 
the absence from the group of such orators and 
advocates as Seward and Garfield and Prentiss, yet 
-it would not be easy to exclude any whom the editor 
has admitted into bis circle. Selections are made 
from the leading efforts of seven of the foremost 
British jurists of the period indicated, among whom 
are Erskine, Curran, and Brougham. Erskine is 
represented in five great arguments, first of which, 
in more than one respect, is that in defense of 
Lord George Gordon against the charge of treason. 
Hamilton, Marshall, Webster, and Curtis are prom- 
inent among the twelve American jurists whose 
forensic work is here accorded place. The selections 
are by no means averaged in number among the 
speakers represented. Chief Justice Marshall and 
Lord Bowen each contribute four judicial opinions, 
and Webster, O'Conor, and Evarts each three legal 
arguments ; while Erskine is drawn upon for five 
similar efforts, and Curtis furnishes three arguments 
at the bar, one opinion as judge, and one charge to 

the jury — five contributions in all. In the selec- 
tions made from this class of professional work, the 
subjects of Constitutional Law and International 
Law are naturally favorites. Webster's persuasive 
addresses in the Dartmouth College case and the 
Rhode Island controversy of Luther vs. Borden, 
Hamilton's convincing opinion in favor of the char- 
ter of the Bank of the United States, and David 
Dudley Field's earnest argument in the McCardle 
case, present worthily the possibilities of American 
Constitutional Jurisprudence. Evarts's argument 
in behalf of the United States before the Geneva 
Arbitration Tribunal recalls a notable episode in 
modern International Law. This great subject is 
the one with which Mr. Veeder's collection appro- 
priately opens, in Lord Mansfield's answer to the 
Prussian Memorial (anno 1753), and with which it 
closes in James C. Carter's argument before the 
Bering Sea Fur Seal Commission (anno 1893). 
Students will welcome the opportunity to secure and 
preserve, in this form, these masterpieces of legal 
literature, most of which have heretofore been ac- 
cessible only in the dry and dusty " reports." The 
collection is rounded out and made symmetrical by 
brief biographical sketches of these masters of fo- 
rensic oratory, in which the reader is made easily 
acquainted with the personality of each of the au- 
thors, and with the leading facts of his career and 
his labors and achievements as a jurist. 

A Southtm Southern women during the Civil 

literary woman War have been the subject of praise 

in the Civil War. j^ g^^g ^^^ gj-^^y^ ^^^ ^jjgy ^iKVH 
seldom been the subjects of biography. The " Life 
and Letters of Margaret Preston " (Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co.) will find many sympathetic readers. 
Margaret Preston is known as the author of some 
stirring war-lyrics, and as a contributor to various 
magazines ; and her life was one of unusual interest. 
Of Northern parentage and association in early life, 
she married Colonel John Preston, who was sub- 
sequently on Stonewall Jackson's staff. As the wife 
of Colonel Preston, the sister-in-law of General 
Jackson, and the daughter of a stanch Abolitionist 
clergyman, Margaret Preston was tried between 
loyalty to her father and to her husband, to her 
native and her adopted State. With courageous 
strength and gentle pride, she stood by her hus- 
band and his cause in the hour of their greatest 
trial. And herein lies the chief value of her pub- 
lished biography, — that although in manners and 
customs she was thoroughly Southern, she saw the 
strenuous life of the Southern women in war-time 
from a sympathetic Northern woman's point of 
view. While one can speak, not unappreciatively, 
of her biographer's " magnified epitaph," one can 
read only with keen delight the almost wholly auto- 
biographic chapters entitled "A Journal of War 
Times " and " Post-Bellum Days." In these chap- 
ters are a gentle woman's thoughts of the suffering 
innocent ; of woman's hand at man's work ; and of 
the weariness and cruelty of war. These chapters 



[March 1, 

have other attractions : pictures of Jackson, Lee, 
Maury ; the prices of household stuffs ; accounts 
of the occupation of the home tovrn hy Federal 
troops ; the shifts to which the women were driven 
to make life hearahle, — all making an interesting 
and instructive commentary on woman's life in the 
South during the days of war and reconstruction. 
If the author and editor of the volume had given 
more of the Journal, and fewer letters, omitting 
even the correspondence with Longfellow, Whittier, 
Burroughs, and Jean Ingelow, she would have added 
to the interest of the book. The correspondence 
between Paul Hayne and Mrs. Preston is of inter- 
est only so far as it adds to our information of the 
struggles of Southern literary men, — a struggle 
only too well known in the cases of Poe, Timrod, 
and Lanier. The Life and Letters of Mrs. Preston 
are prepared for publication by her step-daughter, 
Elizabeth Preston Allan. Another Southerner, 
Professor James A. Harrison, has written a thirty- 
seven page appendix in praise of Mrs. Preston as 
a woman and as a poet. As to her womanly quali- 
ties, there can be no dispute ; but of her poetry 
there can hardly as yet be a final decision. If any 
of her poems are to live, it seems likely that they 
will be those written in the white-heat of her 
"Journal of War Times." 

The Catholic 
revival in 

A glance at the table of contents of 
Mr. Wilfrid Ward's " Problems and 
Persons " (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 
promises more of general interest than the book 
itself fulfils, for the simple reason that most of the 
essays reprinted here are now several years behind 
the times. And yet this very fact, coupled with the 
knowledge that at the time of their writing — in no 
case more than eight years ago — Mr. Ward was 
well abreast of the age, adds weight to the author's 
main argument, that theology, the most nearly 
changeless of the sciences, has fallen into line with 
the other sciences in a gradual process of evolution. 
Of the eleven essays that compose the volume, the 
majority deal with this problem in its various phases, 
— " The Time Spirit of the Nineteenth Century," 
" The Rigidity of Rome," "Unchanging Dogma and 
Changeful Man," and "The Foundations of Belief," 
these abstract discussions being supplemented by 
the more concrete illustrations of the life-work of 
Cardinals Newman and Wiseman. The book is 
essentially a history of the Catholic revival in En- 
gland, its causes and its leaders. But to-day we 
take for granted what seemed like a new revela- 
tion, even to progressive theologians, at the time 
when Mr. Ward's essays were written, — namely, 
that the Semper eadem of the Catholic Church is 
not identical with nnplastic rigidity, but is thor- 
oughly compatible with the assimilation of contem- 
porary scientific principles. " The evolutionary 
view, which broke up the old supposition as to the 
fixity of theology, brings its own compensation. A 
fixed theology, viewed as final, was the analogue to 
a view of the universe which failed in other depart- 

ments to grasp evolution as a fact. An avowedly 
living and developing theology, on the other hand, 
— a theology viewed as consisting of ideas capable of 
organic growth, the symbolic expression of a living 
and lasting Divine truth, — is the analogue to a sci- 
ence which contemplates and investigates the laws 
of evolution in all other departments." But we no 
longer recognize any other than the evolutionary 
theology ; and while the history is interesting, the 
argument is wasted. Cardinal Newman and Car- 
dinal Wiseman have done their work so well that 
many of their most advanced and radical theories 
are accepted, and even enlarged, by those for whom 
the great men hoped only to prepare the way to- 
ward a future understanding. So rapidly all sci- 
ence, even the science of theology, has moved in 
the last generation. The essay devoted to the life- 
work of Cardinal Wiseman and his personal char- 
acterization is easily the most interesting and the 
most vital in the book, — the other essays concerning 
Persons, including the Tennyson and Huxley re- 
miniscences, seeming somewhat out of place, and 
adding nothing definite to our knowledge of the 
men beyond some interesting personal anecdotes. 

mu, volumes in The latest issues of Mr. Archer 
the"Hisiorie Butler Hulbert's series of " Historic 

Highway*" series. Highways" (Arthur H. Clark Co., 
Cleveland) are volumes seven and nine, — the pub- 
lication of an omitted volume, relating to Military 
Roads, having been postponed for further in- 
vestigation. Volume seven relates to " Portage 
Paths," which are strikingly characterized as "The 
Keys of the Continent." It is divided into two 
parts. Part I. gives a description of portages^ 
those between the headwaters of rivers and those 
around obstructions in rivers, and a history of 
portages, their use by Indians and the early ex 
plorers, their strategic importance in the struggle 
between the red and white man and their later em- 
ployment for roads and canals. Part II. gives a 
list of twenty-nine portages, with particular descrip- 
tions of some of them. The first, connecting the 
St. John with the Bay of Chaleur, is not so de- 
scribed; and the last, connecting Lake Superior 
with Hudson's Bay by way of the Lake of the 
Woods, has apparently been "pied" by the printer. 
The intervening portages, except for those around 
Niagara Falls, consist of two classes, — those 
between the St. Lawrence or the Lakes and the 
Atlantic rivers, and those connecting the Lakes 
with the tributaries of the Ohio and the Mississippi. 
There is a good account of the Oneida portage, but 
many of the other descriptions are very meagre. — 
Volume nine, entitled "Waterways of Western 
Expansion," is entirely devoted to the Ohio and its 
tributaries. It treats of the expedition of C^loron 
de Bienville, the extinction of Indian title in Ohio, 
the diflficulties of river navigation, the evolution of 
river craft from the canoe and pirogue to the flat- 
boat, keel-boat, and steam-boat, the character of suc- 
cessive generations of rivermen, and the expenditures 




of the federal government for the improvement of 
the navigation of the Ohio. The title "Our First 
Glimpse of the Ohio," which the Cdloron chapter 
bears, conveys the erroneous impression that Euro- 
pean knowledge of the river began with that expe- 
dition. The Indian treaties of 1785 and 1786, 
recounted in the second chapter, were never carried 
into effect, but were superseded by the treaty of 
Greenville. The extracts from " The Navigator " 
suggest some account of that publication, and of 
other river-guides ; but none is given. We natur- 
ally look for narratives of pioneer voyages down 
the river, but do not find them. Both of the vol- 
umes exhibit the merits and the faults of the earlier 
ones. They are entertaining and suggestive, but 
are so far from complete that the reader cannot 
resist the conclusion that the work has been pushed 
too rapidly. The publishers have decided to break 
a hundred sets of the series, so that, for a time at 
least, the volumes may be had separately. 

The second volume of Mr. Charles 
HUtoryofthe Qman's " History of the Peninsular 

Peninsular War. -rrr ,> ^r\ r •, tt • • -n \ • 

War (Oxford University Fress) is 
of even larger bulk than was the first. This is due 
mainly to the existence of much more original ma- 
terial for the campaigns of 1809 than was found 
for 1808, and to the fact that the unity of treatment 
hitherto permissible is prohibited in 1809 by the 
multiplication of the centres of military activity. 
In the later year the campaigns in some degree 
ceased to be national, and became local and isolated. 
Each of these local campaigns have been treated 
with infinite pains in exact statement, and with the 
same genius for military detail evinced in the first 
volume. The cordial reception given that first vol- 
ume has evidently encouraged Mr. Oman to criticise 
more directly and specifically the work of Napier 
as a historian, and such criticism is less apologetic- 
ally stated. Thus, he shows us that Napier's de- 
scription and plan of Wellesley's passage of the 
Douro, in the face of a French army, are wholly 
untrustworthy, and that Napier " had either never 
seen the ground, or had forgotten its aspect after 
the lapse of years." In the case also of the famous 
second siege of Saragossa, Napier's denunciation 
of the incapacity of Palafox is largely disproved by 
Mr. Oman. Palafox, he says, was no doubt ineffi- 
cient in certain details of military engineering, but 
nevertheless had made magnificent preparations for 
the provisioning of the beleaguered city, had created, 
largely by his personal enthusiasm, an intense fanat- 
ical patriotism in the breasts of soldiers and citizens, 
and was, at every critical stage of the siege, the very 
soul of the defense. In the end, Saragossa was 
conquered by typhus, much more than by the as- 
saults of the French. Even in such dramatic in- 
cidents as this siege, it is evident that Mr. Oman's 
principal genius lies in the depiction of purely mili- 
tary movements ; and it is for this that his present 
work must take high rank. Extreme technical 
detail, involving the movements not only of main 

divisions of an army but of mere fragments of a 
division as well, results in somewhat wearisome 
reading at times. But this is inevitable, if one be not 
deeply interested in military technique ; and in any 
event the omission of detail would have deprived 
the author alike of his own chief interest and of 
his distinct service to history. 

Journalism as 
a profession. 

Few men have been better qualified 
to write of the trials and tribulations 
of journalism as a profession than 
was Mr. Julian Ralph. A quarter of a century of 
active experience in the newspaper business in 
America and Europe, not to mention magazine 
work in the lines of travel and descriptive work — 
<< which is closer than a cousinship to newspaper 
work " — has given him an intimate knowledge of 
this field of endeavor. In " The Making of a 
Journalist" (Harper) he has shown us that news- 
paper life is '' not a little subject," and has pointed 
out how widely one can stray without losing touch 
of it. *' Napoleon not only depended upon the press 
to prepare France for his plans and to execute many 
of them, but he directed and worked the newspapers 
in a way which was instinct with the spirit and 
genius of journalism. Bismarck's death leaves him 
revealed to us as an editorial manipulator of news- 
papers in a way and to a degree which assures us 
that the spirit of the newspaper man, as well as a 
correct view of the power and processes of the press, 
were his." The author has devoted interesting chap- 
ters to newspaper interviewing, criminal reporting, 
war correspondence, gathering of election returns, 
the mysterious '' sixth sense " in journalism, the 
reporter's power in state and national politics, etc., 
illustrating each with incidents and examples from 
his individual experience. The work has just that 
amount of personal interest which makes us feel 
that we are taken into the confidence of the writer, 
and does not assume that ex cathedra tone which 
one frequently encounters in the writings of a spe- 
cialist on any subject. 

Elements of 

Architecture is the youngest of the 
arts in America, and a popular knowl- 
edge and appreciation of it are as 
yet undeveloped among us. Hence a book written 
in popular language, giving some of the principles 
of architectural criticism, is timely and should prove 
useful. Mr. Russell Sturgis is not only the leading 
critic of architecture in this country, but he has, 
through his "Dictionary of Architecture," made 
himself an acknowledged authority upon all archi- 
tectural subjects. His essays in elementary archi- 
tectural criticism, in " How to Judge Architecture" 
(Baker & Taylor Co.), are entitled to a wide read- 
ing ; and the book, with its admirable illustrations, 
numbering more than eighty, is a valuable contri- 
bution to the rapidly growing number of hand- 
books of art education. It is just possible that Mr. 
Sturgis is too fine a critic, and too much of an 
expositor of his art, to treat the subject in a popu- 



[March 1, 

lar manner; and though he seeks, by foot-note 
definitions of every technical term he uses, to make 
his meaning perfectly clear, he may yet fail to bring 
to the gentle art of criticism many followers from 
the ranks of the laity. Perhaps, however, this is 
only to be said after a comparison of his work with 
such a book as Statham's "Architecture for General 
Readers," which must hold its own as a popular 
educator wherever it is known. But Mr. Sturgis's 
book is entitled to high praise, and will tend to a 
more general understanding of the subject. 

A biography of General Philip Schuy- 

^new life of ^er, more in keeping with the modern 

Philip Schuyler. ' , . t • » 

style of treatment than l/ossing s, 

which was published more than two-score years ago, 
is supplied by Mr. Bayard Tuckerman (Dodd, 
Mead & Co.). The material for the composition 
has been collected, it is claimed, from the papers 
and order-book of General Schuyler, from the Gates 
papers in the New York Historical Society, and 
from the archives of the Department of State in 
Washington. The early part of Schuyler's life has 
a just proportion, but his military services in the 
old French and the Revolutionary wars make up 
the bulk of the volume. His civic services in later 
life are reduced to a minimum. The Gates-Schuyler 
rivalry occupies many pages, the substitution of the 
former for the latter in the Northern command 
being attributed to the unwillingness of the New 
England troops to serve under " the Dutchman," 
with his strict discipline and military order, and to 
the persistent intrigue of Gates himself. Washing- 
ton is represented as listening to " one-sided ac- 
counts " in certain instances where Schuyler was 
concerned. The writer confesses that Schuyler 
lacked genius or extraordinary talent of any kind, 
but finds a praiseworthy motive of genuine love of 
country in his actions. 

A«u«,„^tf„i The period in French history be- 
An uneventful r , ,. /. tt ttt j 

period of tween the death of Henry IV. and 

French history. ^jjg pjgg |.q power of RichcHeu is 
singularly devoid of general interest. But for the 
fact that the session of the States General in 1614 
was the last meeting of that body before the Revo- 
lution, there is hardly anything that rises above the 
level of personal intrigues. Dr. A. P. Lord, who 
presents in his " Regency of Marie de M^dicis " 
(Holt) a study of the years 1610-1616, has evi- 
dently felt this narrowing of interest, and his book 
is mainly concerned with the schemes of the princes. 
He has also tried to throw light upon the exact cir- 
cumstances under which Sully was forced to retire. 
His chapters are based upon a careful study of the 
sources and of the work of the late Professor Ber- 
thold Zelbr. One may venture to ask why he has 
made no apparent use of the two remarkable vol- 
umes of Hanotaux upon the earlier years of Riche- 
lieu, for they contain an important interpretation 
of the period. The volume is enriched by several 
portraits taken from the collection in the Louvre. 


A group of Petrarch's sonnets, nine in number, 
together with one canzone, has been translated into- 
English with singular success by Miss Agnes Tobin, 
and published by Mr. Howard Wilford Bell in an 
exquisite and luxurious vellum-bound volume called 
"Love's Crucifix." Miss Tobin's versions are good as 
reproductions and good also as English poems — a 
twofold excellence which translators rarely achieve. A 
series of black and white drawings by Mr. Graham 
Robertson adorn the volume, and are in keeping with 
the charm of the verse. The edition is limited, and 
only one hundred copies are offered for sale in this 

Two new volumes have just been added to " The 
Musician's Library " by the Oliver Ditson Co. " Forty 
Songs by Johannes Brahms " is edited by Mr. Jamea 
Huneker, and provides a typical representation of the 
work of the composer in all the stages of its develop- 
ment. Mr. August Spanuth is the editor of " Twenty 
Piano Transcriptions by Franz Liszt," which includes 
examples from eleven composers. Among the pieces 
are Paganini's " Campanella," Schubert's "Da Bist 
die Ruh," Verdi's " Rigoletto," and three of the Wagner 
arrangements. Each of these volumes has the usual 
portrait of the composer and a prefatory critical essay. 

It is so long since we have had a new volume in the 
"Cranford Series" (Macmillan) that the appearance 
of Fanny Burney's " Evelina " in this charming setting 
is a pleasure the more to be appreciated because unex- 
pected. Mr. Austin Dobson as editor and Mr. Hugh 
Thomson as illustrator have rarely had a more con- 
genial subject than is afforded them here, and it is 
needless to say that the Introduction of the one and 
the pen-and-ink drawings of the other are thoroughly 
delightful. Often as we may have read " Evelina " be- 
fore, it will be impossible to resist a fresh perusal in 
this latest and best of all editions. 

A " Recueil de Locutions FranQaises," by M. Armand- 
Georges Billaudeau, is published in Paris by MM. 
Boyveau and Chevillet, and supplied to the American 
market by Mr. G. E. Stechert. The work contains 
about fifty thousand French phrases, proverbial, famil- 
iar, or figurative, for which English equivalents are 
provided — a matter of much ingenuity in many of the 
eases. We are bound to say that a good many of the 
English idioms here given have been invented for the 
occasion, but the book, taken with judgment, ought to 
be found exceedingly useful by translators from French 
into English. 

Professor Charles Gide's " Principles of Political 
Economy" was first translated for the use of American 
students about twelve years ago. The work has to a 
singular degree the qualities of lucidity and interest in 
which the French are the masters of the rest of man- 
kind, and at once took its place as one of the very best 
of general treatises upon its subject. A revised Amer- 
ican edition of this book has just been published by 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., having been retranslated by 
Dr. C. William A. Veditz from the latest form of the 
original, and adapted for our use (with the author's 
sanction) by the substitution of American illustrative 
material for the French material employed by the 
author. It is a book of singular interest and value, 
and most successfully redeems the subject of economics 
from the charge of being a " dismal " science. 





Mr. Arthur Henry's forthcoming story of a return 
to Nature, entitled " The House in the Woods," will 
bear the imprint of Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. 

" A First Book in Latin," by Messrs. Hiram Tuell 
and Harold North Fowler, is published in a revised 
edition by Messrs. Benjamin H. Sanborn & Co. 

" How the People Rule," by Mr. Charles D. Hoxie, 
is a book of very elementary " civics for boys and 
girls," published by Messrs. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Dr. Max Planck's " Treatise on Thermodynamics," 
translated with the author's sanction by Dr. Alexander 
0&g» '8 * recent publication of Messrs. Longmans, 
•Green, & Co. 

Messrs. J. F. Taylor & Co. publish a " Manual of 
Forensic Quotations," from speeches by distinguished 
lawyers, a work prepared by Messrs. Leon Mead and 
F. N. Gilbert. 

Professor Buel P. Colton's " Z jology. Descriptive 
and Practical " is published by Messrs. Ginn & Co., the 
two parts now united in a single volume, although still 
separately paged. 

The Macmillau Co. publish a " New Physical Geog- 
raphy," by Professor Ralph S. Tarr, the latest in a long 
series of exceptionally good and successful text-books 
upon this subject. 

An English prose translation of Cynewulf 's " Elene," 
made by Mr. Lucius Hudson Holt, is published as one 
of the series of " Yale Studies in English " by Messrs. 
Henry Holt & Co. 

"Stories of the Ancient Greeks," by Mr. Charles 
D. Shaw, is a collection of myths and hero-tales retold 
for children in simple language. It is published by 
Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

Stevenson's '< Treasure Island," edited by Miss Theda 
Gildermeister, is published by Messrs. Rand, McNally 
& Co. in an illustrated edition, with biography and notes, 
for the use of schools. 

" A First Book in Business Methods," published by 
Messrs. Rand, McNally & Co., is a useful book for 
rschools, and has been prepared by Messrs. William P. 
Teller and Henry E. Brown. 

"Electric Traction," by Mr. John Hall Rider, is 
"a practical handbook on the application of electricity 
as a motive power," published in " The Specialists' 
;Series " by the Messrs. Macmillan. 

"Whittaker's Anatomical Model of the Female 
•Human Body," accompanied by descriptive letter- 
press, and prepared by Mr. William S. Furneaux, is a 
recent publication of Mr. Thomas Whittaker. 

Professor W. W. Goodwin has prepared a school 
edition of " Demosthenes on the Crown" by abridging 
his larger edition of the same work published some 
three years ago. The volume is published by the 
Macmillan Co. 

In the new volumes of the " English Men of Letters " 
series to be published this spring by the Macmillan Co., 
the Hon. Emily Lawless will write of Maria Edgeworth, 
Canon H. C. Beeching of Jane Austen, and Sir Leslie 
Stephen of Hobbes. 

Mr. Tuley Francis Huntington is the author of a 
text-book on the " Elements of English Composition " 
for secondary schools. Not rules but habits, is the 
motto of the work, and an excellent one it is. The book 
lis published by the Macmillan Co. 

Mrs. Hugh Eraser's " Letters from Japan " is to be 
published by the Macmillan Co. early in March in a 
new one-volume edition containing all the original illus- 
trations. This charming " record of modern life in the 
Island Empire" was first issued five years ago. 

The American Book Co. send us a book of " Field 
and Laboratory Exercises in Physical Geography," by 
Mr. James F. Chamberlain. We have from the same 
publishers a " Physical Laboratory Manual for Second- 
ary Schools," by Mr. S. E. Coleman. 

Dr. Josiab Strong, head of the American Institute 
for Social Service in New York, has prepared for the 
Baker & Taylor Co. of New York a year book of 
"Social Progress," made up of social, economic, and 
religious statistics from all parts of the world. 

The " Geography of South and East Africa," by Mr. 
C. P. Lucas, extracted from " A Historical Geography 
of the English Colonies," and revised to date by Mr. 
Hugh Edward Egerton, now makes a volume by itself , 
and is published at the Oxford Clarendon Press. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. publish a new edition 
of " The Defence of Guenevere, and Other Poems," by 
William Morris. This is a reprint of the edition of 
four years ago, which embodied the revisions made by 
the author for his own Kelmscott Press edition of 1892. 

An interesting collection of early Victorian anecdote, 
gossip, and reminiscences is said to have been brought 
to light in England by the publication of the Memoirs 
of Anna Pickering as edited by her son. The book is 
to be published soon in this country by Messrs. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

" Consolatio" is the title of an ode written by Pro- 
fessor Raymond Macdonald Alden, and published by 
Messrs. Paul Elder & Co. The poem is in memory of 
certain students of Stanford University who died last 
June a few days before the time of their expected 

The new edition of the Lewis and Clark Journals in 
convenient form, which Messrs. A, S. Barnes & Co. are 
preparing for immediate issue, will contain a general 
introduction and an account of the Louisiana Purchase 
by Professor John Bach McMaster and an identifica- 
tion of the route of the explorers by Mr. Ripley Hitch- 

Miss Margaret Morley, whose original nature books 
have brought her a secure reputation, has written an 
entertaining volume about squirrel life, which she has 
named " Little Mitchell, the Story of a Mountain Squir- 
rel." Miss Morley's publishers, Messrs. A. C. McClurg 
& Co., will issue the book this Spring, with sympathetic 
illustrations by Mr. Bruce Horsfall. 

The American Book Co. publish a new " Gateway 
Series " of English classics for schools, under the gen- 
eral editorship of the Rev. Henry van Dyke. Three 
volumes are now at hand: Macaulay's Essay on Milton, 
edited by Mr. E. L. Gulick; Carlyle's Essay on Burns, 
edited by Professor Edward Mims; and Shakespeare's 
"Merchant of Venice," edited by Professor Felix 

Mr. William Vaughn Moody has for some years been 
working on a trilogy of dramatic poems dealing with 
the Promethean legend. The first of the three, entitled 
" The Fire-Bringer," will be published next month 
by Messrs. Houghton, Miffiin & Co. The second has 
already been published under the title of " A Masque 
of Judgment." Mr. Moody expects to complete the 
third during the next two or three years. 



[March 1, 

The February issue of " The Burlington Magazine " 
contains an interesting prospectus of articles planned for 
publication during the present year, including contribu- 
tions from many of the most authoritative art critics of 
the day. The American edition of this magazine de luxe 
now appears with the imprint of the Macmillan Co. 

Volume I. of " Testing of Electro-Magnetic Ma- 
chinery and Other Apparatus," by Messrs. Bernard 
Victor Swenson and Budd Frankenfield, is a practical 
treatise on electrical engineering published by the Mac- 
millan Co. ''Direct Currents" is the special subject 
of this first volume. 

The English "Who's Who" for 1904, being the 
fifty-sixth annual issue of this valuable book of refer- 
ence, is sent us by the Macmillan Co. It records occur- 
rences down to the middle of last September. The 
prefatory tables which formerly accompanied these 
volumes have now disappeared altogether, to be pub- 
lished hereafter in separate form, and the seventeen 
hundred pages of the work now contain biographies 
alone. As we have remarked before, the selection of 
American names is capricious. 

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons announce that here- 
after their business will be carried on as a corporation 
under the title of Charles Scribner's Sous, Incorporated. 
There will be no change in the management or meth- 
ods of the business, which will go on in all its depart- 
ments as heretofore. Advantage will be taken of the 
opportunity for associating more closely some of those 
who for years have been connected with the organiza- 
tion. The officers of the Company are Charles Scrib- 
ner, president; Arthur H. Scribner, vice-president and 
treasurer; Edwin W. Morse, secretary. 

The Messrs. Scribner will begin publication this 
month of an important series of biographical and crit- 
ical studies of well-known authors of all countries, 
under the general title of " Literary Lives." Dr. W. 
Robertson NicoU is editor of the series, and the first 
two volumes, on Matthew Arnold and Cardinal Newman, 
are the work of Mr. G. W. E. Russell and Dr. William 
Barry respectively. Early volumes are promised by 
Mr. W. Hale White on John Bunyan, Mr. Clement K. 
Shorter on Charlotte Bronte, Dr. Nicoll on R. M. 
Hutton, Professor Edward Dowden on Goethe, and Miss 
Louise Imogen Guiney on William Hazlitt. 

"The Shorter Poems of Alfred Tennyson," edited by 
Mr. Charles Read Nutter, and Book I. of Spenser's 
" Faerie Queene," edited by Professor George Arm- 
strong Wauchope, are two new " Pocket Classics " pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Co. Other English texts for 
school use are " Macbeth," edited by Mr. George Smith, 
and "The Tempest," edited by Mr. Oliphant Smeaton, 
published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co.; "The Mer- 
chant of Venice," edited by Dr. William J. Rolfe, pub- 
lished by the American Book Co.; and Macaulay's 
"Life of Samuel Johnson," edited by Mr. Charles Lane 
Hanson, published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

Publication of their complete and definitive edition of 
the Journals of Lewis and Clark will soon be begun by 
Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co., under the editorship of Mr. 
Reuben Gold Thwaites. The original journals of the 
expedition are now in the possession of the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Although these 
journals have formed the basis for many published ac- 
counts of the expedition, it is claimed they have never 
before been made public in the exact form and manner 
in which they were actually written by the explorers. 
A still more remarkable fact is, according to the 

publishers' statement, that the accounts heretofore pub- 
lished have been not only more of a paraphrase than a 
reproduction, but they have totally ignored a great 
mass of valuable information. It is said that the forth- 
coming edition will include much important material! 
heretofore unpublished. 

Topics in LiEAding Periodicals. 

March, 1904. 

Advertising, Public, Abuses of. C. M. Robinson. Atlantic. 
Alphabet, History of the. H.S.Williams. Harper, 
America Competing against Itself. World''s Work. 
Animals, On Humanizing the. John Burroughs. Century. 
Army, The, and Anti Canteen Legislation. No. American. 
Asia, Economic Changes in. Arthur J. Brown. Century. 
Ballooning over the Alps. J. I. McCallura. World^s Work. 
Baltimore Disaster, Lessons of the. Review of Reviews. 
Baltimore Fire, The. J.M.Rogers. Review of Reviews. 
Beggar's Pouch, The. Agnes Repplier. Atlantic. 
Bible Society Centennial, The. D. C. Oilman. No. American. 
Bismarck, A Visit to. Henry Villard. Century. 
Books Unread. Thomas W. Higginson. Atlantic. 
Bourse, The Paris. Cleveland Moffett. Century. 
Business, The Small, as a School of Manhood. Atlantic. 
Civilization, A Sioux Indian's First Impressions of. Harper. 
Coal Strike, What Has Followed the. World^s Work. 
Commercial Union, American. Wharton Barker. No. Amer. 
Constitution and Querri6re, Fight of. A. T. Mahan. Scribner. 
Desert Irrigation in Far West. L. R. Freeman. Rev. of Revs. 
Diplomacy, American, Beginnings of. J. B. Moore. Harper. 
Elasticity and Sound Banking. F. A. Cleveland. No. Amer. 
England and the Russo-Japanese War. No. American. 
Far-Eastern Trade, A Menance to America's. No. American. 
Farming under Glass. B.T.Galloway. World^sWork. 
Garden Idyll, A. Kate Whiting Patch. Harper. 
Gentlewoman, Return of. Harriet L. Bradley. Atlantic. 
Germany, A Letter from, W. C. Dreher. Atlantic. 
Haiti, A Century of Independence in. Review of Reviews. 
Hanna, Senator. L. A. Coolidge. Review of Reviews. 
Hawthorne Letters, A Group of. Julian Hawthorne. Harper. 
Hoist, Hermann von. Lucia Hammond. Review of Reviews. 
Industrial Manager, The Modern. H. Wisby. World^s Work. 
Insect Commonwealths. H. C. McCook. Harper. 
Japan, Men Who Are " Doing Things " for. Rev. of Reviews. 
Korea. Japan, and Russia. R. E. Speer. World's Work. 
Labor Unions, A Workingman on. R. B. Grant. Century. 
Labor Unions, Race Factors in. W.Z.Ripley. Atlantic. 
Labrador " Liveyere," The. Norman Duncan. Harper. 
"Mary Had a Little Lamb" and its Author. Century. 
Menomonie's Ideal Schools. Adele Shaw. World's Work. 
Mesa, The Enchanted. Benjamin Brooks. Scribner. 
Mommsen, Theodor. Jesse B, Carter. Atlantic. 
Newspapers, Why Disbelieved. E. Bok. World's Work. 
Panama and Canal, Latin- American Views of. Rev. of Revs, 
Panama and its People. F.C.Nicholson. Review of Reviews. 
Panama Canal, Control of Approach to the. World's WOrk. 
Polar Campaign, The. J. Scott Keltie. No. American. 
Pope, An Interview with the. Review of Reviews. 
Pope, Anecdotes of the New. W. J. D. Croke. Century. 
Post-Ofiace and the People. M. G. Cuniff. World's Work. 
Prescott the Man. Rollo Ogden, Atlantic. 
Public Opinion, Making of. Rollo Ogden. Century. 
Railroading, Ten Years' Advanea in. World's Work. 
Rugby, Little. Roy Rolfe Gilson. Harper. 
Russia, Why Japan Resists. K. Takahira. No. American. 
Russian Commanders in the Far East. Review of Reviews. 
Russian Jew Americanized. E. S. Brudno. World's Work. 
Santo Domingo. Charles S. Salomon. Review of Reviews. 
South American Desert. Crossing a. C. J. Post. Harper. 
Strauss, Richard. James Huneker. Scribner. 
Warfare, An Untechnical View of. North American. 
Western Sea, Search for the. Agnes C. Laut. Scribner. 
Woman Suffrage, Advantage of, to the State. No. American. 




List of Nkw Books. 

[The following list, containing 55 titles, includes books 
received by The Dial since its last issue.] 

William Penn, as the Founder of Two Commonwealths. By 

Augustus C. Huell. Ilhis., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 368. 

D. Appleton & Co. $2.25 net. 
William Pepper, M.D., LL.D. (1843-1898). Provost of the 

University of Pennsylvania. By Francis Newton Thorpe. 

Illus. in photogravure, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 555. 

J. B. Lippincott Co. $3.50 net. 
The Memoirs of Rufas Putnam, and Certain Official 

Papers and Correspondence. Compiled and annotated 

by Rowena Buell. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, pp. 460. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $4. net. 
The Man Roosevelt: A Portr.iJt Sketch. By Francis E. 

Leupp. Illus., 12mo, pp. 341. D. Appleton & Co. $1.25 net. 
James Oglethorpe, the Founder of Georgia. By Harriet 

C. Cooper. Illus., 12mo, pp. 217. " Historic Lives." 

D. Appleton & Co. Si. net. 

Jeremy Taylor. By Edmund Qosse. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 234. "English Men of Letters." Macmillan Co. 

75 cts. net. 

The Oligarchy of Venice: An Essay. By George B. 

McClellan. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 216. Houghton, Mifflin 

&Co. $125 net. 

The Angler's Secret. By Charles Bradford, 12mo, pp.206. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. net. 
Sonie Silent Teachers. By Elizabeth Harrison. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 187. Chicago : Sigma Publishing Co. 


Hypatia. By Charles Kingsley. With frontispiece, 18mo, 
gilt top, pp. 467. "New Century Library." Thomas 
Nelson & Sons. Cloth, $1.; limp leather, $1.50. 

The Grave: A Poem. By Robert Blair; illus. with 12 
etchings by L. Schiavonetti from the original inven- 
tions of William Blake. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 44. 
D. Appleton & Co. 81.25. 

Songs of Content. By the late Ralph Erwin Gibbs ; edited 

by Charles Mills Gayley. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 82. 

Paul Elder & Co. $1. net. 
Poems of John Cleveland. Annotated and correctly 

printed for the first time. Edited by John M. Berdan, 

Ph. D. With photogravure portrait. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 270. 

New York: The Grafton Press. $1.50 net. 
Asters and Qolden-Rod, and Other Poems. By George 

Lansing Taylor, D.D. With portrait, 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 201. Eaton & Mains. $1. net. 
Consolatio: Ode in Memory of the Members of the Class of 

1903 of Stanford University who Died during the Month 

of their Graduation. By Raymond Macdonald Alden. 

8to, pp. 12. Paul Elder & Co. Paper, 50 cts. net. 


The Story of Susan. By Mrs. Henry Dndeney. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 384. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
The Daysprlng. By Dr. William Barry. 12mo, pp. 331. 

Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
Violett: A Chronicle. Bv Baroness von Hatten. 12mo, 

pp. 285. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.50. 
The Woodhouse Correspondence. By George W. E. 

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[March 1, 1904. 

Professor Shaler's New Book 


A Study of the Individual and 
the Government 

fessor of Geology in Harvard University; Dean of 
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A Short Biography 

By R. M. JOHNSTON, Lecturer in Italian History at 
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The Political Theories of the Ancient Worid 

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Praeparatio : Holy Days ; 

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Spring announcement number 



^ittrarjT Critirism, gistussiotr, antr Jnformatioit. 

EDITED BY \ Volume XXXVI. nUir'Ar'O MAPPH 1ft 1 QAzl JO c<*. o copy. J FiNE ARTS BtJILDING, 

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ge illustrations. Crown 8vo. ;^i.50 net (postage extra). 

EVERYONE who enjoyed Madam ** Oj uncommon interest.''^ 
Waddington's " Letters of a Dip- 


A Voyage to England in 1846 

Liverpool and Its People 

Social and Other Contrasts 

A Trinity College Celebration 

A Children's Masque 

Richmond Park and Kew Gardens 

A London Dinner 

A " Court Day " in 1847 

A Drawing-Room 

At the Covent Garden Opera 

A Dinner at Buckingham Palace 

A Day with Lady Byron 

Hampton Court 

The Queen's Birthday 

The Queen's Ball 

Audley End 

lomat's Wife" will be interested in 
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' ' Li'vely and entertaining obser'va- 
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New York Times 


Lord Palmerston 

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Lady Ashburton 

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Milman and Stanley 

Macaulay and Hallam 

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Baron von Humboldt 


'T'HE original four-dollar edition of this book was sold out within two weeks of 

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[March 16 



OVERTONES : A Book of Temperaments 

Author of "Mezzotints of Modern Music." 

THESE essays have all Mr. Huneker's well-known 
characteristics: originality and novelty in point of 
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Richard Strauss 
A Mystic Melodrama (Parsifal) 
Literary Men WIio Love Music 

(Balzac, Turgenieff, Daudet, etc.) 
The Eternal Feminine 
The Beethoven of French Prose 
Nietsche the Rhapsodist 
Anarchs of Art 
After Wagner, What? 
Verdi and Boifto 

First Volume 

By G. 



Ready Now 

W. E. RUSSELL, Collector and Editor of Mr. Arnold's "Letters." 
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LL.D. Mr. Russell, who unquestionably is acquainted with his whole subject more intimately than any 
other, does not attempt here so much a criticism of the verbal medium through which Arnold uttered his heart 
and mind as a survey of the effect he produced on the thought and action of his age. 

Ready Soon: CARDINAL NEWMAN. By William Barry, D.D. 

Students' Old Testament: 

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Frotn the Creation to the Establishment of the Hebrew Kingdom 
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read like the gospels of the New Testament in their original form. 




IN this volume Dr. Briggs sets forth a new order of the events and teachings in the life of Jesus in the light 
^ of which a large proportion of the disputes as to the harmony of the Gospels disappear. The result is 
revolutionary so far as modern op'''''-n5 are concerned; but actually the results are conservative, being in the 
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Senator Hoar's 

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Seventh Impression Feb. 27. 
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1904] THE DIAL 1^1 


TOMASO'S FORTUNE And Other Stories 

By HENRY SETON MERRIMAN, Author of " Barlasch of the Guards," etc. 
A VOLUME of nearly a score of short stories left at his death, by Mr. Merriman, all of them possessing, to 
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The book shows him as much the master of the short story as of the novel. $1.50. 


By MARY TAPPAN WRIGHT 12nio. $1.50. 

A POWERFUL novel of contemporary American life by a writer of very individual and original talent. 

The singular intensity and power to move, shown repeatedly in "Aliens," are here at their strongest, 

and the situations in "The Test" are such as to call out all Mrs. Wright's exceptional literary art. $1.50. 


By ANNA A. ROGERS 12ino. $1.50. 

A NOVEL of American Navy life pleasantly relieved by a love-story of much originality. Humor, feeling, 
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would expect from the author of " Sweethearts and Wives." 



'T'HE story this new writer here tells and the notable group of new characters she has created should insure 

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IT is obvious that, given an aerial machine flying westward at a higher rate of speed than that of the Earth's 
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COMING : Later in the Season 

By THORSTEIN B. VEBLEN, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Political Economy in the 

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A N inquiry into the nature, causes, and economic value of business enterprise, marked by a wide knowledge 
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The Chapters: — The Machine Process; Business Enterprise; Business Principles; The Use of Loan 
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Cultural Incidence of the Machine Process; The Natural Decay of Business Enterprise. 


172 THE DIAL [March 16, 

The McClurg Spring Books for 1904 

Ready March 26 A romance by RANDALL PARRISH 


With 6 full-page The stirring events of the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812 have long 
illustrations been waiting for some one to use them as material for a novel. Mr. 
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until almost the end there seems no way of establishing the identity of the illusive fig- 
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Thrall of Leif the Lucky " and " The Ward of King Canute." $1.50 



With 6 full-page The picturesque figure of Robert Cavelier de la Salle is by no means 
illustrations ^ ^^^^ ^^^ -j^ fiction, as he has been introduced into several successful 
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the hero — of a romance, until Mr. Orcutt recognized the unusual 
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Ready March 30 A new book by JOHN T. McCUTCHEON 


Uniform with These delightful drawings illustrating " social happenings at Bird 

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book in the keen observation and gentle satire which makes Mr. McCutcheon's 

work of such universal appeal. $1.25 net 


1904] THE DIAL, 178 

The McClurs Spring Books for 1904 

Published March 12 A new book by the late Dr. THOMSON J. HUDSON 


With portrait A collection of essays and lectures found among the papers left by this 
and biograph- remarkable man. The discussion of psychical subjects is handled in 
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and every one of his admirers will want this new book. $1.20 net 

Published in February By IRENE GROSVENOR WHEELOCK 


With 10 full- Prepared with a view to providing the student and the collector, as 

page and 78 text ^gj| ^g ^j^g general reader, with an adequate key to all the species 

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"^•M^ °^^ * °^ ^^ extensive and painstaking study of the species, principally in 

their own haunts, and is arranged with the purpose of supplying 

accurate and much-needed data. $2.50 net 

Ready in May A new book by SHERWIN CODY 


Uniform with This is another of Mr. Sherwin Cody's very practical and interesting 
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Ready April 2 A new book by MARGARET W. MORLEY 



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Ready in May 


Small l6mo A fourth volume in the " Helpful Thoughts Series," and distinguished 

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monettes " are translated from the French, and have the qualities of 

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80 cents net 




[March 16, 



By Henby G. Peakson 
The complete authoritative life of the famous war goyemor of Massachusetts is here presented. Mr. Pearson has 
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Mayor oj New York 

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To he published in May. 


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By Kate Douglas Wiggin 
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Strong and true, never morbid, it abounds in 
genuine pathos and human feeling." — Mary 
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1903. Now in its 110th thousand. 


By Frederick Orin Bartlett 
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[Marcli 16, 

®Ij^ Intersttg of Qll|to0o l^um 












The Code of Hammurabi 

King of Babylon about 2250 B. C. 


A volume containing the Translation, Transliteration, an Autographed 
Text, Map, and Glossary. Edited by Robert Francis Harper, 
Professor of the Semitic Languages and Literatures in The University 
of Chicago. Large 8vo, 104 plates and 208 pages, cloth, gilt top. 
Price, $4.00, net; postpaid, $4.28. Now Ready. 

The Hammurabi and the Mosaic Codes: A Study in Babylonian and 
Old Testament Legal Literatme. By William Rainey Harper, 
President and Head of the Department of the Semitic Languages and 
Literatm-es of The University of Chicago. Large 8vo, about 250 pages, 
gilt top, cloth; $2.00, net; postpaid about $2.15. In preparation, to 
be ready October i, 1904- 

Lectures on Commerce 

Delivered before the College of Commerce and Administration of 
The University of Chicago. 

Edited by Henry Rand Hatfield. With an introductory lecture 
on Higher Commercial Education by Professor J. Laurence Laughlin. 
The list of contributors given below is an evidence of the practical 
value of the book : 


Mr. E. D. Kenna, Mr. A. W. Sullivan, Mr. Luis Jackson, Mr. Paul 
Morton, and Mr. George Gerard Tunell. 


Mr. Franklin H. Head, Mr. A. C Bartlett, Mr. John Lee Mahin, Mr. 
H. F. J. Porter, and the late Mr. Dorr A. Kimball. 


Mr. James H. Eckels, Mr. D. R. Forgan, Mr. H. K. Brooks, and Mr. 
A. F. Dean. 

8vo, viii+388 pages, cloth. Price, $1.50, net; postpaid, $1.62. 

A History of Matrimonial Institutions 

Chiefly in England and the United States 

By George E. Howard, author of "Local Constitutional History of 
the United States," etc. This vohune, the result of more than twelve 
years* research, is a scientific account of the evolution of marriage, 
divorce, and the family, in the three homes of the English race. Three 
octavo volumes. $10.00 per set. Ready about May 1. 

The University of Chicago Press :: Chicago 

1904] THE DIAL 11^7 


T'u, \7:i^:*«^'^ d^««ll By john r. carling 

1 nC V IKing^ S ^KUIl Author of «The Shadow of the Czar." 

An exceptionally dramatic and interest compelling romance of love and adventure. 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

T'u r%^:^u^M^r nu^^^**^ By john h. whitson 

1 ne Iv^l n DOW ^naSerS Author of «« Barbara, a Woman of the West." 

A virile American novel containing a vivid romance of the Kansas land of '85. 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

A Woman's Will By the Good Sainte Anne 


The story of an unhappy American v^idow's The love affairs of vivacious Nancy Howard 

summer on the Continent, narrated almost are given a modern Quebec setting in this 

wholly in dialogue. new novel by the author of " The Dominant 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. Strain." Illustrated. 12mo. $1.25. 

The Wood Carver of 'Lyrnpus Auth^oL^.AELu^htTrtHSc^ 

A strong and unusual story of a man's triumph over the flesh. Hugh Armstrong, the 
crippled hero, is one of the most powerful and original characters in recent fiction. 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

A«^«^^ 4-U^ \A^r^*^4-****r^£y£y By E. PHILLIPS OPPENHEIM 

A.nna me /\QVenLUreSS Author of "A Pnnce of Smners," etc. 

An engrossing and ingenious story of London life, with a masterly character study of 
two sisters, Anna and Annabel. Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

The North Star Where the Tide Comes In 


A tale of Norway in the Tenth Century, with A genuine Southern love story with a heroine 

stirring incident and rapid action. as charming as the author's delightful " A 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. Girl of Virginia." Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. 

The Effendi Life and Death 

By FLORENCE BROOKS WHITE HOUSE And Other Legends and Stories 

A romance of the Soudan with picturesque ^7 HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ 

scenes of the Nile country and stirring events Some new stories by the famous Polish author, 

of historical interest. translated by Jeremiah Curtin. 

Illustrated. 12mo. $1.50. Illustrated. 16mo. $1.00. 

Food and Cookery for the Sick and Convalescent 

An important new book for houskeepers, mothers, and nurses. By Fannie Merkitt 
Farmer, author of "The Boston Cooking School Cook Book." 

"With 60 illustrations. 12mo. $1.50 net (postpaid, $1.65). 

Kennel Secrets By "ASHMONT," author of "Kennel Diseases." 

A new edition of a recognized authority on dogs, with new material and new 
illustrations. Superbly illustrated. 8vo. $3.00 net (postage additional). 


178 THE DIAL [March 1, 

The Most Important and Interesting Book of the Year 


Herbert Spencer 

With many Illustrations. 2 vols., 8vOy cloth, $5.50 net; postage additional 

An American friend of Spencer, who has read the book, says: 

" It is as broad and many-sided as human experience, and the marvel and charm 
of it is its simple, straightforward, and obvious truthfulness. It seems to me to exceed 
any of his former works in interest and practical value; and I have been a constant 
reader of his writings from their first publication in this country. Mr. Spencer's 
supreme loyalty to truth and his native frankness have made his account of his life 
very open and unreserved. Lest he might err in this direction he got the advice of 
confidential friends. After reading it and approving it entirely, Huxley remarked that 
it reminded him of the ' Confessions ' of Rousseau, without any of the objectionable 
features of that work. 

" Mr. Spencer knew intimately some of the leading people of his time," and where 
the interest warranted it he has given his impressions of them. There are several 
pages of absorbing interest concerning George Eliot, whom he knew for years before 
she became so eminent as an author, and for whom he had the highest appreciation. 
The estimate of her character and ability from one so capable of judging, and one who 
knew her so well, is a distinct gain to the world. His intimates of the club, and 
especially Huxley and Tyndall, receive his friendly attention. The chapters upon 
Huxley and Tyndall will be read with deep interest. His analysis of their qualities is a 
fine example of that kind of work." 


D. Appleton and Company, Publishers, New York 






Edited and annotated by ALEXANDER CARLYLE 

Profusely illustrated. 2 vols., boxed, ;^6.00 net. 
Uniform with " New Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle." 


Illustrated by Ellen G. Hill. 
Together with numerous reproduc- 
tions of contemporary portraits. 
8vo - _ _ ;^5.oo, net. 

An account of the Rendezvous of 
certain Illustrious French and En- 
glish personages, including Fanny 
Burney and Alexander D'Arblay. 



A new volume of Poems by the 
author of " India's Love Lyrics." 


1 1. 50 net. 

" A volume of passionate 
love-poems, by a true poet." 



i2mo, ;^i.5o. 

One of the most stirring novels ever written. The story of 
a woman's love and a priest's will ; — and of the victory. 


Author of "The Captured Cunarder." 



A story with two lovely heroines in 
the balance — and a perplexed hero. 



Author of "The Story of Eden." 



The story of a strong man, and 
a weak one — and a woman. 

Write for complete Spring List of New Books to 

JOHN LANE, 67 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK 

180 THE DIAL [March 1, 




tSaCnelOr in ArCady author of -Mistress Barbara.- 

An idyllic love story unhampered by problem or purpose. The author's easy, 
agreeable, semi-humorous style is here seen at its best. Just the book to take with you 
on a ramble to the woodland or country. One of the most attractive of the year's 
offerings. Frontispiece and title in colors, ^i.^o. 

Minute Marvels of Nature By john j. ward. 

The author — an expert naturalist — here gives us a series of wonderful peeps through 
his powerful microscope, showing some of the myriad phases of animal and plant life which 
lie all about us. The work is unique in showing material to be found nowhere else. 
Profusely illustrated. Net^ $i.6o. Postage 75 cents. 


Optimism By helen keller. The Merchant of Venice 

"Everybody should read the essay on fu'^^ ^°^- ^^°ii^5 "k^'^A'SSi ottr 

, ^ ..-',•',, , „ ,, , ,. , / , <- Shakespeare, edited by CHARLOTTE 

*■ Optimism. Helen Keller, blind and deaf PORTER and HELEN A. CLARKE. 

all except the first months of the twenty- xhe original reading of Shakespeare's 

three years of her existence, has written pi^y is here restored in a popular text for 

in this latest essay sentences not unworthy ^^g first time. The book is a veritable 

of Emerson. Some of them might become pocket variorum. 

immortal."-NoRMAN Hapgood, in Collier's .. ^-^^ y^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^y itself among all the re- 

Weekly. prints of Shakespeare."— 77-^ 0«//oo>t. 

Printed in two colors from special type by Type and presswork by De Vinne. Cloth^ 

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The Life of Dean Farrar By his son, Dr. Reginald a. farrar. 

This authorized biography of the late Dean will be found of high interest and value. 
Dean Farrar was one of the strongest personalities in England for more than half a 
century ; and the story of his life, here told for the first time, throws light upon many 
other people of his day. With portrait. Net, ^2.00. Postage 20 cents. 

Ruskin Relics By w. c. collingwood. 

Ruskin's friend and authorized biographer here gives us an invaluable collection of 
reminiscences, anecdotes, Ruskin drawings and other " relics " of attractive nature, which 
have never before been accessible to the public. They will aid greatly in the study ot 
Ruskin's life and work. Well illustrated. Net, $2.50. Postage 2^ cents. 

Complete Illustrated Catalogue on Request 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO., 426-428 West Broadway, NEW YORK 





••A New Character Certain of Popular Success" 



IlluBtrated in colors by Charlotte Weber. 12mo. Cloth. $1.50. 
(Second edition within a week after publication.) 
A prominent bookseller and newsdealer writes : " You have 

got one of the best books of the kind that has been written. Cap'n 

Eri is fully as lovable a character as Eben Holden and as droll, 

witty, and original as David Harum." 

"A Story that Goes" 



Author of "Sea Scamps." 12mo. Cloth, with frontispiece in 

color. S1.50. 

The freshness, spirit, and force of Dr. Rowland's first novel 
more than sustain the promise of his short stories. 

Ready Shortly 



Delightful Nature Literature 



Eachl2mo. Cloth. 
Illustrated. $1.50. 

New Edition 



New Uniform Edition 


A Study of thb Individual and thb Govbbnment 
Professor of Geology in Harvard University ; Dean of the Lawrence 
Scientific School. 12mo. Cloth. S1.40 net. 

A brilliant popular exposition of every-day questions in which 
everyone is interested. 

" Fills an Unoccupied Place " 

NAPOLEON A Short Biography 
niustrated. 12mo. Cloth. $1.00 n^^ 
Professor Edward G. Bourne, of Yale University, says : " Mr. 
Johnston's Napoleon fills an unoccupied place in the literature on 
Napoleon accessible to the English reader and supplies a distinct 

"A Great Story of American 


12mo. Cloth, niustrated. $1.60. 

Not only a fascinating story but a pic- 
ture of fresh and quaint phases of Ameri- 
can life which has universal and permanent 

THE ARK OF 1803 

How THE Boys of thb Feontikb Won 

Thkib Way 


12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.25 net. 

A new volume in the Elast and West 


One of the greatest chapters of Ameri- 
can history lives in this dramatic story 
by one of the most popular of American 


How Molly and Hbb Bbothbbs Cahb to 

BouLDBB Gulch 


The first volume in the East and West 
Series for younger readers. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.25 net. 

"Fresh, strong, thoroughly American." 
— Button Herald. 



(Third Edition.) 

12mo. Cloth. $1.50. 

Ready in late April. 



Author of "Tom Beauling," "Aladdin O'Brien," etc. 

Small 12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00. 


12mo. Cloth. $1.25. 





With Introductions, Illustrations, and Maps. Each 12mo. 
$1.00 per volume. 

The Journey of Coronado, 1540-42, From the City of 
Mexico to the Buffalo Plains of Kansas and 
Nebraska. Translated and edited, with an Introduction, 
by George Parker Winship. 

The Lewis and Clark Journals, complete in three vol- 
umes. With an account of the Louisiana Purchase by Professor 
John Bach MacMaster and an identification of the route. 

Professor JOHN BACH 


Consulting Editor. 

Harmon's Journal of Voyages and Travels in the 

Interior of North America. 
Mackenzie's Voyages. Two volumes. 

Colden's History of the Five Indian Nations. Two 


Butler's Wild Northland. 

Edited by 



Women's Ways of Earning 

By Cynthia Westover Alden, President- 
General of the International Sunshine 


A Series of Practical Books on Practical Subjects 
by the Best Authorities. 

The Mothers' Manual. 

By Emelyn L. Coolidge, MD., Visiting 
Physician of the Out-Patient Depart- 
ment of the Babies' Hospital, New 
York, etc. 

Each small 12mo. 

Cloth. Illustrated. 

$1.00 net. 

Beauty Through Hygiene. 

Common Sense Ways to Beauty and Health. 
By Emma E. Walker, M.D., Member of 
the New York Academy of Medicine, 

Mrs. Sangster's Series will constitute the most helpful and suggestive practical home library which has been planned. 

A. S. BARNES & CO., 156 Fifth Avenue, New York 

182 THE DIAL [March 16, 


Sir Mortimer 


Author of "To Have and to Hold," 
" Prisoners of Hope," etc. 

■n EADERS of "To Have and to Hold " v^ill welcome 
-^^ Miss Mary Johnston's new^ book, "Sir Mortimer," 
in v^hich she has achieved a distinct advance upon her 
previous work. " Sir Mortimer " is a worthy successor 
to her former popular books, and is assured of a leading 
place in the fiction of the year. 

It is a romance of Elizabethan days, of uncommon 
power and imaginative beauty. The love of the gallant 
Sir Mortimer for the fair Damaris Sedley, a lady of the 
court, runs like a poem through a narrative alive with 
stirring incidents of the days of Sir Walter Raleigh, when 
all England loved, sang, adventured, and fought in the 
flush of youthful power. 

With frontispiece reproducing the colors of the original painting and eight 
other illustrations by F. C. YOHN, printed upon specially made India-tinted 
paper and mounted like photographs upon blank pages. 

Post 8vOy Ornamented Cloth. $1.50. 

The Easter Story By Hannah Wamer 

The fairy Grandmother, living in a yellow tulip, tells the beauti- 
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crocus-fairy born at Easter-tide, A charming explanation for 
grown-ups and children of the meaning of Easter. With dec- 
orative borders, printed in two colors, and artistically bound. 

Square 16mOy 48 pages. 50 cents. 






The new edition of CHAMBERS'S 

Treats of 1216 writers not mentioned in any other work of a similar character 

in the English language. It contains 852 more pages than any work of its 

kind. We will be glad to send to anyone interested a full descriptive circular. 

Complete in three Imperial Octavo volumes. Stoutly bound. $15.00 net, per set 

Carriagre extra. 


With frontispiece in colors and 27 illustrations from drawings by 
native artists. 12mo, decorated cloth, $1.50, net. Postage 15 cents extra. 

The newest contribution to literature on modern Japan. The volume deals especially with 
the home-life and characteristics of the Japanese, illustrating many points by anecdotes. 



By W. C. SAWYER, Ph.D. 

With an Introduction-Essay by Prof. 


illustrated, Cloth, $2.00; postpaid, $2.13 

An account of the adventures and experiences of 
a young Swiss woman who made a journey around 
the world alone and unassisted, and without other 
money than she was able to make on the way. 


With Portraits, Cloth, gilt top, 
$2.00 net; postpaid, $2.13 



3 volumes. Cloth, gilt top, rough edges, 
$10.00 net, per set. Carriage extra. 



Has the same atmosphere of vig- 
orous young life, and the same 
charm of naturalness and buoy- 
ancy, as Miss Alcott's famous 
book, "Little Women." Mrs. 
Cutting is ah-eady well known 
by her "Little Stories of Married 

Illustrated by Helen Stowe. 
Cloth, $1.25. 



The Issue 



Author of "John Little- 
john, of J." Its subject 
is a dramatic crisis of 
national interest. By its 
descriptive power, by its 
love story, and by its 
pictures of brilliant men 
and women, it will gain 
instant attention. 

Illustrated by 

Qeorge A. Williams. 

Cloth, $1.50. 



Mr. Stevenson's former book, "At 
Odds with the Regent," was 
widely praised for its rollick- 
ing adventure and its cleverness. 
His new book is crammed with 
adventure and love-making on 
every page. 

Illustrated by Anna Whelen Betts. 
Cloth, $1.50. 





[March 16, 





By ARTHUR COLTON, author of " Tioba,' 

With frontispiece. $1.50. 
This is probably the anthor's best vrork so far, though 
such authorities as the Critic, the Lamp, and the Book- 
man praised his "Tioba" heartily. ** Port Argent " is 
the story of a few weeks, about 1890, in a city of the 
Middle West, "a time and place of many experiments 
and many an undenominated thing." Business, politics, 
religion, sudden death, and love at cross purposes, all fig- 
ure in the plot. 



By WILLIAM R. LIQHTON, author of "The 
Ultimate Moment." Frontispiece. 12mo. $1.25. 
Uncle Mac is a genuine Westerner who went from In- 
diana in '55 when strenuousness was more a reality than a 
fad. His yarns are characterized by a shrewd humor, and 
enlivened by brisk frontier episodes. 



A Romance of Yankee Magic. 

By HERBERT QUICK, author of " The Wonder- 
land of America." $1.50. 
The romance of a boom town in the new West. A 
promoter and his boyhood friend light-heartedly under- 
take the enterprise, likening themselves to pirates captur- 
ing golden argosies. When danger comes they quit them- 
selves like men, and risk life itself in their effort to save 
their investors, whom they call "the captives below 
decks." Though this is a story of business intrigue, love 
plays a very important part. 



ByS CARLETON. With three decorations. 12mo. 

A striking tale full of the spirit of the "great out 
doors." The " humans," interesting as they are, are domi- 
nated by the great Nova Scotian swamp. Mrs. Marescaux, 
who comes to the hero in his camp in the deep woods, is 
certainly as fascinating as she is unscrupulous. 



By BRYSON TAYLOR. With decorations in 

color. 12mo. $1.25. 
The weird adventures of three American engineers in an 
Bgfyptian desert,who enter a buried tomb after disregard- 
ing the warnings on inner and outer portals. The strange 
events that follow are told impressively and plausibly. 


An episode in Florence under the last of the Medici. 
three views in color by Eliot Keen. 12mo. $1.25. 

A gallant Frenchman, his resourceful servant, and the 
heroine pass a very exciting night among some of the 
most picturesque characters and scenes in history. 


lOth impression of 


Mr. and Mrs. C. N. WILLIAMSON'S humorous 
automobile Anglo-American, Franco-Spanish-Ital- 
ian love story. $1.50. 

6th impression of 


C. B. LOOMIS'S humorous tales with Mrs. Shinn's 
and Mrs. Cory's delightful pictures. $1.25. 


5th impression {3d in tvoo weeks') of 


BURTON E. STEVENSON'S mysterious story of 
New York and Etretat. $1.25. 

2d impression of 


By ANNE STORY ALLEN. 75 cents. 
"There is nothing better or brighter in its cheerful, 
dainty, trifling way. ... A little simple story of young 
love and good fellowship." — Times Saturday Review, 


QEOLOQY. By Professors T. C. Chamberlain and R. D. Salisbubt, both of the University of Chicago. With 
numerous illustrations. 8vo. Vol. I., xix+654 pp. (To be completed in two volumes.) 
This book includes a view of the origin of the earth which may lead to serious modifications in the nebular 

hypothesis, and is of great interest both to general readers and students. 

THE SPANISH COLONIAL SYSTEM. By Dr. Wilhelm Roscheb. Translated under the supervision of 
Professor E. Q. Boubne of Yale. 

THE TRANSGRESSION OF ANDREW VANE. By Gut Wbtmobe Cabbtl, author of "Zut and Other 
Parisians." A striking tale of Americans in Paris. 

The Publishers' Catalogue of General Literature, with 36 small portraits, free on application. 

HENRY HOLT & CO., Publishers, 27 & 29 W. 23d St., New York 






SPRING, 1904 



The Day of the Dog 

By George Barr McCutcheon, author of " Graustark." 

A story that discloses Mr. McCutcheon as a humorist of no 
mean ability. The book is full of genuine humor. 

Illustrations in color by Harrison Fisher. 
12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

The Darrow Enigma 

By Melvin L. Severy. 

A detective story, surrounding the solving of a seemingly inex- 
plicable crime. 

Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Strong Mac 

By S. E. Crockett, author of " Cinderella," etc. 

A story of unusual interest, — one that ranks among the best 
that Mr. Crockett has written. 

Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

All 's Fair in Love 

By Josephine Caroline Sawyer, author of 
" Every Inch a King," etc. 

A story that for audacity of plot and terseness of interest can 
hardly be surpassed. 

Illustrations in color, 12nio, cloth, $1.50. 

The Dayspring 

By Dr. William Barry, 

author of "Arden 


A story of adventure center- 
ing around the time of the Paris 

12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Stolen Emperor 

By Mrs. Hugh Fraser, 

author of " Mama's 

Mutiny," etc. 

A story of old Japan. It moves 
along at a stirring pace, and is 
replete with interesting adven- 

12ino, cloth, $1.50. 

Pamela Congreve 

By Frances Aymar 

Matthews, author of 

" When Lady Peggy Goes 

to Town," etc. 

Pamela Congreve is a fasci- 
nating heroine whose madcap 
career is told with Miss Mat- 
thews's accustomed vivacity. 

Illustrated, 12mo, cloth, 

" Sure " 

By Edward W. 

TowNSBND, author of 

" Chimmie Fadden." 

The same old " Chimmie Fad- 
den," only a little shrewder. 
The funniest "Chimmie Fad- 
den " book Mr. Townseud has 

Illustrated, 16mo, cloth, 




Described by Great Writers and Travellers. 

Edited by Esther Singleton. 

A book of far greater artistic and literary value than a guide 
book. The people, their customs, etc., are described by the best 

Illustrated, 8vo, cloth, net, $1.60. 

The Woodhouse Correspondence 

By George W. E. Russell and Edith Sichbl, 

♦' The cleverest book of the year." — British Weekly. 
" A work whose knowledge of human nature is profound and 
accurate." — Philadelphxa Record. 

12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

The Double Garden 

By Maurice Maeterlinck, author of 
"Wisdom and Destiny." 

A new volume of essays, some of which have appeared in some 
recent magazines. 

12mo, cloth, net, $1.40. 

Outlines of the History of Art 

By Wilhelm Lubkb. Edited by Russell Sturgis. 

This is the standard book on the subject. The publishers have 
re-translated the last Oerman edition, and entirely reset the book. 

Illustrated, 2 volumes, large 8vo, cloth, 
net, $10.00. 


SPRING, 1904 





[March 16, 1904. 



A SERIES of monographs on the His- 
^^ topy of America as portrayed in the 
evolution of its highways of War, Com- 
merce, and Social Expansion. 

Comprising the following volumes : 
i. — Paths of the Mound- 
Building Indians and 
Great Qame Animals. 
II. — Indian Thoroughfares. 
III. — Washington's Road: 
The First Chapter of 
the Old French War. 
IV.— Braddock's Road. 
v.— The Old Qlade ( Forbes's 

VI.— Boone's Wilderness 

VII.— Portage Paths: The 
Keys of the Continent. 
VIII.— Military Roads of the 
Mississippi Basin. 
IX.— Waterways of West- 
ward Expansion. 
X — The Cumberland Road. 
XI., XII.— Pioneer Roads of Amer- 
ica, two volumes. 
XIIi.,XIV.— The Qreat American 
Canals, two volumes. 
XV.— The Future of Road- 
Making in America. 

XVI Index. 

Sixteen volumes, crown 8vo, cloth, un- 
cut, gilt tops. A LIMITED EDITION Only 

printed direct from type, and the type 
distributed. Each volume handsomely 
printed in large type on Dickinson's 
hand-made paper, and illustrated with 
maps, plates, and facsimiles. 

Pkice, volumes 1 and 2, $2.00 net 
each ; volumes 3 to 16, $2.50 net each. 

Fifty sets printed on large pa- 
per, each numbered and signed by the 
author. Bound in cloth, with paper 
label, uncut, gilt tops. Price, $5.00 net 
per volume. 

" The history of American trails and carries 
in colonial times ; of paths, roads, and high- 
ways in our national beginnings ; and of our 
great lake, river, and railroad traffic in later 
times is and has been of the first importance 
in our social and political history. Mr. Hulbert 
has shown himself abundantly able to investi- 
gate the subject and put in good form the re- 
sults of his labors." — Professor William M. 
Sloanb, Princeton University. 

" Mr. Hulbert has evidently mastered his 
subject, and has treated it very ably and en- 
thusiastically. History is too frequently a 
mere collection of dry bones, but here we have 
a book which, when once begun, will be read 
eagerly to the end, so vividly does the author 
bring scenes and personages before us." — Cur- 
rent Literature. 

" As in the prior volumes, the general effect 
is that of a most entertaining series. The 
charm of the style is evident." — American 
Historical Review. 

" His style is effective ... an invaluable 
contribution to the makings of American his- 
tory." — New York Evening Pott. 

" Should fill an important and unoccupied 
place in American historical literature." — 
The Dial. 



A SERIES of annotated reprints 
■'*• of some of the best and rarest 
contemporary Travels, descriptive of 
the Aborigines and Social and Eco- 
nomic Conditions in the Middle and 
Far West during the Period of Early 
American Settlement. 

Edited, with Historical, Geographi- 
cal, Ethnological, and Biblio- 
graphical Notes, and Intro- 
ductions and Index, by 


With facsimiles of the original title- 
pages, maps, portraits, views, etc. 
31 volumes, large 8vo, cloth, uncut, 
gilt tops. Price $4.00 net per vol- 
ume (except the Atlas, which is 
$15.00 net). Limited edition ; each 
set numbered and signed. 

An Elaborate Analytical 
Index to the Whole. 

Almost all the rare originals are un- 
indexed. In the present reprint 
series this immense mass of histori- 
cal data will be made accessible 
through one exhaustive analytical 

Earit? of ti)e ^nQinaI)3« This series 
comprises only works of permanent his- 
torical value. All are quite scarce, and 
bring steadily-advancing prices. Some 
of them are of exceeding rarity — so 
rare, in fact, that they are not to be 
found in the largest collections of Amer- 
icana in this country. Many are so hard 
to find that for several years past, orders 
placed for them both here and abroad, 
without restriction as to price, have not 
been filled. 

S0r» SijtDaiteia'u (Eminence as an au- 
thority on all matters connected with 
the history of the West, and his well- 
known standing as an Editor and Libra- 
rian, will be sufficient assurance of the 
value of the Travels selected, and of the 
care with which the series will be edited 



Being the history of the Philip- 
pines from their discovery to 
the present time. 

EXPLORATIONS by early Nav- 
*-' igators, descriptions of the Is- 
lands and their Peoples, their His- 
tory, and records of the Catholic 
Missions, as related in contempo- 
raneous books and manuscripts, 
showing the political, economic, 
commercial, and religious condi- 
tions of those Islands from their 
earliest relations with European Na- 
tions to the end of the nineteenth 

Translated and edited and annotated 
by E. H. Blair and J. A, Rob- 
ERTSON, with introduction and ad- 
ditional notes hy E. G. Bourne. 
With Analytical Index and Illus- 
trations. Limited edition, fifty-five 
volumes, large 8vo, cloth, uncut, gilt 
top. Price, $4.00 net per volume. 

"The most important project ever 
undertaken in the line of Philippine 
history in any language, above all the 
English." — New York Evening Post. 

"The work is second in importance 
only to the original documents ; to the 
student it is even of greater value, since 
it places before him transactions of 
these historical data which would other- 
wise be totally inaccessible, and without 
which no work on the Philippines could 
be definitive." 

— American Anthropologist. 

" At the present time few subjects are 
discussed so widely and so ignorantly as 
matters relating to the Philippines." 

— Chicago Chronicle. 

" In addition to its value as accurate 
history, the work is full of interest and 
of suggestions of thrilling mediaeval 
romance and adventure among strange 
scenes and wild people." 

— Philadelphia Telegraph. 

Full Descriptive Circulars may he had on application to the Publishers, 



'E Setni*ilttantl)lu .Hoiirnal of ILitetarg €xitimnx, ©iscussi'on, ant IFnfonnati0n. 

TIfE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) t* published on the 1st and 16th of 
each month. Tebms op Subscbiption, 82.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
be added. Unless otherwise ordered, subscriptions will begin with the 
current number. Remittances should be by draft, or by express or 
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for subscriptions with other publications ivill be sent on application; 
and Sample Copt on receipt of 10 cents. Advertisino 'S.Kinsa furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 


No. 4^6. 

MARCH 16, 1904. Vol. XXXVI. 




Leonard Moore 187 


Rice 190 


PHILIPPINES. Paul S. Beinsch 192 


CRITICISMS OF DARWIN. T. D. A. Cockerell . 196 


Payne 198 

Woodberry's Poems. — Carman's Songs of the Sea 
Children.^ — Mifflin's Castalian Days. — Beach's Son- 
nets of the Head and Heart. — Yield's Random 
Verse. — Lincoln's Relishes of Rhyme. — Seollard 
and Rice's Ballads of Valor and Victory. — Gibbs's 
Songs of Content. — Miss Monroe's The Passing- 
Show. — Miss Peabody's The Singling Leaves. — 
Miss Daskam's Poems. — Miss Soule's Heartsease 
and Rue. — Miss De Vere's The Wind Swept 
Wheat. — Miss Bristol's A Spray of Cosmos. — 
Miss Wildman's A Hill Prayer. — Mrs. Adams's 
The Song at Midnight. 


Whittier as a man of action. — The Dutch founding 
of New York. — The Bible in Browning. — " Not 
one but all mankind's epitome." — The philosophy 
of Auguste Comte. — Journal of the " Father 
of the Constitution." — The Republics of South 
America. — A down-East story-teller and preacher. 
— Printing in relation to graphic art. — County 
Antrim in prose and verse. — Valuable Amer- 
icana reprints. — An English woman of letters. 


NOTES 208 

A classified list of over 700 titles of books to 
be issued by the American publishers during the 
Spring of 1904. 



Gotthold Lessing gave the best of his life's 
energies, critical and creative, to upbuilding 
the German stage. Yet towards the close of 
his career, when anyone mentioned the thea- 
tre to him, he would say, " You bore me," and 
would shut his eyes and go to sleep. Some of 
us, who, though without Lessing's claim and 
authority, have thought and wrought for the 
American stage, feel like echoing his behavior. 

What are the causes of the unquestioned 
feebleness and futility of the American theatre. 
Abroad, in Germany, France, Italy, — even in 
England, — there is a dramatic and theatric 
renaissance. The Scandinavian countries have 
been for nearly a century, indeed since the 
great Danish outburst in Oehlenschlager, the 
homes of a flourishing and splendid drama. 
Only in America the to-day of the stage seems 
barren, the to-morrow blank. 

There are, of course, general causes at work 
to account for our weakness in the drama, as in 
every other high field of thought and work. 
The dramatic art is particularly and above all 
others the imaginative art. It shows the real 
world the door, and welcomes with outstretched 
arms the fancy-created universe of our hopes 
and fears. " A poor gentleman," says Hazlitt, 
" who lacks a guinea may best make up for his 
want by a half crown seat at the theatre." An 
American would rather have the guinea in his 
breeches pocket than the gilded vision in his 
brain. We are in truth a prosaic people, the 
pupils or victims of our philosopher and law- 
giver Benjamin Franklin. To me Franklin 
seems the modern embodiment of Milton's 
Mammon — "the least erected spirit that fell." 
Or perhaps his better prototype could be found 
in Sixteen String Jack. 

Another cause of our failure in the drama is 
our want of a central seat of opinion, where 
those capable of the best effort could gather 
and win recognition and reward. Every great 
drama of the past, I think, has risen in a cap- 
ital—a capital of wit if not of rule. But 
America is like a man who has seven or eight 
heads growing out of his body, each one of 
them wishing to go its own way and to do its 
own will. It is possible, I should say, that if 
some American town, which has resigned, or 



[March 16, 

does not care for, supremacy in commerce, 
manufactures, or wealth, would set up and sup- 
port a theatrical establishment, where the best 
only of new and old plays should be presented, 
it might lift its head above the other cities of 
our realm and make the American people walk 
its way. Concentration and direction are the 
first requisites of success in any field of effort. 

Direction ! That indeed is the knot of the 
difficulty. Who is to direct the work that 
must be done to build up a great drama and 
stage in our country ? There is a story in Le 
Sage which is so apropos here that it is worth 
retelling. Gil Bias and his friend Fabrieius 
have attended the very successful first night of 
a new play, and after the performance are in- 
vited by the actors to take supper with them. 
As they are sitting at the table there comes a 
gentle knock on the door. The leading actor 
gets up and opens it and admits a timid, cring- 
ing, shabby person who has a roll under his 
arm. The actor takes the roll, dismisses the 
intruder with a few frowning words, and sits 
down again. " Who was that ? " asks Fabrieius. 
" Oh," says the actor, " that was the poor devil 
whose play we performed to-night." 

Human nature never alters. As long as it 
is popular favor which gives the wreaths and 
rewards, it is the executant who will gather 
these in and assume the authority. As long as 
the movable booths of wandering players were 
the only platforms for the Spanish playwright, 
Cervantes, with his marvellous dramatic power, 
had to starve. But the moment the Court and 
Inquisition found they needed a theatre, it was 
possible for Lope and Calderon to take the 
port of princes. As long as the cart of 
Thespis was the vehicle of the drama, we hear 
nothing of poets. But when the Athenians 
dedicated a great free theatre, and made it 
an institution of the state, JBschylus and his 
successors took their place of highest citizen- 
ship. As long as the Elizabethan dramatists 
depended solely on popular favor, Greene, 
Peele, Marlowe, and others were the poor and 
unregarded servants of the actors. But when 
Shakespeare succeeded, as undoubtedly he 
must have done, in gaining for his " back " 
a clique of powerful nobles, he could make 
himself respected and wealthy. Goethe and 
Schiller might have been compelled to write 
Robber Dramas or Domestic Comedies all 
their lives to gain a few thalers, had not the 
support of the Weimar Court given them a 
theatre through which they could dominate 
Germany. Wagner had to freeze in isolation. 

unacted and unsung, the mock of managers and 
singers, until Ludwig of Bavaria gave him his 
opportunity to enchant the world. 

It is perfectly natural that when the acclaim 
of the crowd throws the sceptre into the actor's 
hand, he should wield it as if it belonged to 
him of right ; and he should dominate the sit- 
uation. But that it is bad for him in the end 
to .be the master of the theatre is certain. He 
cannot create, in any real sense ; he can but 
execute. Yet, being at the top of fortune, it is 
only human instinct in him which makes him 
refuse to be ordered and lessoned by a superior. 
Yet he depends on the dramatic poet for his 
opportunities. He cannot shine in his bor- 
rowed brilliancy unless the dramatist gives him 
a role. It is as though the moon should de- 
cide that the headship of the sky belonged to 
it, and should succeed in putting the sun Into 
obscurity. To take one instance of the suprem- 
acy of the poet : — How many theatres has 
Wagner opened ? how many players and sing- 
ers has he made famous ? what a huge train 
of people has he given employment to ? If the 
American stage is to be reformed, it Is neces- 
sary that the actor should realize that he is 
mainly an Instrument; that the breath which 
fills him, the life to which he is lifted, comes 
from another. 

I have said that the actor does not create. 
It might be interesting to try to draw out a 
little just what he does do, what his services 
to the author are. In the first place he pub- 
lishes the play : prints it on the general mind 
not by the use of little, wriggling, black marks 
on a piece of paper, but by means of the human 
voice, by the embodiment in stately or beauti- 
ful human figures, by the accompaniment of 
appropriate scenery. The most imaginative 
minds will, perhaps, always prefer the printed 
page as giving the most scope for perfected 
visions. But to the mass of mankind the 
theatrical ensemble is the more vivid realiza- 
tion. So far, however, no great credit is due 
to the actor. He is engaged to recite certain 
lines and give them the benefit of his action 
and elocution. In the degree to which his 
action and elocution interpret or improve his 
part he may claim partnership with the poet. 
The first stage is where he merely fills out 
his role with his own passion and emotion. 
This is the stage of training and temperament, 
and is so engaging and satisfying that few 
actors rise above it. When Kean put an 
indescribable fire and fury into Richard's 
exclamations " What do they in the North "; 




or when he leaped upon the stage in the quarrel 
scene of " Othello " and silenced the angry 
combatants by the mere majesty of his pres- 
ence ; or when Booth recited the last speeches 
of Macbeth with such haunting melody of elo- 
cution that each word seemed falling from 
Fate's very lips ; — in these cases there was 
practically nothing original added to the poet's 
work. He might reasonably claim such inter- 
pretation, and the mere imagination of the pri- 
vate reader might give him as much or more. 

But there is a second stage of theatrical 
effort where the artist on the boards does add 
to and does improve upon his author. In a 
certain scene of " Coriolanus," Volumnia has 
nothing to do but to walk across the stage. 
But she has just heard of her son's victory 
over the Volscians, and Mrs. Siddons, in play- 
ing the part, came floating across the back- 
ground as if transported with exultant pride — 
her head triumphant, her bosom swelling, and 
her step like goddess on the clouds. Again, 
in the last scene of " Measure for Measure," 
when justice has been done and the judgments 
meted out, Madame Modjeska as Isabella 
gradually retires into the background and 
seeks to steal away. Her work is over, and 
she claims no reward. This is as good as a 
new speech by Shakespeare. Again, Adelaide 
Neilson, in the balcony scene of " Romeo and 
Juliet," suddenly seized the roses growing on 
the trellis below her and, pressing them first to 
her bosom, flung them down to Romeo. Again, 
when Charlotte Cushman in " Macbeth " came 
forth to meet Duncan before the gates of her cas- 
tle her body had the sinuous grace of a serpent 
and her eyes were unutterable, fiilled seemingly 
with visions of hell. In all these cases the mind 
of the player cooperated with the dramatist. 
The player was an illustrator who had flashed 
a new picture forth which must henceforward 
be bound up with the book. He, or she, was 
a critic who had made a new study of his 
author, which must be accepted as admirable 
and true. Yet even in these cases of lofty 
effort put forth by the actor, his work remains 
a commentary, a gloss, a realization, of some- 
thing which can again be commented upon, 
glossed, or realized. 

The player, then, on the whole, must be ac- 
counted the dramatist's shadow. We see this 
plainly enough in his relations with authors of 
the past, but in the matter of playwrights of 
to-day we are content to crown the shadow in 
the foreground and let it dominate the real 
being behind. 

I have said nothing as to the part of the 
Manager in working for or against dramatic 
literature. I think there is very little to say. 
The Manager under our American system is 
hardly more than the agent of the player. An 
actor or actress who is known or famous can 
practically dictate what plays he or she will 
appear in. 

The results of our American system of 
theatrical management are threefold. In the 
first place we have no dramatic literature ; 
whereas nearly every country in Europe has 
a mass of splendid art in this kind, — art 
which will be remembered when our tariff- 
built fortunes have taken themselves wings, 
and when our strenuous politics are forgotten 
save in the memories of hate which they have 
aroused. In the second place the intelligence 
of America has largely abandoned the theatre. 
The intelligence of America knows the old 
plays by heart, and its actors refuse to produce 
any new ones which have a suspicion of intel- 
lect in them. In the third place, the decadence 
has affected the players themselves. Many 
good ones have had to sink to the vaudeville 
stage, and the greater ones — who, in a meas- 
ure, have tried to uphold the traditions and 
dignity of their art — do not get the proper 
support. But their own determination to put 
the cart before the horse, to place the servant 
in the master's seat, has very largely contrib- 
uted to such results. 

What is the remedy ? There is only one an- 
swer, — the State organization of the theatre. 
Theory! Idealism! A democracy will never 
consent to such a project ! Well, then, a de- 
mocracy will have to do without a dramatic lit- 
erature or a decent stage. Democracies have 
organized the theatre before — in Greece, in 
France. Our own Democracy is just now en- 
gaged in organizing a Free Library service all 
over our country. The theatre is hardly less 
important. It is absolutely certain that good 
dramatic literature — literature which tells and 
will live — cannot be made to pay on a basis 
of popular support. It is also certain, and very 
natural, that actors ha